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Journalist: Newspapers generally report on only those scientific

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Journalist: Newspapers generally report on only those scientific  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2019, 09:56
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Question Stats:

28% (02:02) correct 72% (02:16) wrong based on 126 sessions

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Journalist: Newspapers generally report on only those scientific studies whose findings sound dramatic. Furthermore, newspaper stories about small observational studies, which are somewhat unreliable, are more frequent than newspaper stories about large randomized trials, which generate stronger scientific evidence. Therefore, a small observational study must be more likely to have dramatic findings than a large randomized trial.

Which one of the following most accurately expresses a flaw in the journalist’s reasoning?

(A) It casts doubt on the reliability of a study by questioning the motives of those reporting it.

(B) It fails to consider that even if a study’s findings sound dramatic, the scientific evidence for those findings may be strong.

(C) It confuses a claim about scientific studies whose findings sound dramatic with a similar claim about small observational studies.

(D) It overlooks the possibility that small observational studies are far more common than large randomized trials.

(E) It fails to rule out the possibility that a study’s having findings that sound dramatic is an effect rather than a cause of the study’s being reported on.
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Re: Journalist: Newspapers generally report on only those scientific  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Nov 2019, 10:05
Hovkial wrote:
Journalist: Newspapers generally report on only those scientific studies whose findings sound dramatic. Furthermore, newspaper stories about small observational studies, which are somewhat unreliable, are more frequent than newspaper stories about large randomized trials, which generate stronger scientific evidence. Therefore, a small observational study must be more likely to have dramatic findings than a large randomized trial.

Which one of the following most accurately expresses a flaw in the journalist’s reasoning?

(A) It casts doubt on the reliability of a study by questioning the motives of those reporting it.

(B) It fails to consider that even if a study’s findings sound dramatic, the scientific evidence for those findings may be strong.

(C) It confuses a claim about scientific studies whose findings sound dramatic with a similar claim about small observational studies.

(D) It overlooks the possibility that small observational studies are far more common than large randomized trials.

(E) It fails to rule out the possibility that a study’s having findings that sound dramatic is an effect rather than a cause of the study’s being reported on.



E option makes sense as it talks abbout the cause and efffect how they are misunderstood to make the conclusion
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Re: Journalist: Newspapers generally report on only those scientific  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2019, 06:15
Why not C?
Please explain.
Moreover, this is already mentioned that small observational stories are more frequent than randomized trials.

I am confused.
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Re: Journalist: Newspapers generally report on only those scientific  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2019, 09:16
The argument confuses the claim about scientific studies whose findings are dramatic with small observational studies. They have no grounds to relate the aforementioned things.
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Re: Journalist: Newspapers generally report on only those scientific  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2019, 09:27
breatheanddoit wrote:
The argument confuses the claim about scientific studies whose findings are dramatic with small observational studies. They have no grounds to relate the aforementioned things.


Hi. Any reason you requested it as a verbal reply request? If you have just a general comment, please use the quick reply box at the bottom or quote button.

Thanks.
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Re: Journalist: Newspapers generally report on only those scientific  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2019, 09:40
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Hovkial wrote:
Journalist: Newspapers generally report on only those scientific studies whose findings sound dramatic. Furthermore, newspaper stories about small observational studies, which are somewhat unreliable, are more frequent than newspaper stories about large randomized trials, which generate stronger scientific evidence. Therefore, a small observational study must be more likely to have dramatic findings than a large randomized trial.


Which one of the following most accurately expresses a flaw in the journalist’s reasoning?

(A) It casts doubt on the reliability of a study by questioning the motives of those reporting it. - No, it doesn't

(B) It fails to consider that even if a study’s findings sound dramatic, the scientific evidence for those findings may be strong. - No, That is not true because the argument clearly mentions the opposite.

(C) It confuses a claim about scientific studies whose findings sound dramatic with a similar claim about small observational studies. - There is no confusion created.

(D) It overlooks the possibility that small observational studies are far more common than large randomized trials. - This is correct. Because it could be a fact that observational studies are more common than large ones and hence commonly reported rather than the fact that the former have dramatic conclusion.

(E) It fails to rule out the possibility that a study’s having findings that sound dramatic is an effect rather than a cause of the study’s being reported on. - I marked E but looks like it just confused me. D is a better choice.
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Re: Journalist: Newspapers generally report on only those scientific  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2019, 08:32
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gvij2017 wrote:
Why not C?
Please explain.
Moreover, this is already mentioned that small observational stories are more frequent than randomized trials.

I am confused.



Right, so C says "It confuses a claim about scientific studies whose findings sound dramatic with a similar claim about small observational studies."
Let's see what happens when we negate this statement and assume that the journalist doesn't confuse the two. Now, it still stands that some scientific studies have dramatic results and that there is a claim that small studies have dramatic results.
Now if we didn't negate it, it would still stand to reason that the journalist is confused and is putting small studies in the paper because of the dramatic results they produce.
You should now be able to see that point C actually supports the journalist's point of view.

Moving to D. Firstly, the argument says that newspapers more frequently report small studies than they do large ones. IT DOES NOT say that small studies occur more frequently than large ones, merely that they are reported more often.
When we look at D, we learn that there could be about a 100 small studies for 10 large ones. The probability of dramatic results is naturally much higher in the 100 small studies, statistically speaking, and this invariably leads to more reports of small studies. Negating this would mean that the number of small and large studies could quite possibly be equal and this in turn would support the journalist's claim. Retaining D and not negating it would throw the argument out the window.
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Re: Journalist: Newspapers generally report on only those scientific   [#permalink] 16 Nov 2019, 08:32
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