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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2012, 02:24
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Quote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.


principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers



Superficially, the sentence is taking two statements loosely connected one which refers to how the Labor market was operating in the past , and another to How it is operating now..
We need someway to connect the two clauses ..

A sounds to confusing and wrong therefore best to start off with the remaining options and try to eliminate maximum possible..

(B) Tries to connect these clauses by using the conjunctive adverb INSTEAD and puts a COMMA preceding instead..One rule regarding conjunctive adverb worth remembering is that they may be used to connect two clauses by USING

i) a Semi colon ... CLAUSE X - SEMI COLON - Conjunctive adverb, CLAUSE Y ..
ii) Use a PERIOD/FULL STOP after the first clause. - Introduce the conjunctive adverb followed by the CLAUSE Y ...

Because B adds the conjunctive adverb INSTEAD it looks tempting however it fails to use a semi colon, nor does it use a period / full stop to separate the two clauses.. Therefore it looks suspect ...

(C) Like B, C also introduces a conjunctive adverb RATHER however it it uses RATHER much like (B) used INSTEAD... C too looks suspect..

(D) Introduces a semi colon, but does not use a conjunctive adverb or a linking/transitional phrase. Semi colon alone does not permit one to connect two clauses...we need something to BRIDGE THE GAP..

(E) Correctly uses the semi colon followed by the conjunctive adverb INSTEAD ...


Other correct versions of this sentence :

principles. Instead, it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers


principles. Rather, functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing



Use of SEMI COLON, COLON, COMMA etc are less important than say Parralelism or modifiers however few rules are a must , and overall as long as you memorize the rules regarding their usage, they aren't much of an issue..

Hope it helps..
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Nov 2012, 19:44
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.


principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers but instead both suggest contradictory clauses. They are redundant. Only one would have sufficed.

principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers The second clause is independent and should be connected with a semicolon

principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing Slight change in meaning from working in stifled manner to functioning though stifled

principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled Its functioning... Misplaced modifier

principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers Correct

IMO answer is E.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2013, 09:02
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mun23 wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

Need detail explanation.anyone plz help me...........


Hi dhruvd and mun23,

(A)principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

stifling means to suffocate, the use of active voice in this sentence means that "labor market" is stifling itself, this is incorrect. The labor market's functioning is stifled by the the government regulations, so an active construction instead of a passive one is preferred; second, "its various government regulations" means that the regulations are made by labor market, again the meaning is inappropriate.

(B)principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

The meaning is clear in this sentnece but the punctuation used is incorrect. Two independent clauses are joined by using just a comma. A semicolon or comma + and would have been more appropriate.

(C)principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

The intended meaning is that the functioning of the labor market is being stifled by the government regulations, but the sentence changes the meaning to say that the labor market is being stifled, which is incorrect. Second, "variously restrict" is again incorrect, the sentence meant "various government regulations" so "various" should modify "government regulations" and not "restrict". Moreover, the construction "variously restrict" is awkward at best.

(D)principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

This sentence is the second best option in among all the answer choices. "its" has no clear antecedent. Moreover, "there" is used for physical locations and less preferred for "labor market"

(E)principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

This choice is clear and concise. The semicolon is correctly used to connect two independent clauses. The meaning is clear as it clearly expresses that the functioning of the labor market is stifled by the government regulations.

Hope that helps,

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2013, 00:21
greatps24 wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

OA after discussion.


a. principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
Incorrect: ", but instead..." starts a new clause which is missing a subject or an object (ei. "it"). We can't answer the question "What is stiffling?".

b. principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
Incorrect: "Instead" requires a comma. Also, it marks the beginning of an independent clause. It is against grammar rules to connect two independent clauses with a comma.

c. principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
Incorrect: Same missing subject and verb pair as in choice A. Also, "rather" would be OK to use with ", but" in front of it but not by itself.

d. principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
Incorrect: pronoun "there" does not have a proper antecedent. Same applies to ", its functioning..."

e. principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
Correct: ";" ends the independent clause and starts a new one with "instead". Proper usage of "," after "instead". Noun phrase "its functioning" refers to the subject ("labor market").
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2013, 03:39
1
Lets Review:

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

So here we got our hit, "but instead" both, we need only one here. No check the options.

A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
Can be ignored

B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
after Instead, to what 'it' refers to confusing
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
Despite is not showing meaning.
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
we need some adjoining word in b/w principle and the hiring
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
no issues here.

Correct answer E
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2013, 07:38
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Manhattan forum says "B" is wrong because "instead" is an adverb. So the statement requires a semi colon rather than a comma.

However my understanding is that "Instead" is a conjuctive adverb. So why its wrong to use instead with a comma?

Can anyone in this forum please help me here?
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2013, 15:29
1
hi Maaadhu,

conjunctive adverb:-
clause;conjunctive,clause
or
clause.conjunctive,clause

for further details pls go to:-
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conjunctive_adverb

http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/parts ... verbs.html

BR//SuryaV
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2013, 17:53
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karlfurt wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.


A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers


Good one;
I was confused between B AND E. Ok let clarify the sentence which was presented uses both But & Instead. For the second clause - needs to be contradictory in some way to use BUT. Since the second clause is supportive in reasoning the first clause; Insteat has to be used. Instead appear in two option choices B and E. Both seems to be correct. Now comes the role of sentence structure by close look you can delineate these similarities -operating according to, functioning through , restricting the. So need to find similar parallel structure sentence. I guess B miss this while perfectly uses to match the original clause. Hence choose E correct.


Hope this helps :arrow: :banana
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2013, 15:43
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I also had to choose between B and E, but I picked E, because the second part of the sentence starting with "instead" seemed to signal the beginning of a new thought, and I thought that it should be placed in an independent clause. Because it will be in an independent clause, it should separated with a conjunction or a semicolon.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2014, 22:39
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According to Manhattan, OA is E.
But my choice was B as ';' is used between 2 independent sentences. Is E an independent sentence? :!: :!:
Anyone please explain!! :?
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2014, 07:40
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scofield1521 wrote:
According to Manhattan, OA is E.
But my choice was B as ';' is used between 2 independent sentences. Is E an independent sentence? :!: :!:
Anyone please explain!! :?


Dear Scofield,

The later part of E, i.e instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers, is an independent clause. The correct way to judge whether a clause is an independent clause or not is to see, whether all alone, it makes any sense or not. The best way to do that is by using a full-stop, instead of the punctuation.

The second part does make sense and moreover, the presence of the word instead doesn't makes a clause dependent. The word instead just suggest that some topic is continued from the last sentence.

Thus B is incorrect and E is acceptable.

Hope this helps to resolve your query.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2014, 09:50
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Dear LS,

The instead in the second part of sentence is just continuing the topic from the last sentence.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Oct 2014, 11:43
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It's too long so there should be a break for two sentences also the second part should use past perfect, which renders only viable answer E.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Apr 2015, 11:38
karlfurt wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.


let's understand the meaning of the sentence:
the labor market in France has not been operating according to the free market principles
BUT introduces a new clause
instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

but instead - 2 contrasting words, using both of them are redundant. if we use but - then we have a fragment, since the part that comes after the conjunction doesn't have a verb.
if we use only instead, then we have a run-on sentence. 2 independent clauses are separated by a comma only.


A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
wrong as mentioned

B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
2 independent clauses are not properly connected.

C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
this answer is awkwardly constructed.
now the underlined portion is an ing modifier.
ing modifier can either modify the entire clause, or present result of the first clause.
neither of the functions of ing modifier is logical here.


D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
this choice changes the meaning. now the focus is on hiring and firing of workers and not on how the labor market is functioning.

E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
this choice correctly uses semi-colon.
its correctly refers to labor market.
the tense is correctly used, and parallel to the first IC.
restricting correctly modifies regulations
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2016, 06:44
plumber250 wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers. Not parallel - wrong!

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers. Very awkward construction, the two sections are not joined properly with a comma

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing. Require a 'but' or similar to contrast the two sections either side of the comma

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled Being is a danger word - avoid at all costs.

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers. Looks good to me, parallel, consistent. I'm happy



Hi,

I have a query for option A. cant we say this is run on . as ,but requires a clause but where is the verb for this sentence.

Please clarify.

Thanks
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2016, 07:33
Pathfinder wrote

Quote:
Hi,

I have a query for option A. cannot we say this is run on. As, but requires a clause but where is the verb for this sentence.

Please clarify.

Thanks


When there is no verb after a fanboy, then it will be called a fragment, since the RHS is just a phrase and not a clause as you have correctly pointed out. On the contrary, B is a run – on, since there are full- fledged clauses, connected by just a comma.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Mar 2016, 22:59
Hi Experts / chetan2u / daagh ,


I want to discuss the non-underlined part-

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating

If we are discussing about the past decade--shouldn't we use past tense..?
If it was written Since past decade--> In that case present perfect tense should be used.

But in this scenario we are discussing about PAST. So, how the usage of present perfect tense is correct.
Can you please shed some light into it..?

Additionally, is it correct approach to try to parallel operating and functioning in this sentence...??
If so, the first part will be in active voice and the second part will be in passive voice.

But, I have learnt that if two things are connected with conjunction then both part should be either in active or in passive voice.....????
Can I say INSTEAD is working as a conjunction here.....??

Please assist.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Mar 2016, 15:53
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PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi Experts / chetan2u / daagh ,


I want to discuss the non-underlined part-

During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating

If we are discussing about the past decade--shouldn't we use past tense..?
If it was written Since past decade--> In that case present perfect tense should be used.

But in this scenario we are discussing about PAST. So, how the usage of present perfect tense is correct.
Can you please shed some light into it..?

Additionally, is it correct approach to try to parallel operating and functioning in this sentence...??
If so, the first part will be in active voice and the second part will be in passive voice.

But, I have learnt that if two things are connected with conjunction then both part should be either in active or in passive voice.....????
Can I say INSTEAD is working as a conjunction here.....??

Please assist.


1. Use of since: The word since is used to refer to a point in time, not a period of time. Hence since the past decade in any case would be wrong. Since 2006 would be correct.

2. Use of present perfect: You would be right if past decade were actually a time period in the past; however it is not. The past decade indicates a time interval that started 10 years ago and the present moment is at the end of the 10 year span; the period is ending now. The verb has not been operating is used to indicate that the operation is not going on at this moment, the moment in which the past decade is ending, and it has not been going on during the past decade. For an action which started in the past and is still continuing, we use a present perfect - here not operating is the action.

3. The mixing of active and passive voice on two sides of a conjunction is allowed. See the following example ( from Manhattan SC guide):
The shuttle launch TOOK place flawlessly and WAS SEEN on television.... correct.

Hope the above explanations help.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2017, 07:05
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.


A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2018, 22:58
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

(A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers ----> "its" ambiguous...... if "its" refers to labor market then doesn't makes sense.

(B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers ----> conjunction (and,but etc.) needed after comma otherwise a run-on sentence

(C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing ---> "being" avoidable in GMAT

(D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled Same reason as "C"

(E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers Left with "E" seems best option to me.

Can someone please explain when "being" is correct in GMAT......
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