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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 08:59
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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other,but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault.Geologists' pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite; but “weaker” materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types. In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth’s surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become;in other words,pressure itself,not only the rocks’ properties,affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other.

1) The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?
A. Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B. Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C. Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D. Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E. Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


2) The passage is primarily concerned with
A. evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B. discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C. examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D. questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E. presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


3) The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they
A. revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B. indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C. established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D. suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed
that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E. confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 30 May 2016, 10:27
1) The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?
A. Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings. Correct
Some scientists had speculated that since clay was found in San Andreas Fault and rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types .
However , Byerlee tests at a depth of 10-15 km below the Earth’s surface showed otherwise . Geologists also wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water .
B. Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified. Incorrect
There is no recent research mentioned in the passage that suggest about modification
C. Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment. Incorrect
There is no discussion on recalculations of Henyey’s findings .
D. Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists. Incorrect
Against the idea of pre 1965 geologists .
E. Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods. Incorrect
The passage does not discuss about replication of Henyey’s findings .

2) The passage is primarily concerned with
B. discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding . Correct Answer
The unexpected finding was Henyey’s that temperatures in drill holes near fault was lower than expected .

The passage was complicated . The third question was the most difficult . :? Failed to get it correct even after taking 2 mins .
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2016, 21:19
The passage is primarily concerned with
A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

Why cant the ans be D) ? or C) ? Im a lil confused

Help is appreciated. Thanks in advance
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2016, 20:05
total 6'15

?
B
D


Henyey's findings were the absence of friction-generated heat. In the second para, scientists confirmed that it is the pressure, not the features of rock that affects the heating.
Now seems A is reasonable.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jul 2016, 00:07
aniketm.87@gmail.com wrote:
The passage is primarily concerned with
A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

Why cant the ans be D) ? or C) ? Im a lil confused

Help is appreciated. Thanks in advance

Agree with you on the same lines, why not C
D is out because we are not questioning the finding, but the assumptions. why? because heat is however generated.
Earlier it was assumed that heat was generated due to hard rocks but now its proved that its hard as well as soft rocks, which heats up on pressure.

B says unexpected finding////what is unexpected?never written in passage. plumber250 please help
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 03 Aug 2016, 07:57
Gauss wrote:
Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be
explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault. Geologists’ pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of
rocks, such as limestone and granite; but “weaker” materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types.

In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth’s surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other
The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?
A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


The passage is primarily concerned with
A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they
A.revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B.indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C.established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D.suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E.confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D



A (scientists still not sure), B(it was an unexpected finding),D (between A & D, I was stuck but then I thought there were no previous measurements just assumptions)
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2016, 09:13
3) The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they
A. revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B. indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C. established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D. suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed
that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E. confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite

Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other,but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected.

It doesnt say that friction doesn't generate heat. In passage, it became more clear that "whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other." so there are other fact in play such as pressure that reduces friction. That explain "that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected."

Why D is correct then?
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2016, 22:04
@ abrakadabra21..i think in my view the question asks you to assume that passage mostly agree on what finding that hanyey suggested.. i.e. at san andreas fault heat is generated through friction. there is some other reason that has not been validated.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2016, 06:02
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abrakadabra21 wrote:
3) The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they

A. revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B. indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C. established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D. suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E. confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite

Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other,but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected.

It doesnt say that friction doesn't generate heat. In passage, it became more clear that "whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other." so there are other fact in play such as pressure that reduces friction. That explain "that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected."

Why D is correct then?


Notice the word "inaccurately". Earlier geologists assumed that the heat produced is due to friction. But his findings helped geologists to determine other causes( such as gravitational pressure). Hence, D is the correct answer as it says his findings suggested that they were not 100% accurate.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jun 2017, 18:39
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1) The first question was tough for me, but POE works here.
Road map
1) Prior 1965 assumption, followed by contradiction by Henyey. Scientists wonder ....
2) 1922 old study, different rock types, clay and testing deep below....
After this study is described the last sentence says that Geologists therefore wonder....

A - Not sure, keep.
B - Nothing about modification is mentioned in the 1965's study/research.
C - Nothing is mentioned about this, there are only assumptions, nothing definitive to modify/recalculate.
D - This was a bit tough. Ok, 1st sentence tells that there was some assumption prior to 1965(Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that....... ), this sentence is followed by a counter statement (, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures................) so this Henyey's study is not in the support of that assumption. Eliminate this option.
E - Nothing about more recent experiments is mentioned, two experiments, one in 1922 one in 1965, thats all. Eliminate.
A remains. ("Unexpected" findings and "wonder" words support this option)
2)Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected.
^^ "Not as _____ as expected" is the same as "unexpected". So there's your unexpected finding.The entire rest of the passage is dedicated to hypotheses and/or research aimed at explaining what Henyey found. Hence B.
3)Prior to 1965 geologists assumed.........[details]..........., but in 1965 Henley found that.........[details]. Hence D.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2017, 11:48
Can someone please explain the primary purpose question? I choose D, but it seems the right answer is B.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2018, 11:27
In Q1, B is dismiss because the second paragraph doesn´t suggest that first explanation to be modify but simply says that the first explanation IS NOT the real cause for the lack of heat and that something else is. And this same line of reasoning drives us directly to think that an explanation hasn´t been provided yet and choice A says exactly so.


Please, can anyone confirm or deny that what I just said makes sense? Thanks :-)
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin   [#permalink] 12 Jan 2018, 11:27

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