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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin

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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault. Geologists’ pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite; but “weaker” materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types.

In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth’s surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

1. The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?

A. Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.

B. Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.

C. Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.

D. Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.

E. Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B


2. The passage is primarily concerned with

A. evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis

B. discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding

C. examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment

D. questioning the validity of a scientific finding

E. presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis


[Reveal] Spoiler:
D


3. The passage mostly agree that Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they

A. revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone

B. indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault

C. established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault

D. suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction

E. confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA

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Last edited by hazelnut on 26 Jun 2017, 06:13, edited 3 times in total.
Reformatted question

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting in the San Andreas Fault generated heat through friction as they grind pas each other, but in 1965 Heyey found that temperatures in drill hoels near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected.....


[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA---D,B,A

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New post 06 Apr 2010, 05:20
thanks ... nice passage

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2011, 22:59
Thanks.
Good passage.
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2012, 12:01
I hope someone ansvvers this one
in A it is mentioned that

A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.

tthere are no Scientists mentioned in the passage then hovv can that be correct ?

The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?

A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.
Answer:

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 25 Aug 2012, 14:10
My answers are A, B and D

to the question:
Quote:
tthere are no Scientists mentioned in the passage then hovv can that be correct ?


yes, only geologists are mentioned. i think geologists need to be assumed as scientists to answer this questions. I know, but this does happen in some RC questions and I get it wrong because of that :(


for the last question:
The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they

A.revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
ew cannot say that there were errors in measurement, only that the previous theory was incorrect (we dont know if they actually measured it earlier
B.indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
they did try to explain presence of clay, but types of clay - not sure if that is mentioned
C.established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
hmm, not leaning towards this one. seems to be nowhere near. where is that technique mentoined?
D.suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
i dont think this is what the author wanted to say, but this is the closest. I did not like this one because the heat could be generated and dissipated immediately. nevertheless, the closest one
E.confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite
no, we do not even think these plates had rocks - so, how can we say this confirmed the friction of limestone/granite?

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2013, 06:50
akrish1982 wrote:
My answers are A, B and D

to the question:
Quote:
tthere are no Scientists mentioned in the passage then hovv can that be correct ?


yes, only geologists are mentioned. i think geologists need to be assumed as scientists to answer this questions. I know, but this does happen in some RC questions and I get it wrong because of that :(


for the last question:
The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they

A.revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
ew cannot say that there were errors in measurement, only that the previous theory was incorrect (we dont know if they actually measured it earlier
B.indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
they did try to explain presence of clay, but types of clay - not sure if that is mentioned
C.established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
hmm, not leaning towards this one. seems to be nowhere near. where is that technique mentoined?
D.suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
i dont think this is what the author wanted to say, but this is the closest. I did not like this one because the heat could be generated and dissipated immediately. nevertheless, the closest one
E.confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite
no, we do not even think these plates had rocks - so, how can we say this confirmed the friction of limestone/granite?



But 'temperatures in drill holes near the
fault were not as elevated as had
been expected'

Doen't this show that A is correct?

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Hi Roopika,

I don't think that it does.

Whilst Heyney found that temperatures were not that high, it says nowhere that anyone else had measured the temparature. The previous wisdom that temperatures were high, was not based on any actual data, just an assumption.
So A is not correct.

Hope that helps.

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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault. Geologists’ pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite; but “weaker” materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types.

In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth’s surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other

The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?
A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.

Answer-A

The passage is primarily concerned with
A.evaluating a method used to test a particular scientific hypothesis
B.discussing explanations for an unexpected scientific finding
C.examining the assumptions underlying a particular experiment
D.questioning the validity of a scientific finding
E.presenting evidence to support a recent scientific hypothesis

Answer-B

The passage mostly agree that Heney’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault made the greatest contribution in that they
A.revealed an error in previous measurements of temperature in the San Andreas Fault zone
B.indicated the types of clay present in the rocks that form the San Andreas Fault
C.established the superiority of a particular technique for evaluating data concerning friction in the San Andreas Fault
D.suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction
E.confirmed geologists’ assumptions about the amount of friction generated by common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite
Answer - D

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault. Geologists’ pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite; but “weaker” materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types.

In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth’s surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other.

The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?

A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.

Source - GMAT Prep
OA -
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


Can anybody help me explain this question with proper reasoning?
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sahilchaudhary wrote:
Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past each other, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault. Geologists’ pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite; but “weaker” materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types.

In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth’s surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other.

The passage suggests which of the following regarding Henyey’s findings about temperature in the San Andreas Fault?

A.Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.
B.Recent research suggests that Henyey’s explanation for the findings should be modified.
C.Henyey’s findings had to be recalculated in light of Byerlee’s 1992 experiment.
D.Henyey’s findings provided support for an assumption long held by geologists.
E.Scientists have been unable to duplicate Henyey’s findings using more recent experimental methods.

Source - GMAT Prep
OA -
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A


Can anybody help me explain this question with proper reasoning?


Dissect the argument and boile it down to a simple scheme

Now the first sentence says: basically the scientists think that the heat among the earth's plates is caused by the friction of the rocks.

BUT in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected.. So after this something is weird: could not be this the real reason behind the friction and the consequent heat. Maybe is the type or quality of the rocks or clay or whatever else.

Byerlee's experiment instead says just this: no matter what is the type of rock, they genarate heat.

BUT pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other.

Basically this is the skeleton of the argument that you have to keep in mind to answer the question. (indeed quite tricky) just because pressure + rock's properties could be the cause of all this but we are still wondering why Is this or there is something else that we do not know ??'

A fits the bill

hope this helps
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2014, 19:43
A is supported by the passage via last sentence.
B is not supported by the passage.
C is not supported by the passage.
D (did not have enough time to look at this one.)
E is not supported by the passage.

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New post 09 Aug 2014, 23:28
Bumping up.
In question 1, A talks about scientists as discussed earlier, Option B talks about recent research suggesting explanations of Heyney's finding should be modified.

Isn't this option better than A, we know there are Geologist/Scientist involved but the Heyney's finding have been challenged once and now again the challenge is being challenged.

Can't we infer that passage is suggesting modification?
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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 16 Aug 2014, 23:27
Can some explain Q3

D.suggested that geologists had inaccurately assumed that giant rock plates that meet at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction

What I see in the passage is
"The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks’ properties, affects frictional heating. "

This effectively means that two factors contributed to frictional heating

1) Rocks' properties
2) Pressure

How can option D be correct which says that the heat was not generated due to friction. Both the factors finally leads to frictional heating only.

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 23 Sep 2014, 05:07
My answers are A, B, D.

Q3 D is the correct answer because it highlights that some wrong assumptions were made about rocks generating heat due to friction. This is in sync with the passage.

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2015, 04:38
Complicated passage. The last question did not convince me fully.
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New post 26 Apr 2015, 04:30
Heyy,
Q3) IMO A
While i have read plumber250's points i have the below to suggest
"Geologists’ pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite"
THIS CLEARLY MENTIONS - assumptions concerning the Heat generated.....i.e how hot it got was based on calculations with limestones & granite.

Hence the Geologists theorized the Temperature OR - How hot it got in the center based on Limestone / Granite rock Experiments
These Calculations were challenged by Hayney who found that temp was not as elevated.

Hence Hayneys Contribution was towards revealing an error in the previous measurements of temperature......which was measured based on calculations of Rocks theorized to be Limestones / Granite instead of clay.

Nowhere does Hayney or the Passage refute that the heat was not caused by Friction between the plates. In fact the passage suggests that the high pressure is equally important along with Properties of the rock which together increase friction & thereby the heat. The answer choice D literally questions the entire idea proposed in the passage.

am i doing something wrong here????

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 12 May 2015, 02:49
Request the GC community to use spoilers, to conceal the answer key.

1: A. First thing to note is that Henyey just had "findings" and he did not offer an "explanation". So, B is out. His finding was that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Initially scientists thought that “weaker” materials, such as clays, were the reason for low temperatures; Byerlee proved that clay would also produce elevated temperatures. So, clearly, presence of clay did not provide an explanation to Henyey's findings". So, an alternate explanation needed to be looked at.

Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other.

The passage ends here. So, clearly this entire episode is still at a "wondering" stage. In other words, Scientists have yet to formulate a definitive explanation for Henyey’s findings.

2: B. The expectation was that two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault would generate heat through friction. However, unexpected scientific finding was that Henyey did not find temperatures as elevated as had been expected. The whole passage that discusses explanation for this unexpected scientific finding.

3: D. First sentence of the passage is an assumption by geologists. Heney’s findings are counter to those assumptions.

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New post 12 May 2015, 02:59
Answer would be A.

Reasoning:

2nd line: but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected.

Last line:Geologists therefore wonderedwhether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other.

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Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2015, 06:36
took 4 minutes for me to answer the passage. Got the 1st one wrong. The passage clearly states that scintists are still trying to deduce the reason for finding low-tempratures at the location of friction of plates. So isn't B a better answer choice for the 1st question ?

Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 1

Re: Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin   [#permalink] 18 Aug 2015, 06:36

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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meetin

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