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Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is

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Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2019, 04:22
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  45% (medium)

Question Stats:

68% (01:55) correct 32% (02:11) wrong based on 511 sessions

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Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is emerging from a new study of 500 television programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a nonprofit research center in Washington D.C., a study that is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.


(A) programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a nonprofit research center in Washington D.C., a study that is underwritten by a number of educational institutions

(B) programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center in Washington D.C., and it is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.

(C) programs underwritten by a number of educational institutions and conducted by the Centre for Media and Public Affairs, non-profit research center based in Washington D.C.

(D) programs, a study underwritten by a number of educational institutions and conducted by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center in Washington D.C.

(E) programs, a study conducted by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center based in Washington D.C., and it is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.

SC37561.01

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Re: Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is  [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2019, 05:08
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Bunuel wrote:
Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is emerging from a new study of 500 television programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a nonprofit research center in Washington D.C., a study that is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.


(A) programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a nonprofit research center in Washington D.C., a study that is underwritten by a number of educational institutions

(B) programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center in Washington D.C., and it is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.

(C) programs underwritten by a number of educational institutions and conducted by the Centre for Media and Public Affairs, non-profit research center based in Washington D.C.

(D) programs, a study underwritten by a number of educational institutions and conducted by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center in Washington D.C.

(E) programs, a study conducted by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center based in Washington D.C., and it is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.


The following three splits essentially revolve around the same idea:
Split 1: 'programs by the Center' vs others
'programs by the center' implies that the center wrote/produced/created these programs. It changes the original meaning of the sentence.
Option A and B are out.

Split 2: 'programs underwritten by' vs 'program, a study underwritten by'
Again, similar to A- the educational institutions have not written the programs but rather have written the study as is stated in D.
Option C is out.

Split 3: 'a study underwritten by a number of educational institutions' vs 'a study conducted by..'/'it is underwritten'
D is parallel- 'underwritten by' and 'conducted by'- and more concise compared to E.
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Re: Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2019, 04:48
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Bunuel wrote:
Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is emerging from a new study of 500 television programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a nonprofit research center in Washington D.C., a study that is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.


(A) programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a nonprofit research center in Washington D.C., a study that is underwritten by a number of educational institutions

(B) programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center in Washington D.C., and it is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.

(C) programs underwritten by a number of educational institutions and conducted by the Centre for Media and Public Affairs, non-profit research center based in Washington D.C.

(D) programs, a study underwritten by a number of educational institutions and conducted by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center in Washington D.C.

(E) programs, a study conducted by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center based in Washington D.C., and it is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.

SC37561.01


Official Explanation

Logical predication; Rhetorical construction

The sentence gives three pieces of information: that a new study suggests the nature of violence on television is changing; that it was funded by educational institutions; and that it was conducted by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a nonprofit research center.

Our task is to order this information logically and grammatically. The most obvious defect in the given sentence is that the long phrase a study . . . institutions describing how the study was funded is placed too far from the first mention of the study (a new study), with too much distracting information in between.

A. This choice is incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B. In this choice, it is ambiguous: it could, for example, refer to the evidence or the new study.

C. In this choice, the modifying phrases underwritten by . . . and conducted by . . . appear to modify programs.

D. Correct. This choice clearly organizes the information in the sentence, with no ambiguity.

E. The pronoun it is ambiguous: it could refer to the new study or the evidence.

The correct answer is D.
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Re: Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2019, 01:10
Hey GMATNinja. Can you share your solution to this problem?
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Re: Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2019, 12:14
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AyeeshaJ wrote:
Hey GMATNinja. Can you share your solution to this problem?

Sure! Let's break these down one by one:

Quote:
(A) programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a nonprofit research center in Washington D.C., a study that is underwritten by a number of educational institutions


The modifier "a study" seems to be describing Washington D.C. That's no good. (A) is out.

Quote:
(B) Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is emerging from a new study of 500 television programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center in Washington D.C., and it is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.

Typically, if a sentence has two full clauses and the 2nd clause starts with a pronoun, that pronoun will generally refer back to the subject of the first clause. So in this case, the antecedent for "it" seems to refer to "evidence." "Evidence is emerging... and evidence is underwritten?" Nah, that doesn't make any sense -- the study was underwritten, not the evidence.

And even if you're not convinced that "it" HAS to refer back to the subject of the first clause ("evidence"), the alternatives aren't great: "a non-profit research center" is the nearest singular noun, and that doesn't make sense, either, since the center isn't underwritten by the educational institutions -- "a new study" is, and the phrase "a new study" is buried in the middle of the clause. So it's really hard to make sense of that pronoun.

That's enough for us to get rid of (B).

Quote:
(C) programs underwritten by a number of educational institutions and conducted by the Centre for Media and Public Affairs, non-profit research center based in Washington D.C.

Programs underwritten and conducted? Again, it makes more sense to write that the study was conducted. We can ditch (C).

Quote:
(D) programs, a study underwritten by a number of educational institutions and conducted by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center in Washington D.C.

This looks pretty good. The study was underwritten by educational institutions and conducted by this center, which also happens to be a nonprofit. The modifiers are logical. Let's hold on to (D).

Quote:
(E) programs, a study conducted by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center based in Washington D.C., and it is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.

Same problem as (B). The antecedent for "it" seems to refer to "evidence" or maaaaaybe "a non-profit research center", but neither of those make sense. Give (E) his ball and send him home.

This leaves us with (D), which is the correct answer.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2019, 12:52
If the independent clause stating with a study in option D is separated by a ';' , wouldn't it make the sentence clearer?
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Re: Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Nov 2019, 08:51
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Bunuel wrote:
Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is emerging from a new study of 500 television programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a nonprofit research center in Washington D.C., a study that is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.



(A) programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a nonprofit research center in Washington D.C., a study that is underwritten by a number of educational institutions
-Wrong
"by center for ..." incorrectly refers to programs.
The phrase should refer to "study"
"a study " incorrectly refers to Washington D.C.

(B) programs by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center in Washington D.C., and it is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.
-Wrong
Similar incorrect reference of "by ..."
"It" incorrectly refers to "evidence"

(C) programs underwritten by a number of educational institutions and conducted by the Centre for Media and Public Affairs, non-profit research center based in Washington D.C.
- Wrong
Similar to A and B - "by ..." refers to programs

(D) programs, a study underwritten by a number of educational institutions and conducted by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center in Washington D.C.
- Correct
"underwritten and conducted" correctly refers to study
"a non-profit ..." correctly describes "center for ..."

(E) programs, a study conducted by the Center for Media and Public Affairs, a non-profit research center based in Washington D.C., and it is underwritten by a number of educational institutions.
- Wrong
"conducted" correctly refers to study
"it" incorrectly refers to "evidence"
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Re: Evidence of some shifts in the character of violence on television is   [#permalink] 26 Nov 2019, 08:51
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