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# During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat

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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 23 Mar 2018, 01:22
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65% (hard)

Question Stats:

55% (01:37) correct 45% (01:41) wrong based on 1554 sessions

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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

(A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

(B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

(C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

(D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

(E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Originally posted by karlfurt on 07 Dec 2006, 03:57.
Last edited by Bunuel on 23 Mar 2018, 01:22, edited 4 times in total.
Edited the question.
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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2007, 18:25
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OA is E

The original sentence is problematic in its use of the possessive pronoun “its.” The antecedent to “its” is the “labor market,” which incorrectly and illogically suggests that the labor market is somehow possessing or passing government regulations itself. In addition, the original sentence incorrectly uses active rather than passive voice to describe the effects imposed on the "labor market" by government regulations, thus illogically suggesting that the "labor market" itself is stifling functioning, rather than being stifled by other forces.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) This choice incorrectly uses a comma to connect two independent clauses, thus creating a run-on sentence. Two independent clauses must be connected either by a conjunction, such as “and” or “but,” or by a semicolon.

(C) This choice incorrectly uses “stifled” to modify the labor market itself, as opposed to its functioning. Also, “variously restrict” is awkward; various is used more appropriately to modify "government regulations," rather than the manner in which the regulations restrict worker hiring and firing.

(D) In order to properly use a semicolon, both the clause before and after the semicolon must be independent clauses or sentences, and the clauses must be closely related in meaning. In this choice, the underlined portion, though grammatically correct, does not stand alone as an effective independent clause. Also, the pronoun “its” lacks a clear antecedent.

(E) CORRECT. This answer choice correctly uses the semicolon to connect two independent but closely related clauses. In addition, the pronoun “its” clearly and unambiguously refers to the “labor market.”
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2007, 05:32
1
I also went with B, but it has very unusual mistake...

OA is E
OE
Quote:
The original sentence is problematic in its use of the possessive pronoun “its.” The antecedent to “its” is the “labor market,” which incorrectly and illogically suggests that the labor market is somehow possessing or passing government regulations itself. In addition, the original sentence incorrectly uses active rather than passive voice to describe the effects imposed on the "labor market" by government regulations, thus illogically suggesting that the "labor market" itself is stifling functioning, rather than being stifled by other forces.

(A) This choice is incorrect as it repeats the original sentence.

(B) This choice incorrectly uses a comma to connect two independent clauses, thus creating a run-on sentence. Two independent clauses must be connected either by a conjunction, such as “and” or “but,” or by a semicolon.

(C) This choice incorrectly uses “stifled” to modify the labor market itself, as opposed to its functioning. Also, “variously restrict” is awkward; various is used more appropriately to modify "government regulations," rather than the manner in which the regulations restrict worker hiring and firing.

(D) In order to properly use a semicolon, both the clause before and after the semicolon must be independent clauses or sentences, and the clauses must be closely related in meaning. In this choice, the underlined portion, though grammatically correct, does not stand alone as an effective independent clause. Also, the pronoun “its” lacks a clear antecedent.

(E) CORRECT. This answer choice correctly uses the semicolon to connect two independent but closely related clauses. In addition, the pronoun “its” clearly and unambiguously refers to the “labor market.”
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2010, 12:57
Is it correct to use "its" in independent clause introduced by semicolon (;)?
It refers to subject of previous clause.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2010, 13:07
2
Orange08 wrote:

Is it correct to use "its" in independent clause introduced by semicolon (;)?
It refers to subject of previous clause.

I am quite certain that it is. I'll explain why with examples from MGMAT SC:
Wrong: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; doing everything together.
The second part can not stand on its own so this is not a right use of the semicolon.
Right: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; they do everything together.
This is one way to correct the sentence above. Each part can stand on his own.
The use of they here is very similar to the use of its in your question.

Hope it helps..
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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13 Oct 2010, 00:15
2
1
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

Between Choices B and E

b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy

e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers –

IMO, -instead - is not a subordinate conjunction. It is an adverbial conjunction that is used to bring out the transition of something from the original idea, just as a co-ordinate conjunction – but- would do. In comparison, words such as - although, while and even as - are subordinate conjunctions, still contrasting the two sides of sentence.

Secondly a fragment is in effect a collection or a jumble of words, essentially without a verb. But the second part of the sentence has a rock solid passive voice verb- has been stifled.-

But the biggest problem in B is the ungrammatical joining of two independent clauses by a mere comma, a serious style error

So E
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2010, 12:03
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I vaguely remember reading somewhere something like:
1). "Instead is used for a replacement", eg. "I'd ask my sister's friend, instead of my friend's sister, out for a date".
2). "Rather is used for a change of action/plan", eg. "I'd rather date my girlfriend than do my homework".

If indeed this be true, arent all of the options shady? Or have I got it all wrong?

PS: Please excuse the examples if they sound true-ish, they have helped me get the rule
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2010, 16:31
2
First, I thought there is nothing wrong with B, but then I realized B is a run-on sentence. Here, instead is not the right conjugation to connect two full independent sentences, but "but" is. E is my choice.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2010, 20:03
1
i believe semicolon wins over comma in gmat. so my hunch is E. I like "being" which eliminate D and C. B has ambiguous "it".
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2010, 21:55
1
E.

B was tempting, but E seemed to have no grammatical error.

I believe that 'instead' can not be used as a coordinating conjunction(and, but, so...) or subordinator(although, because, since...).
It works more like therefore.

I didn't know use of semicolon voids parallelism. Glad to learn it.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2010, 10:38
10
This is a tough question, so let's break down the semicolon/comma issue a bit:

It would be far too general to say that "The GMAT prefers commas" or "The GMAT prefers semicolons." The reality is the GMAT prefers whichever one is more accurate. If the clause that precedes the semicolon/comma and the clause that follows the semicolon/comma are both independent (i.e. they are complete sentence on their own) you must connect them with either:

-A semicolon
-A comma AND a coordinating conjunction (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so)

Notice how the GMAT complicates this for us: In some of the answers above, the second half of the sentence is an independent clause, and in others it is not. This is why it's critical to read through every single answer choice closely when you have a semicolon/comma split.

Notice how choice E above is two independent clauses correctly connected by a semicolon. You could replace the semicolon with a period and then capitalize the word "Instead" and you'd be good to go with two separate sentences.

In choice B, you can really also replace the comma with a period and capitalize the word "Instead" as the start of the sentence. What this tells you is that you need to replace that comma with a semicolon.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2012, 08:41
2
1
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but
instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

• principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and
firing of workers
• principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that
restrict the hiring and firing of workers
• principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict
worker hiring and firing
• principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning
being stifled
• principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and
firing of workers

Again a cool question!
MGMAT Rocks!
Here we go
A is definitely the most awkward sentence I could ever imagine. One could definitely get rid of this without much though. It has bad parallelism. Dependent clause after ", but" and a lot of other things horribly wrong with it.
B initially looks okay but its a run on sentence. That cannot be tolerated in the GMAT.
C rather indicates a preference. So its usage here is wrong. Also, being as a modifier is never true on the gmat. (being when used as something other than a modifier makes a lot of sense sometimes though)
D Similar problems with being. Also voice parallelism is haywire in the clause after ";"

Though it is not tested here, but the correct option uses this phrase "regulations restricting"
I ll post a very interesting finding from an OG question!

Q133 Last week local shrimpers held a news conference to take some credit for the resurgence of the rare Kemp's ridley turtle, saying that their compliance with laws requiring that turtle-excluder devices be on shrimp nets protect adult sea turtles.

A. requiring that turtle-excluder devices be on shrimp nets protect
B. requiring turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting
C. that require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets protect
D. to require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets are protecting
E. to require turtle-excluder devices on shrimp nets is protecting

Concept tested: SV agreement, Meaning.
Difficulty level: High
Illustration: This question tests a very important aspect of meaning. First, we know that the main verb in the underlined portion “protect” is wrong as the main subject “compliance is singular. (Note that protect is not being used as a command subjunctive in A. “be” is used as the command subjunctive). According to this logic, A and C are wrong. Now among B, D and E, “to require” indicates purpose of the law which is not the intended meaning (please refer to the tip below). So, D and E are incorrect. B is the correct answer. Tip: “Laws to require” indicates purpose of the law, but “laws requiring indicates contents of the law. While this might sound very obvious to natives, but non natives might have to struggle to get this clearly. Consider the following examples.
1. Arms act is passed to discourage random public shootings. Correct
2. Arms act is passed to levy heavy fines on people who carry unlicensed firearm. Wrong.
2 is wrong because the arms act is not issued to levy fines. It is issued to prevent something by levying fines. So the correct option is B.

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2012, 15:09
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers. Not parallel - wrong!

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers. Very awkward construction, the two sections are not joined properly with a comma

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing. Require a 'but' or similar to contrast the two sections either side of the comma

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled Being is a danger word - avoid at all costs.

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers. Looks good to me, parallel, consistent. I'm happy
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2012, 03:24
2
Quote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Superficially, the sentence is taking two statements loosely connected one which refers to how the Labor market was operating in the past , and another to How it is operating now..
We need someway to connect the two clauses ..

A sounds to confusing and wrong therefore best to start off with the remaining options and try to eliminate maximum possible..

(B) Tries to connect these clauses by using the conjunctive adverb INSTEAD and puts a COMMA preceding instead..One rule regarding conjunctive adverb worth remembering is that they may be used to connect two clauses by USING

i) a Semi colon ... CLAUSE X - SEMI COLON - Conjunctive adverb, CLAUSE Y ..
ii) Use a PERIOD/FULL STOP after the first clause. - Introduce the conjunctive adverb followed by the CLAUSE Y ...

Because B adds the conjunctive adverb INSTEAD it looks tempting however it fails to use a semi colon, nor does it use a period / full stop to separate the two clauses.. Therefore it looks suspect ...

(C) Like B, C also introduces a conjunctive adverb RATHER however it it uses RATHER much like (B) used INSTEAD... C too looks suspect..

(D) Introduces a semi colon, but does not use a conjunctive adverb or a linking/transitional phrase. Semi colon alone does not permit one to connect two clauses...we need something to BRIDGE THE GAP..

(E) Correctly uses the semi colon followed by the conjunctive adverb INSTEAD ...

Other correct versions of this sentence :

principles. Instead, it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

principles. Rather, functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

Use of SEMI COLON, COLON, COMMA etc are less important than say Parralelism or modifiers however few rules are a must , and overall as long as you memorize the rules regarding their usage, they aren't much of an issue..

Hope it helps..
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2013, 10:02
1
mun23 wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

Need detail explanation.anyone plz help me...........

Hi dhruvd and mun23,

(A)principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

stifling means to suffocate, the use of active voice in this sentence means that "labor market" is stifling itself, this is incorrect. The labor market's functioning is stifled by the the government regulations, so an active construction instead of a passive one is preferred; second, "its various government regulations" means that the regulations are made by labor market, again the meaning is inappropriate.

(B)principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

The meaning is clear in this sentnece but the punctuation used is incorrect. Two independent clauses are joined by using just a comma. A semicolon or comma + and would have been more appropriate.

(C)principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

The intended meaning is that the functioning of the labor market is being stifled by the government regulations, but the sentence changes the meaning to say that the labor market is being stifled, which is incorrect. Second, "variously restrict" is again incorrect, the sentence meant "various government regulations" so "various" should modify "government regulations" and not "restrict". Moreover, the construction "variously restrict" is awkward at best.

(D)principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

This sentence is the second best option in among all the answer choices. "its" has no clear antecedent. Moreover, "there" is used for physical locations and less preferred for "labor market"

(E)principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

This choice is clear and concise. The semicolon is correctly used to connect two independent clauses. The meaning is clear as it clearly expresses that the functioning of the labor market is stifled by the government regulations.

Hope that helps,

Vercules
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2013, 01:21
greatps24 wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

OA after discussion.

a. principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
Incorrect: ", but instead..." starts a new clause which is missing a subject or an object (ei. "it"). We can't answer the question "What is stiffling?".

b. principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
Incorrect: "Instead" requires a comma. Also, it marks the beginning of an independent clause. It is against grammar rules to connect two independent clauses with a comma.

c. principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
Incorrect: Same missing subject and verb pair as in choice A. Also, "rather" would be OK to use with ", but" in front of it but not by itself.

d. principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
Incorrect: pronoun "there" does not have a proper antecedent. Same applies to ", its functioning..."

e. principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
Correct: ";" ends the independent clause and starts a new one with "instead". Proper usage of "," after "instead". Noun phrase "its functioning" refers to the subject ("labor market").
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2013, 04:39
1
Lets Review:

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

So here we got our hit, "but instead" both, we need only one here. No check the options.

A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
Can be ignored

B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
after Instead, to what 'it' refers to confusing
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
Despite is not showing meaning.
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
we need some adjoining word in b/w principle and the hiring
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
no issues here.

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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17 Jun 2013, 08:38
1
Manhattan forum says "B" is wrong because "instead" is an adverb. So the statement requires a semi colon rather than a comma.

However my understanding is that "Instead" is a conjuctive adverb. So why its wrong to use instead with a comma?

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2013, 16:29
1

clause;conjunctive,clause
or
clause.conjunctive,clause

for further details pls go to:-

http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/parts ... verbs.html

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2013, 18:53
1
karlfurt wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Good one;
I was confused between B AND E. Ok let clarify the sentence which was presented uses both But & Instead. For the second clause - needs to be contradictory in some way to use BUT. Since the second clause is supportive in reasoning the first clause; Insteat has to be used. Instead appear in two option choices B and E. Both seems to be correct. Now comes the role of sentence structure by close look you can delineate these similarities -operating according to, functioning through , restricting the. So need to find similar parallel structure sentence. I guess B miss this while perfectly uses to match the original clause. Hence choose E correct.

Hope this helps
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat   [#permalink] 20 Nov 2013, 18:53

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