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The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase

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The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 16 Jan 2019, 02:45
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The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase the bank’s funding by $175 billion, though some United States legislators cite an obstacle to Congressional passage being the concern that the bank’s loans will help foreign producers compete with American businesses.


(A) an obstacle to Congressional passage being the concern

(B) a concern as an obstacle to Congressional passage

(C) as an obstacle to Congressional passage the concern

(D) the concern, an obstacle to Congressional passage,

(E) as an obstacle for Congress to pass it the concern

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https://www.nytimes.com/1988/02/17/business/capital-rise-expected-to-gain-in-world-bank.html

Capital Rise Expected To Gain in World Bank
By CLYDE H. FARNSWORTH and SPECIAL TO THE NEW YORK TIMES

The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to agree this week to a $75 billion increase in capital, but Congressional leaders warned that it would be unusually difficult to persuade Congress to approve United States participation in this election year.

Only a small percentage of the new capital would actually be paid into the institution. The rest would be ''callable,'' representing a future obligation of the member governments should the bank run into financial difficulties and need to be bailed out.

Because of that structure, the American contribution that Congress would be asked to provide would be less than $100 million a year. Obstacles to Passage

''In the environment of the guns of November, this will need not only the support of the Administration, but strong institutional support on both sides of the aisle,'' said the House majority leader, Thomas B. Foley.

Mr. Foley, a Washington Democrat, spoke at the annual meeting of the Bretton Woods Committee. The lobbying group, composed chiefly of former senior government officials, promotes the World Bank and its sister organization, the International Monetary Fund.

Mr. Foley and Representative Dick Cheney of Wyoming, the No. 3 Republican in the House, cited as obstacles to Congressional passage the budget considerations and concerns that the bank's loans help foreign producers compete with American businesses.

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Originally posted by tejal777 on 03 Nov 2009, 06:47.
Last edited by Bunuel on 16 Jan 2019, 02:45, edited 8 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2013, 03:15
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The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase the bank’s funding by $175 billion, though some United States legislators cite an obstacle to congressional passage being the concern that the bank’s loans will help foreign producers compete with American businesses.

A. an obstacle to congressional passage being the concern
A uses "being", so we can pretty much eliminate it and come back to it only if necessary.

Then I used "back solving" for this question. The next not underlined portion starts with "that the bank’s loans (...)" <=== "that" is a noun modifier so it should be placed as close as possible to the noun it refers to.

B. a concern as an obstacle to congressional passage
C. as an obstacle to congressional passage the concern
D. the concern, an obstacle to congressional passage
E. as an obstacle for Congress to pass it the concern


Is it "the passage" or the "concern" that the modifier refers to? The concern (of course). So we can eliminate B and D. Between the remaining E and C, the first one has "it" <== no reference; so the correct answer is C.

OR you can solve it by looking at the construct: cite X as Y.
You cite (as an obstacle) the concern that (...)
NOT
You cite (as a concern) the obstacle that (...)
Only C and E remain, and the above analysis makes C the correct answer.
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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Nov 2009, 21:09
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tejal777 wrote:
The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase the bank’s funding by $175 billion, though some United States legislators cite an obstacle to congressional passage being the concern that the bank’s loans will help foreign producers compete with American businesses.

A. an obstacle to congressional passage being the concern---awkword
B. a concern as an obstacle to congressional passage----changes the meaning
C. as an obstacle to congressional passage the concern-----seems correct---"the concern" is the obstacle for th passage.
D. the concern, an obstacle to congressional passage----changes the meaning
E. as an obstacle for Congress to pass it the concern-----wrong meaning

:shock: :shock: :shock:


So "C" for me. I have doubts so need some other views as well.
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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jan 2010, 05:41
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I was confused between C and D and picked D which is wrong.

D uses a modifier - an obstacle to congressional passage within commas. This means that it is functioning as a non-essential modifier - the removal of which does not affect the meaning of the sentence.
But in this case 'this modifier' is clearly essential to the meaning of the sentence and hence will change the meaning of the sentence if removed.
Hence D is poor construction

C wins. It uses the idiomatic form 'cite as Y X'

Hope that does it
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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2010, 15:02
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OK, with this one, let's just look only at the important part of the sentence. So we can jump straight to this part:

"legislators cite an obstacle to congressional passage being the concern that"

Ask yourself: What is being cited?

Well, what the legislators are citing is "the concern that blah blah blah"

Legislators are citing some kind of concern.

The phrase "an obstacle to congressional passage" is just a description of that concern.

They are afraid the concern about "blah blah blah" is acting as "an obstacle to congressional passage"---meaning this concern is preventing the legislation/act/funding from passing through congress easily.

Now you chose (A)--which would be correct if it looked more like this:
"legislators cite an obstacle to congressional passage AS the concern that..."
But instead (A) reads:
"legislators cite an obstacle to congressional passage being the concern that..."---no no no no....

The phrase "being the concern" is not right.

With answer choice (C), it reads:
"legislators cite as an obstacle to congressional passage the concern that..."

Notice the "fluff" words are "as an obstacle to congressional passage"---these are just descriptive words that make sense.

Now take out the fluff and read it:

"legislators cite.....the concern that..."---sounds fine.

So (C) correctly captures the meaning of what we are trying to say in a structural manner that is accurate and error-free so (C) is the answer.
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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2011, 08:38
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A. Awkward and incorrect use of 'being'
B. The idiom is cite X as Y. The legislators are citing as obstacle the concern that...B uses the idiom wrongly and invertedly. B seems to imply that the legislators are citing concern not obstacle. also, wrong use of a with concern instead of 'the'
D. Putting 'an obstacle to congressional passage' between commas makes it a non-essential modifier and is a grave error in terms of implication of sentence. the whole point of the sentence is to emphasize congressional passage and govt increasing the funding etc., and highlighting how it is uncertain because of a concern. The fact that the concern is an obstacle is the core of the sentence, integral to its meaning and cannot be put between commas
E. What is 'it' in the sentence referring to? There is no noun preceding it! Obstacle for is also unidiomatic.

C remains as the correctly inverted version of idiom 'cite x as y'-- "cite as y the x"
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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2016, 13:10
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grammatically D parses out fine in that it modifies "the concern" with the appositive "an obstacle to congressional passage." But there's a change in meaning by setting "an obstacle to congressional passage" off in commas. It makes it a nonessential modifier, but this fact is necessary to the meaning of the sentence.

Another approach: consider the idiom "cite X as Y." In this case we (essentially) have "legislators cite the concern as an obstacle." What makes C tricky is that the structure is written "cite as Y X": "legislators cite as an obstacle the concern." It's a weird inversion, but it works. If you go with D, the core of that clause becomes "legislators cite the concern" and we lose the important "as an obstacle" piece.



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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2017, 22:41
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(A) an obstacle to congressional passage “being” the concern--->"being" as a modifier is wrong
(B)” a concern” as an obstacle to congressional passage----->here we are citing a specific concern so we need "the concern"
(C) as an obstacle to congressional passage the concern---->correct. “you can cite X as Y OR u can also cite AS X Y”
(D) the concern, “an obstacle to congressional passage”,--->here "an obstacle to congressional passage" is acting as an appositive giving a non-nonsensical meaning implying that "the concern" is "an obstacle to congressional passage"
(E) as an obstacle for Congress to pass “it” the concern ---->"it" does not seems to refer to anything !!

Another approach: consider the idiom "cite X as Y." In this case we (essentially) have "legislators cite the concern as an obstacle." What makes C tricky is that the structure is written "cite as Y X": "legislators cite as an obstacle the concern." It's a weird inversion, but it works. If you go with D, the core of that clause becomes "legislators cite the concern" and we lose the important "as an obstacle" piece.
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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jun 2018, 07:55
Hey GMATNinja

Can you share your thoughts on this question?

Acc. to all the explanations above, the idiom used is "cite as X Y". But in the question the idiom is in the form "cite as Y X". I don't want to be too rigid over here but I'm a little confused with the convoluted form of this question.
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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2018, 10:01
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pikolo2510 wrote:
Hey GMATNinja

Can you share your thoughts on this question?

Acc. to all the explanations above, the idiom used is "cite as X Y". But in the question the idiom is in the form "cite as Y X". I don't want to be too rigid over here but I'm a little confused with the convoluted form of this question.

I'm not sure that you're going to like my answer much, pikolo2510!

So I think we're all accustomed to seeing the construction “cite x as y,” but in the correct answer you see the construction, “cite as y x,” which might sound a bit strange to you. Frankly, it does SOUND strange. But it's not wrong: it's perfectly logical to say that somebody "cites the concern... as an obstacle to passage" or to say that somebody "cites as an obstacle... the concern..." Either way, the meaning is fine.

Here’s the bigger takeaway: relying primarily on your ear to eliminate wrong answer choices is supremely dangerous. So instead of agonizing over what the proper idiomatic construction is – or painstakingly memorizing long lists of the 25,000 idioms in English - focus on finding concrete logic or grammar errors in four of the answer choices. If you can, the remaining option with the goofy idiom is your goofy correct answer. :-)

Put another way, the key question isn't "why is the idiom in C correct?" It's "why are A, B, D, and E wrong?" (Hint: all four are illogical.)

I hope this helps a bit!
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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Feb 2019, 11:13
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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2019, 00:59
I just found this question in the official mock test which I took yesterday and I marked option C as the answer. But when I am going through the answer key, it states that option D is the correct answer. Any comments on this?
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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jul 2019, 08:24
"for somebody to do something" is used to show a purpose of a clause
I earn money for my son to go to Havard
I earn money to go go Havard.

the phrase can not be used to modify a noun as it is used in choice e.
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Re: The 151 member governments of the World Bank are expected to increase   [#permalink] 21 Jul 2019, 08:24
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