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# Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2009, 23:55
C for me as well.

More of a direct causation vs A.

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2009, 02:12
OA is C....

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2009, 12:01
C.
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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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10 Dec 2009, 17:13
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Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools as cleaners or pesticides causes allergic reactions in some children. Elementary school nurses in Renston report that the proportion of schoolchildren sent to them for treatment of allergic reactions to those chemicals has increased significantly over the past ten years. Therefore, either Renston’s schoolchildren have been exposed to greater quantities of the chemicals, or they are more sensitive to them than schoolchildren were ten years ago.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The number of school nurses employed by Renston’s elementary schools has not decreased over the past ten years.
B. Children who are allergic to the chemicals are no more likely than other children to have allergies to other substances.
C. Children who have allergic reactions to the chemicals are not more likely to be sent to a school nurse now than they were ten years ago.
D. The chemicals are not commonly used as cleaners or pesticides in houses and apartment buildings in Renston.
E. Children attending elementary school do not make up a larger proportion of Renston’s population now than they did ten years ago.

Can somebody explain ?

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11 Dec 2009, 10:16
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I think it should be C.

The nurse observes that a greater proportion of the students are being sent to her to be treated for allergic reactions. She concludes that either students are more sensitive to the chemicals or that they are being exposed to more of the chemicals. The questions asks on what assumption her argument depends.

C. States states that children are not more likely to be sent to the nurse for allergic reactions to chemicals tens years ago. To draw her conclusion, she must assumes that children are just as likely to be sent to the nurse now as they were before. If children are most likely to be sent to the nurse than before, then the increase can be a result of that, and not exposure to more chemicals or increased sensitivity.

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2009, 13:52
seluka wrote:
Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools as cleaners or pesticides causes allergic reactions in some children. Elementary school nurses in Renston report that the proportion of schoolchildren sent to them for treatment of allergic reactions to those chemicals has increased significantly over the past ten years. Therefore, either Renston’s schoolchildren have been exposed to greater quantities of the chemicals, or they are more sensitive to them than schoolchildren were ten years ago.
Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

Give away: cleaners or pesticides causes allergic/proportion of schoolchildren who are allergic reactions to those chemicals has increased significantly over the past ten years/ conclusion: increase because either 1.) expose to greater quantity or 2.) children are more sensitive.
A. The number of school nurses employed by Renston’s elementary schools has not decreased over the past ten years. -->#of nurses is irrelevant
B. Children who are allergic to the chemicals are no more likely than other children to have allergies to other substances. -->other substances are irrelevant
C. Children who have allergic reactions to the chemicals are not more likely to be sent to a school nurse now than they were ten years ago. --> suggests that children are sent NOT because of those above 2 reasons,for example, NOT BECAUSE the school nurse is more accessible, NOT BECAUSE parents aware more of the allegic and told childeren to go to school nurse. (Assumption Q: alternative to the conclusion type.)
D. The chemicals are not commonly used as cleaners or pesticides in houses and apartment buildings in Renston. -->weakening
E. Children attending elementary school do not make up a larger proportion of Renston’s population now than they did ten years ago. --> children proportion to population is irrelevant
Can somebody explain ?
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

My ans is C
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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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18 Dec 2009, 18:54
My answer is C.

The argument is based on the number of students visiting the nurses over the 10 year span.
For a conclusion this number needs to be constant all throughout. Therefore the argument is based on this assumption
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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2010, 12:29
I am still not convinced why A cannot be the answer ..... Any inputs ???

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2010, 12:56
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C - as if 10 years ago, not all students who have allergic reactions are sent ten years ago but they are sent now, then the argument fails.

boros2203 wrote:
I am still not convinced why A cannot be the answer ..... Any inputs ???

statement says ... Elementary school nurses .... sent to them for treatment
Here we are not talking about the per nurse basis but the total students sent to all the nurses. proportion represents the student proportion and not the number per nurse.

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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29 Mar 2010, 02:42
I fell for D

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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31 Mar 2010, 16:23
me to , I went with D

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2010, 01:46
ANS : C.

the proportion of students sent to nurses increased over the past ten yrs,conclusion : either the students are exposed to more chemical,or they hv become more sensitive.

proportion incresed : 10 yrs b4 1/3 was sent ,now it may 2/3 of all students sent to nurses.
no of nusrses doesnt matter.wat if 10 yrs b4,only small proportion of the "infected" kids were going to nurses,and today,most of the "infected" kids are going to nurses....in this scenario,the conclusion will fail.... increased
proportion is because more infected kids are visiting to the nurses, the so the correct ans choice will make sure that this is nt the case.
and its stated in option c.

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2010, 12:23
I dont know why but I am still confused with the OA.

The stem says that proportion of children sent NOW for treatment has increased significantly than the proportion of children sent 10 years ago. Therefore, either schoolchildren have been exposed to greater quantities of the chemicals, or they are more sensitive to chemicals than schoolchildren were ten years ago.

When the stem is saying that children sent NOW (for treatment) has increased significantly than how are we assuming that children are no more likely to be sent to school nurse NOW than they were 10 years ago.

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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01 Apr 2010, 13:44
we are assuming this "option C" to make the conclusion to be true.
negate the option c,then the conclusion will nt hold anymore !!

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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05 Apr 2010, 00:27
C
Not A because of proportion mentioned in the text. The nurses seem to be counting numbers having allergies versus all children. Moreover, if you logically negate C, the conclusion won't hold.

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2010, 10:00
Why E cannot be the right answer?

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2010, 11:28
fruit wrote:
Why E cannot be the right answer?

E and what the question states are different.

What the question states is the proportion of schoolchildren. In math, it is "number of schoolchildren sent to nurses for allergies" to "total number of schoolchildren"

whereas E is different since the proportion is "number of schoolchildren" to "total population of the school". This proportion does not have anything to do with the argument.

Therefore, E cannot be the answer.

I think C is the correct one. If C fails, it means now children are more likely to be sent to nurses (for example because the school is more sensitive to health problems of its students). Then we cannot link the rise of proportion to either of the two reasons concluded in the argument, higher quantities of chemical and children being more sensitive.

Hope I have explained clearly.

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2010, 13:37
hao922 wrote:
fruit wrote:
Why E cannot be the right answer?

E and what the question states are different.

What the question states is the proportion of schoolchildren. In math, it is "number of schoolchildren sent to nurses for allergies" to "total number of schoolchildren"

whereas E is different since the proportion is "number of schoolchildren" to "total population of the school". This proportion does not have anything to do with the argument.

Therefore, E cannot be the answer.

I think C is the correct one. If C fails, it means now children are more likely to be sent to nurses (for example because the school is more sensitive to health problems of its students). Then we cannot link the rise of proportion to either of the two reasons concluded in the argument, higher quantities of chemical and children being more sensitive.

Hope I have explained clearly.

yeah, that is right. But I cannot understand why C.
The argument says "has increased significantly over the past ten year", and C I means that kids do not visit school nurses any more, so how can be determined that the number of allergic reactions increase?
how can we bind this two facts?
Or I misunderstand the meaning of some phrases?

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2010, 13:56
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fruit wrote:
hao922 wrote:
fruit wrote:
Why E cannot be the right answer?

E and what the question states are different.

What the question states is the proportion of schoolchildren. In math, it is "number of schoolchildren sent to nurses for allergies" to "total number of schoolchildren"

whereas E is different since the proportion is "number of schoolchildren" to "total population of the school". This proportion does not have anything to do with the argument.

Therefore, E cannot be the answer.

I think C is the correct one. If C fails, it means now children are more likely to be sent to nurses (for example because the school is more sensitive to health problems of its students). Then we cannot link the rise of proportion to either of the two reasons concluded in the argument, higher quantities of chemical and children being more sensitive.

Hope I have explained clearly.

yeah, that is right. But I cannot understand why C.
The argument says "has increased significantly over the past ten year", and C I means that kids do not visit school nurses any more, so how can be determined that the number of allergic reactions increase?
how can we bind this two facts?
Or I misunderstand the meaning of some phrases?

C does not mean "kids do not visit school nurses any more"
Instead, it means "Children who have allergic reactions to the chemicals are no more ( = EQUALLY )likely to be sent to a school nurse now than they were ten years ago".

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools [#permalink]

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22 Apr 2010, 13:59
thanks a lot! kudos =)

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Re: Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools   [#permalink] 22 Apr 2010, 13:59

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# Exposure to certain chemicals commonly used in elementary schools

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