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In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive

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In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive [#permalink]

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In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive the drug being tested and half receive a physiologically inert substance—a placebo. Trials are designed with the intention that neither subjects nor experimenters will find out which subjects are actually being given the drug being tested. However, this intention is frequently frustrated
because __________.

Which one of the following, if true, most appropriately completes the explanation?

(A) often the subjects who receive the drug being tested develop symptoms that the experimenters recognize as side effects of the physiologically active drug

(B) subjects who believe they are receiving the drug being tested often display improvements in their conditions regardless of whether what is administered to them is physiologically active or not

(C) in general, when the trial is intended to establish the experimental drug’s safety rather than its effectiveness, all of the subjects are healthy volunteers

(D) when a trial runs a long time, few of the experimenters will work on it from inception to conclusion

(E) the people who are subjects for clinical trials must, by law, be volunteers and must be informed of the possibility that they will receive a placebo

Source: LSAT
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive [#permalink]

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I am with A.. answer choice should pose some concern on the experiment itself if we don't know who is using placebo and who is using medication..

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Re: In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2017, 02:14
IMO A

B - As per this choice even the subjects given Placebo will show improvement as do the subjects given drug being tested. Therefore in such cases the experimenters will not clearly find out which subjects are actually being given the drug tested.
C - Subject being healthy volunteers is not relevant to the argument.
D - Duration of the trail is not relevant to the argument.
E - Requirements of the law is not relevant to the argument.
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Re: In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive [#permalink]

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broall wrote:
In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive the drug being tested and half receive a physiologically inert substance—a placebo. Trials are designed with the intention that neither subjects nor experimenters will find out which subjects are actually being given the drug being tested. However, this intention is frequently frustrated
because __________.

Which one of the following, if true, most appropriately completes the explanation?

(A) often the subjects who receive the drug being tested develop symptoms that the experimenters recognize as side effects of the physiologically active drug

(B) subjects who believe they are receiving the drug being tested often display improvements in their conditions regardless of whether what is administered to them is physiologically active or not

(C) in general, when the trial is intended to establish the experimental drug’s safety rather than its effectiveness, all of the subjects are healthy volunteers

(D) when a trial runs a long time, few of the experimenters will work on it from inception to conclusion

(E) the people who are subjects for clinical trials must, by law, be volunteers and must be informed of the possibility that they will receive a placebo

Source: LSAT


The intent of using placebo is that neither subjects nor experimenters will find out which subjects are actually being given the drug being tested. Now, what if by some means the experimenters are able to differentiate between the two kind of subject (with and without placebo) ? Will the experimenters be frustrated ? Yes. That's the exact situation we are looking for.

Option A says that the experimenters know about the side effects of the drug being tested. Now, if the subjects start showing these exact side-effects, the experimenters will easily identify the subjects to whom the actual drug is administered.

Hence, this situation will frustrate the experimenters and Option A is our answer !!
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Re: In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2017, 17:03
IMO A is the correct answer. Only this suggests that the experimenters will be able to know which group is on which medicine. Hence, the frustration.
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Re: In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive [#permalink]

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New post 12 Dec 2017, 10:50
broall wrote:
In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive the drug being tested and half receive a physiologically inert substance—a placebo. Trials are designed with the intention that neither subjects nor experimenters will find out which subjects are actually being given the drug being tested. However, this intention is frequently frustrated
because __________.

Which one of the following, if true, most appropriately completes the explanation?

(A) often the subjects who receive the drug being tested develop symptoms that the experimenters recognize as side effects of the physiologically active drug

(B) subjects who believe they are receiving the drug being tested often display improvements in their conditions regardless of whether what is administered to them is physiologically active or not

(C) in general, when the trial is intended to establish the experimental drug’s safety rather than its effectiveness, all of the subjects are healthy volunteers

(D) when a trial runs a long time, few of the experimenters will work on it from inception to conclusion

(E) the people who are subjects for clinical trials must, by law, be volunteers and must be informed of the possibility that they will receive a placebo

Source: LSAT


Half will receive the drug that is being tested.

Half will receive a placebo.

These clinical trials are designed so that BOTH the experimenters and subjects will be not know which group received the real drug.

The last statement begins with the word "however," so we can expect some sort of caveat or contrast with what we have read.

It's like "we try to live in this perfect idealized theoretical word where we do this and that. However..."

This however states that the intention is basically muddled because of something.

I would say this is a resolve the paradox/discrepancy type of question.

Answer choices:

A) This would complete the explanation as to why those intentions would be muddled! If it is true that sometimes the subjects that receive the real drug start developing symptoms that experimenters recognize as being side effects from that drug.

For example, lets say they want to drug a new workout drug to see how it works with weight loss. Lets say they include in this a chemical that is known to cause acne breakouts. The experimenters do not know which group was given the drug, however, once people start breaking out, this situation of who knows what can now be considered muddled.

B) This would be consistent with the experimenters not knowing which group received the placebo and which received the real drug.

C) Out of scope. We do not know what the intentions of these trials are.

D) Does not change the implications of whether or not those experimenters who started from the beginning now know which group received the placebo and which received the real drug.

E) This is applied to both groups. The experimenters will not know which group received the placebo and which received the real drug.
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Re: In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive [#permalink]

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New post 12 Dec 2017, 12:17
broall wrote:
In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive the drug being tested and half receive a physiologically inert substance—a placebo. Trials are designed with the intention that neither subjects nor experimenters will find out which subjects are actually being given the drug being tested. However, this intention is frequently frustrated
because __________.

Which one of the following, if true, most appropriately completes the explanation?

(A) often the subjects who receive the drug being tested develop symptoms that the experimenters recognize as side effects of the physiologically active drug

(B) subjects who believe they are receiving the drug being tested often display improvements in their conditions regardless of whether what is administered to them is physiologically active or not

(C) in general, when the trial is intended to establish the experimental drug’s safety rather than its effectiveness, all of the subjects are healthy volunteers

(D) when a trial runs a long time, few of the experimenters will work on it from inception to conclusion

(E) the people who are subjects for clinical trials must, by law, be volunteers and must be informed of the possibility that they will receive a placebo

Source: LSAT


Hello broall,

How can the intention be frustrated? This phrase just took me aback. Whatever i understood from the passage just didn't seem to be consistent with this particular line.
The source of frustration can be anything and i really don't understand how the intent can become frustrated.

Please throw some light on this. Because of this final line i just got mixed up between A and B because I couldn't exactly pin point the source of frustration.

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In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive [#permalink]

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New post 12 Dec 2017, 18:03
gmatexam439 wrote:
broall wrote:
In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive the drug being tested and half receive a physiologically inert substance—a placebo. Trials are designed with the intention that neither subjects nor experimenters will find out which subjects are actually being given the drug being tested. However, this intention is frequently frustrated
because __________.

Which one of the following, if true, most appropriately completes the explanation?

(A) often the subjects who receive the drug being tested develop symptoms that the experimenters recognize as side effects of the physiologically active drug

(B) subjects who believe they are receiving the drug being tested often display improvements in their conditions regardless of whether what is administered to them is physiologically active or not

(C) in general, when the trial is intended to establish the experimental drug’s safety rather than its effectiveness, all of the subjects are healthy volunteers

(D) when a trial runs a long time, few of the experimenters will work on it from inception to conclusion

(E) the people who are subjects for clinical trials must, by law, be volunteers and must be informed of the possibility that they will receive a placebo

Source: LSAT


Hello broall,

How can the intention be frustrated? This phrase just took me aback. Whatever i understood from the passage just didn't seem to be consistent with this particular line.
The source of frustration can be anything and i really don't understand how the intent can become frustrated.

Please throw some light on this. Because of this final line i just got mixed up between A and B because I couldn't exactly pin point the source of frustration.

Regards


Refer to fmik7894's comment. The improtant information is in 2nd sentence.
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Re: In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2017, 01:16
Thank you broall .... i understood the mistake. .. outside knowledge was hampering my thought process.

Thank you once again !!
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Re: In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2017, 23:42
broall wrote:
In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive the drug being tested and half receive a physiologically inert substance—a placebo. Trials are designed with the intention that neither subjects nor experimenters will find out which subjects are actually being given the drug being tested. However, this intention is frequently frustrated
because __________.

Which one of the following, if true, most appropriately completes the explanation?

(A) often the subjects who receive the drug being tested develop symptoms that the experimenters recognize as side effects of the physiologically active drug

(B) subjects who believe they are receiving the drug being tested often display improvements in their conditions regardless of whether what is administered to them is physiologically active or not

(C) in general, when the trial is intended to establish the experimental drug’s safety rather than its effectiveness, all of the subjects are healthy volunteers

(D) when a trial runs a long time, few of the experimenters will work on it from inception to conclusion

(E) the people who are subjects for clinical trials must, by law, be volunteers and must be informed of the possibility that they will receive a placebo

Source: LSAT


This is a double-blind experiment, for achieving the result that experimenters will NOT find out which subjects are actually being given the drug being tested.

I chose B, but I realized that A is correct. Experimenters will be frustrated because the reality will be revealed easily by the symptoms.

Great question!
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Re: In clinical trials of new medicines, half of the subjects receive   [#permalink] 19 Dec 2017, 23:42
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