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During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2008, 19:15
OA is E

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2009, 04:48
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

A)principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

B)principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

C)principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

D)principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

E)principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers


It is E

"Restrict" and "has been" functioning is not parallel in B. Also, we need a semicolon to avoid run-on

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New post 09 Nov 2009, 11:23
zaarathelab wrote:
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

A)principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

B)principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers

C)principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing

D)principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled

E)principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers


It is E

"Restrict" and "has been" functioning is not parallel in B. Also, we need a semicolon to avoid run-on


I think there is another point to note: "government regulations " doest not restrict "hiring and firing" but promulgation of it doest restrict "hiring anf firing" so E is correct as E is using "restricting"
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2010, 12:22
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles,but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2010, 12:38
IMO E

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - modifier error
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing - Wordy and awkward
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled - where is there?
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2010, 12:57
rafi wrote:
IMO E


b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?


Is it correct to use "its" in independent clause introduced by semicolon (;)?
It refers to subject of previous clause.

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Orange08 wrote:

Is it correct to use "its" in independent clause introduced by semicolon (;)?
It refers to subject of previous clause.


I am quite certain that it is. I'll explain why with examples from MGMAT SC:
Wrong: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; doing everything together.
The second part can not stand on its own so this is not a right use of the semicolon.
Right: Andrew and Lisa are inseparable; they do everything together.
This is one way to correct the sentence above. Each part can stand on his own.
The use of they here is very similar to the use of its in your question.

Hope it helps..
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2010, 07:53
rafi wrote:
IMO E

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - modifier error
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing - Wordy and awkward
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled - where is there?
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?



Hi,
In choice E

;instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Is this part after ; will be called independent even if it is using Its as a pronoun which we can't say to what it is referring to.

Please explain...

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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utin wrote:
rafi wrote:
IMO E

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - modifier error
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing - Wordy and awkward
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled - where is there?
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?



Hi,
In choice E

;instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers

Is this part after ; will be called independent even if it is using Its as a pronoun which we can't say to what it is referring to.

Please explain...


the part after ; functions as a clause with a subject and a verb even if that clause has a pronoun it is grammatically right usage.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 01 Oct 2010, 07:32
I see that people have rejected option [B] as wordy but I think in terms of parallelism no other option can beat B.

"has not been operating" parallel portions "has been functioning"

I think parallelism should take precedence over wordiness. Any comments.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2010, 12:41
@ Arundas, IMO, B is to be rejected not because it is wordy, but because it has a fatal, punctuation error. We can not separate two independent but related clauses with just a comma. Either a semicolon with a non-capitalized first word has to be in place or a period with a new sentence has to be created.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2010, 03:32
rafi wrote:
IMO E

a) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - modifier error
b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy
c) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing - Wordy and awkward
d) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled - where is there?
e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers - Correct, conveys the meaning in the most clear and correct way. both the parts before and after the semicolon can stand on their own.

What's the OA?


I think the answer is B and not E.
E is incorrect because: The statement after the semicolon should be an Independent sentence. However in E, the statement after the semicolon begins with 'Instead' which is a connecting word making it a Subordinator and since there is no Main clause to support the Subordinator the second part becomes a Fragment( not a complete sentence ).

B maintains paralellism and though wordy is unambigious and hence correct.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2010, 00:15
During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operating according to free market principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers.

Between Choices B and E


b) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers - Wordy

e) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers –

IMO, -instead - is not a subordinate conjunction. It is an adverbial conjunction that is used to bring out the transition of something from the original idea, just as a co-ordinate conjunction – but- would do. In comparison, words such as - although, while and even as - are subordinate conjunctions, still contrasting the two sides of sentence.

Secondly a fragment is in effect a collection or a jumble of words, essentially without a verb. But the second part of the sentence has a rock solid passive voice verb- has been stifled.-

But the biggest problem in B is the ungrammatical joining of two independent clauses by a mere comma, a serious style error


So E
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2010, 10:39
(A) principles, but instead stifling functioning through its various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers --- but and instead are redundant
(B) principles, instead it has been functioning in a stifled manner as a result of various government regulations that restrict the hiring and firing of workers -- correct
(C) principles, rather functioning despite being stifled as a result of government regulations that variously restrict worker hiring and firing –- “being” statements are generally avoided in GMAT unless the non underlines part indicates that the sentence is in passive voice.
(D) principles; the hiring and firing of workers is restricted there by various government regulations, its functioning being stifled -- “being” statements are generally avoided in GMAT unless the non underlines part indicates that the sentence is in passive voice.
(E) principles; instead, its functioning has been stifled by various government regulations restricting the hiring and firing of workers --- “instead” is placed after semicolon. "Instead" seems unnecessary after semicolon.


So my Option is B.

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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I vaguely remember reading somewhere something like:
1). "Instead is used for a replacement", eg. "I'd ask my sister's friend, instead of my friend's sister, out for a date".
2). "Rather is used for a change of action/plan", eg. "I'd rather date my girlfriend than do my homework".

If indeed this be true, arent all of the options shady? Or have I got it all wrong?

PS: Please excuse the examples if they sound true-ish, they have helped me get the rule :)
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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First, I thought there is nothing wrong with B, but then I realized B is a run-on sentence. Here, instead is not the right conjugation to connect two full independent sentences, but "but" is. E is my choice.
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2010, 17:44
(A) "But" is a coordinating conjuction. After "but", another independent clause should exist. However, subject is missing. Sentence structure error.
(B) Run on sentence. Sentence structure and style error.
(C) "being"
(D) Many errors. "there" pronoun error; Run on sentence error; Passive voice; "Being"
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B- Changes meaning.

E- The available best option
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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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i believe semicolon wins over comma in gmat. so my hunch is E. I like "being" which eliminate D and C. B has ambiguous "it".

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Re: During the past decade, the labor market in France has not been operat [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2010, 21:55
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E.

B was tempting, but E seemed to have no grammatical error.

I believe that 'instead' can not be used as a coordinating conjunction(and, but, so...) or subordinator(although, because, since...).
It works more like therefore.

I didn't know use of semicolon voids parallelism. Glad to learn it.
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