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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 09:59
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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other,but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault.Geologists' pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite; but “weaker” materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types. In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth’s surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become;in other words,pressure itself,not only the rocks’ properties,affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other.

1) The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?
A. Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B. Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C. Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D. Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E. Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.



2) The passage is primarily concerned with
A. evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B. discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C. examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D. questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E. presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis



3) The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they
A. revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B. indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C. established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D. suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed
that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E. confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite



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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 11:27
1
1) The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?
A. Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings. Correct
Some scientists had speculated that since clay was found in San Andreas Fault and rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types .
However , Byerlee tests at a depth of 10-15 km below the Earth’s surface showed otherwise . Geologists also wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water .
B. Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified. Incorrect
There is no recent research mentioned in the passage that suggest about modification
C. Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment. Incorrect
There is no discussion on recalculations of Henyey’s findings .
D. Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists. Incorrect
Against the idea of pre 1965 geologists .
E. Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods. Incorrect
The passage does not discuss about replication of Henyey’s findings .

2) The passage is primarily concerned with
B. discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding . Correct Answer
The unexpected finding was Henyey’s that temperatures in drill holes near fault was lower than expected .

3. The passage mostly agree that Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they

A. revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone - Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected.-- the temperature was not as high as expected (not as a previous measurement)

D. suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction - Correct

The passage was complicated . The third question was the most difficult . :? Failed to get it correct even after taking 2 mins .
Got it correct on the second attempt

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2016, 22:19
The passage is primarily concerned with
A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

Why cant the ans be D) ? or C) ? Im a lil confused

Help is appreciated. Thanks in advance
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2016, 21:05
total 6'15

?
B
D


Henyey's findings were the absence of friction-generated heat. In the second para, scientists confirmed that it is the pressure, not the features of rock that affects the heating.
Now seems A is reasonable.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2016, 01:07
aniketm.87@gmail.com wrote:
The passage is primarily concerned with
A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

Why cant the ans be D) ? or C) ? Im a lil confused

Help is appreciated. Thanks in advance

Agree with you on the same lines, why not C
D is out because we are not questioning the finding, but the assumptions. why? because heat is however generated.
Earlier it was assumed that heat was generated due to hard rocks but now its proved that its hard as well as soft rocks, which heats up on pressure.

B says unexpected finding////what is unexpected?never written in passage. plumber250 please help
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2016, 08:57
Gauss wrote:
Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be
explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault. Geologists’ pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of
rocks, such as limestone and granite; but “weaker” materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types.

In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth’s surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other
The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?
A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.


The passage is primarily concerned with
A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis


The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they
A.revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B.indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C.established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D.suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E.confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite



A (scientists still not sure), B(it was an unexpected finding),D (between A & D, I was stuck but then I thought there were no previous measurements just assumptions)
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2016, 10:13
3) The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they
A. revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B. indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C. established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D. suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed
that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E. confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite

Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other,but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected.

It doesnt say that friction doesn't generate heat. In passage, it became more clear that "whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other." so there are other fact in play such as pressure that reduces friction. That explain "that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected."

Why D is correct then?
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2016, 23:04
@ abrakadabra21..i think in my view the question asks you to assume that passage mostly agree on what finding that hanyey suggested.. i.e. at san andreas fault heat is generated through friction. there is some other reason that has not been validated.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2016, 07:02
1
abrakadabra21 wrote:
3) The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they

A. revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B. indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C. established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D. suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E. confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite

Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other,but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected.

It doesnt say that friction doesn't generate heat. In passage, it became more clear that "whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other." so there are other fact in play such as pressure that reduces friction. That explain "that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected."

Why D is correct then?


Notice the word "inaccurately". Earlier geologists assumed that the heat produced is due to friction. But his findings helped geologists to determine other causes( such as gravitational pressure). Hence, D is the correct answer as it says his findings suggested that they were not 100% accurate.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2017, 19:39
1
1) The first question was tough for me, but POE works here.
Road map
1) Prior 1965 assumption, followed by contradiction by Henyey. Scientists wonder ....
2) 1922 old study, different rock types, clay and testing deep below....
After this study is described the last sentence says that Geologists therefore wonder....

A - Not sure, keep.
B - Nothing about modification is mentioned in the 1965's study/research.
C - Nothing is mentioned about this, there are only assumptions, nothing definitive to modify/recalculate.
D - This was a bit tough. Ok, 1st sentence tells that there was some assumption prior to 1965(Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that....... ), this sentence is followed by a counter statement (, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures................) so this Henyey's study is not in the support of that assumption. Eliminate this option.
E - Nothing about more recent experiments is mentioned, two experiments, one in 1922 one in 1965, thats all. Eliminate.
A remains. ("Unexpected" findings and "wonder" words support this option)
2)Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected.
^^ "Not as _____ as expected" is the same as "unexpected". So there's your unexpected finding.The entire rest of the passage is dedicated to hypotheses and/or research aimed at explaining what Henyey found. Hence B.
3)Prior to 1965 geologists assumed.........[details]..........., but in 1965 Henley found that.........[details]. Hence D.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2017, 12:48
Can someone please explain the primary purpose question? I choose D, but it seems the right answer is B.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2018, 12:27
In Q1, B is dismiss because the second paragraph doesn´t suggest that first explanation to be modify but simply says that the first explanation IS NOT the real cause for the lack of heat and that something else is. And this same line of reasoning drives us directly to think that an explanation hasn´t been provided yet and choice A says exactly so.


Please, can anyone confirm or deny that what I just said makes sense? Thanks :-)
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2018, 11:26
WITH AN ATTEMPT TO MAKE RC FUN. I just typed what was going on in my mind while I was reading this passage. I thought to share it. It might have some typos or some stretched lyrics or extensions. Excuse that. Just an attempt. gmatexam439 what you think.

Summary of the passage.

Para-1
Before 1965 geologists thought that the heat that is produced in the SAF's (San Andreas Fault) is because of the friction between the rocks. However, in 1965 henyey (Hilary) found out that the temperature in the holes that were drilled in the SAF was not as elevated as thought by geologists. The geologists expected that the temperature will be high. Now the reason these geologists thought that the temperature in the drill holes should be high is because these geologists based their calculations of temperature measurement based on rocks that are made of granite or limestone. But they did not include the fact that rocks can be made of clay as well as clay was found in the samples from fault zone.

Predicting/ Forecasting/Wondering:
if the rocks are made of clay then can they produce heat without frictions or what the hell is going on here. Also, why are the temperatures in the holes lower than expected.

Para- 2
So in 1922 my boy Byerlee(Brue-Lee) tested the clay rocks, granite rocks and lime rocks 10 to 15 kilometers below the earth's surface to see if all these three types of rocks can produce friction. Wait what 10 to 15km below the earth’s surface. How the heck did he get an instrument that low into the ground. It's insane what these geologists can do han.

Anyways whatever method he used. He found out that the rocks made of clay produced as much friction as rocks that were made of granite and limestone. Now Bruce-Lee also mentioned that 10 to 15km below the earth, there are thousands of atmospheres of pressure. In other words, there is a hell a lot of pressure down in the earth.

So bruce-lee finds out what rocks are made of does not matter and what matters is how hard the rocks push against each other. If intensely with which they push against each other is higher then hotter they will become. So in nutshell the pressure not the properties of rock that determines the frictional heating. Hmm, it's almost like it does not matter how big or muscular you are but what matters is how smart you are. And Kudos to bruce-lee for finding all this info out.

Now after Hilary and Bruce-Lee found all this info. These Geologists wonder that can the pressurized water that's between the plates in the SAF is reducing the friction in between these plates. So is it that this water is pushing these rocks away from each other. Can this be the case????



Q What does the passage tell us about Hilary’s finding of the temperature in SAF?
Prethink: Hilary found that the temperatures in drill holes are low and there could be a chance that all the geologists got all their calculations wrong coz they based the calculations of temperature levels on the rocks made of granite and line. They didn’t consider the possibility of rocks being made of clay.

A
Meaning: Scientist still doesn’t have a definite explanation for Hilary’s findings.
Reasoning:Yes. Coz these scientists are still wondering.

B
Reasoning: I mean based on the passage: Hilary’s research is the recent research. So the research itself does not ask for any modification.

C
Reasoning: No. it should not.

D
Reasoning: Not at all. Because before Hilary’s finding they didn’t even consider clay rocks possibility

E
Reasoning: Passage tells us nothing about duplication although I will be interested to learn.


Q What is the author trying to tell me here. I mean whats the point and whats this passage all about?

Prethink: Hilary in 1965 shed a whole new light on the possibilities of low temperatures in holes and Hillary’s wisdom is somewhat supported by what bruce-lee had done in 1922. The point is we have made some progress in answering the low-temperature mystery but it's yet to be confirmed.

A
Reasoning: He is not trying to tell us the methods that Brule-Lee or Hilary used.

B
Reasoning: Bingo and dingo. That’s what’s going on here!

C
Reasoning: Author is not telling just about an assumption but the author is telling us how the assumption was acted upon and the reasoning behind it.

D
Reasoning: Author is not questioning if what Hilary and bruce-lee found or the new direction in which geologists are going is right or wrong.

E
Reasoning: Now we can say that he is presenting bruce-lee’s findings to try to support Hillary's point. However, this answer option is too narrow. From a macro level, he is trying to sort of tell us whats up with this mystery. In other words whats new with this mystery.


Q: So for the most part passage says that Hillary’s findings in regards to the temperature in SAF(San Andreas Fault) made an amazing contribution. But please elaborate what the contributions were actually or how did her findings made the amazing contributions:

Prethink: It's like we all have been looking for keys in the house and Hilary just said: guys did you check out the key hanger. The keys might just be there. In other words, geologists knew that there is clay in the samples but they never considered the possibility of rocks made of clay or making their calculations based on pressure instead of properties of rocks.

A
Reasoning: Our mind here can say oh yeah. This is the right option. But look closely Hilary did not say that the calculations are wrong or there is an error in the calculation. She just found out that the temp is low in the holes and this finding initiated an alternate possibility. So for example in quant, we can solve for X correctly but rather we were supposed to solve for Y. Our calculation is correct but we just solved for a wrong variable.

B
Reasoning: Not at all. She did not say what all types of clay rocks are there.

C
Reasoning: We have no idea about the technique that she used and neither is she a proponent of one over the other technique.

D
Meaning: the word used is suggested. And the basic meaning of this answer choice is that geologists assumption is inaccurate.
Reasoning: Yes. Because passage did refer that Hillary’s findings of low-temperature levels did undermine the assumption of geologists.

E
Reasoning: No her research did not confirm that
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2018, 11:13
skrishnakarthik wrote:
Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault. Geologists’ pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite; but “weaker” materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types.

In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth’s surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other

The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?
A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.

Answer-A

The passage is primarily concerned with
A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

Answer-B

The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they
A.revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B.indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C.established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D.suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E.confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite
Answer - D





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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2018, 12:14
visheshsahni I wanted to share my method of approaching & attempting this passage. Your feedback about my approach and reasoning will be much appreciated. Do you agree with the reasoning I have provided for each answer choice and with the content of the summary?
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin   [#permalink] 27 Apr 2018, 12:14

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