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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat

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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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A
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

(A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

(B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

(C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

(D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

(E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Originally posted by karlfurt on 07 Dec 2006, 02:57.
Last edited by Bunuel on 23 Mar 2018, 00:22, edited 4 times in total.
Edited the question.
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Jul 2007, 17:25
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OA is E

The original sentence is problematic in its use of the possessive pronoun “its.” The antecedent to “its” is the “labor market,” which incorrectly and illogically suggests that the labor market is somehow possessing or passing government regulations itself. In addition, the original sentence incorrectly uses active rather than passive voice to describe the effects imposed on the "labor market" by government regulations, thus illogically suggesting that the "labor market" itself is stifling functioning, rather than being stifled by other forces.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) This choice incorrectly uses a comma to connect two independent clauses, thus creating a run-on sentence. Two independent clauses must be connected either by a conjunction, such as “and” or “but,” or by a semicolon.

(C) This choice incorrectly uses “stifled” to modify the labor market itself, as opposed to its functioning. Also, “variously restrict” is awkward; various is used more appropriately to modify "government regulations," rather than the manner in which the regulations restrict worker hiring and firing.

(D) In order to properly use a semicolon, both the clause before and after the semicolon must be independent clauses or sentences, and the clauses must be closely related in meaning. In this choice, the underlined portion, though grammatically correct, does not stand alone as an effective independent clause. Also, the pronoun “its” lacks a clear antecedent.

(E) CORRECT. This answer choice correctly uses the semicolon to connect two independent but closely related clauses. In addition, the pronoun “its” clearly and unambiguously refers to the “labor market.”
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Aug 2007, 04:32
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I also went with B, but it has very unusual mistake...

OA is E
OE
Quote:
The original sentence is problematic in its use of the possessive pronoun “its.” The antecedent to “its” is the “labor market,” which incorrectly and illogically suggests that the labor market is somehow possessing or passing government regulations itself. In addition, the original sentence incorrectly uses active rather than passive voice to describe the effects imposed on the "labor market" by government regulations, thus illogically suggesting that the "labor market" itself is stifling functioning, rather than being stifled by other forces.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) This choice incorrectly uses a comma to connect two independent clauses, thus creating a run-on sentence. Two independent clauses must be connected either by a conjunction, such as “and” or “but,” or by a semicolon.

(C) This choice incorrectly uses “stifled” to modify the labor market itself, as opposed to its functioning. Also, “variously restrict” is awkward; various is used more appropriately to modify "government regulations," rather than the manner in which the regulations restrict worker hiring and firing.

(D) In order to properly use a semicolon, both the clause before and after the semicolon must be independent clauses or sentences, and the clauses must be closely related in meaning. In this choice, the underlined portion, though grammatically correct, does not stand alone as an effective independent clause. Also, the pronoun “its” lacks a clear antecedent.

(E) CORRECT. This answer choice correctly uses the semicolon to connect two independent but closely related clauses. In addition, the pronoun “its” clearly and unambiguously refers to the “labor market.”
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2010, 11:57
Is it correct to use "its" in independent clause introduced by semicolon (;)?
It refers to subject of previous clause.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2010, 12:07
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Orange08 wrote:

Is it correct to use "its" in independent clause introduced by semicolon (;)?
It refers to subject of previous clause.


I am quite certain that it is. I'll explain why with examples from MGMAT SC:
Wrong: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; doing everything together.
The second part can not stand on its own so this is not a right use of the semicolon.
Right: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; they do everything together.
This is one way to correct the sentence above. Each part can stand on his own.
The use of they here is very similar to the use of its in your question.

Hope it helps..
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2010, 06:53
rafi wrote:
IMO E

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - modifier error
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing - Wordy and awkward
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled - where is there?
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?



Hi,
In choice E

;instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Is this part after ; will be called independent even if it is using Its as a pronoun which we can't say to what it is referring to.

Please explain...
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2010, 07:00
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utin wrote:
rafi wrote:
IMO E

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - modifier error
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing - Wordy and awkward
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled - where is there?
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?



Hi,
In choice E

;instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Is this part after ; will be called independent even if it is using Its as a pronoun which we can't say to what it is referring to.

Please explain...


the part after ; functions as a clause with a subject and a verb even if that clause has a pronoun it is grammatically right usage.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2010, 06:32
I see that people have rejected option [B] as wordy but I think in terms of parallelism no other option can beat B.

"has not been operating" parallel portions "has been functioning"

I think parallelism should take precedence over wordiness. Any comments.
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New post 11 Oct 2010, 11:41
@ Arundas, IMO, B is to be rejected not because it is wordy, but because it has a fatal, punctuation error. We can not separate two independent but related clauses with just a comma. Either a semicolon with a non-capitalized first word has to be in place or a period with a new sentence has to be created.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2010, 23:15
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

Between Choices B and E


b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy

e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers –

IMO, -instead - is not a subordinate conjunction. It is an adverbial conjunction that is used to bring out the transition of something from the original idea, just as a co-ordinate conjunction – but- would do. In comparison, words such as - although, while and even as - are subordinate conjunctions, still contrasting the two sides of sentence.

Secondly a fragment is in effect a collection or a jumble of words, essentially without a verb. But the second part of the sentence has a rock solid passive voice verb- has been stifled.-

But the biggest problem in B is the ungrammatical joining of two independent clauses by a mere comma, a serious style error


So E
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2010, 09:39
(A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers --- but and instead are redundant
(B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers -- correct
(C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing –- “being” statements are generally avoided in GMAT unless the non underlines part indicates that the sentence is in passive voice.
(D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled -- “being” statements are generally avoided in GMAT unless the non underlines part indicates that the sentence is in passive voice.
(E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers --- “instead” is placed after semicolon. "Instead" seems unnecessary after semicolon.


So my Option is B.
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New post 22 Oct 2010, 11:03
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I vaguely remember reading somewhere something like:
1). "Instead is used for a replacement", eg. "I'd ask my sister's friend, instead of my friend's sister, out for a date".
2). "Rather is used for a change of action/plan", eg. "I'd rather date my girlfriend than do my homework".

If indeed this be true, arent all of the options shady? Or have I got it all wrong?

PS: Please excuse the examples if they sound true-ish, they have helped me get the rule :)
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2010, 15:31
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First, I thought there is nothing wrong with B, but then I realized B is a run-on sentence. Here, instead is not the right conjugation to connect two full independent sentences, but "but" is. E is my choice.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2010, 19:03
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i believe semicolon wins over comma in gmat. so my hunch is E. I like "being" which eliminate D and C. B has ambiguous "it".
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2010, 20:55
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E.

B was tempting, but E seemed to have no grammatical error.

I believe that 'instead' can not be used as a coordinating conjunction(and, but, so...) or subordinator(although, because, since...).
It works more like therefore.

I didn't know use of semicolon voids parallelism. Glad to learn it.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2010, 09:38
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This is a tough question, so let's break down the semicolon/comma issue a bit:

It would be far too general to say that "The GMAT prefers commas" or "The GMAT prefers semicolons." The reality is the GMAT prefers whichever one is more accurate. If the clause that precedes the semicolon/comma and the clause that follows the semicolon/comma are both independent (i.e. they are complete sentence on their own) you must connect them with either:

-A semicolon
-A comma AND a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)

Notice how the GMAT complicates this for us: In some of the answers above, the second half of the sentence is an independent clause, and in others it is not. This is why it's critical to read through every single answer choice closely when you have a semicolon/comma split.

Notice how choice E above is two independent clauses correctly connected by a semicolon. You could replace the semicolon with a period and then capitalize the word "Instead" and you'd be good to go with two separate sentences.

In choice B, you can really also replace the comma with a period and capitalize the word "Instead" as the start of the sentence. What this tells you is that you need to replace that comma with a semicolon.
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New post 08 Oct 2012, 07:41
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aditi1903 wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but
instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

• principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and
firing of workers
• principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that
restrict the hiring and firing of workers
• principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict
worker hiring and firing
• principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning
being stifled
• principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and
firing of workers


Again a cool question!
MGMAT Rocks!
Here we go
A is definitely the most awkward sentence I could ever imagine. One could definitely get rid of this without much though. It has bad parallelism. Dependent clause after ", but" and a lot of other things horribly wrong with it.
B initially looks okay but its a run on sentence. That cannot be tolerated in the GMAT.
C rather indicates a preference. So its usage here is wrong. Also, being as a modifier is never true on the gmat. (being when used as something other than a modifier makes a lot of sense sometimes though)
D Similar problems with being. Also voice parallelism is haywire in the clause after ";"

E. Correct answer choice

Though it is not tested here, but the correct option uses this phrase "regulations restricting"
I ll post a very interesting finding from an OG question!

Q133 Last week local shrimpers held a news conference to take some credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp's ridley turtle, saying that their compliance with laws requiring that turtle-excluder devices be on shrimp nets protect adult sea turtles.

A. requiring that turtle-excluder devices be on shrimp nets protect
B. requiring turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting
C. that require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets protect
D. to require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets are protecting
E. to require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting

Concept tested: SV agreement, Meaning.
Difficulty level: High
Illustration: This question tests a very important aspect of meaning. First, we know that the main verb in the underlined portion “protect” is wrong as the main subject “compliance is singular. (Note that protect is not being used as a command subjunctive in A. “be” is used as the command subjunctive). According to this logic, A and C are wrong. Now among B, D and E, “to require” indicates purpose of the law which is not the intended meaning (please refer to the tip below). So, D and E are incorrect. B is the correct answer. Tip: “Laws to require” indicates purpose of the law, but “laws requiring indicates contents of the law. While this might sound very obvious to natives, but non natives might have to struggle to get this clearly. Consider the following examples.
1. Arms act is passed to discourage random public shootings. Correct
2. Arms act is passed to levy heavy fines on people who carry unlicensed firearm. Wrong.
2 is wrong because the arms act is not issued to levy fines. It is issued to prevent something by levying fines. So the correct option is B.

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New post 30 Oct 2012, 21:28
You can see B is clearly a run – on, with just a comma separating two ics. E avoids this trap, by punctuating with a semicolon. That B is wordier than E, is an additional ammunition
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2012, 21:49
daagh wrote:
You can see B is clearly a run – on, with just a comma separating two ics. E avoids this trap, by punctuating with a semicolon. That B is wordier than E, is an additional ammunition


daagh - X rather than Y here X and Y can be clauses / Noun / Noun phrase....
BUT for when we use Instead of (X instead of Y) X and Y cannot be clauses and MUST be Nouns or something from the same category.

Also can u pin-point the exact error in A although I know its sounds very awkward...
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New post 07 Nov 2012, 14:09
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers. Not parallel - wrong!

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers. Very awkward construction, the two sections are not joined properly with a comma

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing. Require a 'but' or similar to contrast the two sections either side of the comma

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled Being is a danger word - avoid at all costs.

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers. Looks good to me, parallel, consistent. I'm happy
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