GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

 It is currently 16 Feb 2019, 00:14

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

## Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in February
PrevNext
SuMoTuWeThFrSa
272829303112
3456789
10111213141516
17181920212223
242526272812
Open Detailed Calendar
• ### Free GMAT Strategy Webinar

February 16, 2019

February 16, 2019

07:00 AM PST

09:00 AM PST

Aiming to score 760+? Attend this FREE session to learn how to Define your GMAT Strategy, Create your Study Plan and Master the Core Skills to excel on the GMAT.
• ### Free GMAT Algebra Webinar

February 17, 2019

February 17, 2019

07:00 AM PST

09:00 AM PST

Attend this Free Algebra Webinar and learn how to master Inequalities and Absolute Value problems on GMAT.

# The concept of difference feminism, proposed by

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Verbal Forum Moderator
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2230
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
The concept of difference feminism, proposed by  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

19 Jun 2018, 08:01
5
13
Question 1
00:00

based on 287 sessions

40% (02:59) correct 60% (03:22) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00

based on 300 sessions

75% (01:07) correct 25% (01:33) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00

based on 305 sessions

52% (01:09) correct 48% (01:16) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00

based on 284 sessions

51% (01:43) correct 49% (01:36) wrong

### HideShow timer Statistics

The concept of difference feminism, proposed by psychologist Carol Gilligan and criticized by many, holds that men and women have genuine differences that need not all be considered equal. What’s most enraging, aptly so, to the critics of Gilligan is the idea proposed by her in her book In a Different Voice that women have their own special version of morality rooted in relationships and caring rather than the supposedly abstract notions of justice and equity.

But however regressive her ideas were, Gilligan’s views garnered popularity and admiration in the writings of many others; lesser-known imitations of her book include Nell Noddings’ Caring, Sara Ruddick’s Maternal Thinking, and Belenky, Clunchy, Golberger and Tarule’s Women’s way of Knowing.In fact Women’s way of Knowing, a book based on the responses gathered from 135 women interviewees, goes so far as to claim that women are not comfortable with argumentation and disagreement and that they have a distinct approach to knowledge, one that underlines collaboration, consensus, and mutual understanding.

The findings of the book have rightly been challenged by critics who point out that the responses elicited from the interviewees were not fully uncontaminated as these women were told the topic of the study in advance. However, irrespective of the authenticity of the findings of studies that confirm the ideas propagated in books such as In a Different Voice and Women’s way of Knowing, the conclusions drawn by the authors of these books are unwarranted. If the idea that women prefer to avoid disagreement and to promote understanding and acceptance over judgment and assessment had been true, there would have been clear and loud demands from women to change the basic nature of education provided to them as clearly the whole point of critical thinking, which forms an integral part of the education system, is to know what to accept and what to reject by assessment and judgment.

1. The author is primarily concerned with
A. To discuss the various merits and demerits of a particular view on women in general.
B. To evaluate the relevance of a proposed theory in the modern world.
C. To objectively describe a commonality among the works of certain authors.
D. To advocate a line of reasoning that is counter to a proposed old-fashioned idea.
E. To criticize a line of thought deemed evidence-less.
A.Incorrect: Out of Scope
The author is very critical in his/her take on the views expressed by the various authors discussed in the passage. There is no mention of any merits of such views.
B. Incorrect: Out of Scope
There is no mention of a single proposed theory. The author does discuss, however, how the views expressed don't reflect the mindset of the women, but there is no way to determine whether these women are set in the modern world.
C. Incorrect: Inconsistent
The author has sided with the critics of the views expressed by different authors/in different books mentioned in the passage. Also the word "described" does not encapsulate the discussion the author holds on these views. Hence, we cannot say that the author has objectively described anything.
D. Incorrect: Out of Scope
Even when the author discusses how the ideas expressed in the two books (mentioned in the third paragraph) are baseless, he/she does not propose any line of reasoning that is opposite to any idea mentioned in the passage. All the author does is question the basis of such views.
E. Correct
This is indeed consistent with the overall tone and nature of comments made by the author in the entire passage. The author criticizes the views expressed by Gilligan and those expressed in a book considered by the author inspired by Gilligan's views.

2. Which of the following statements can be derived from the passage?
A. Women have a way of acquiring knowledge that is unique to them.
B. In order to obtain unbiased responses, the participants of a study should not have prior awareness of the subject of the study.
C. Critical thinking is the most central aspect of the education system.
D. Books such as Nodding's Caring are regressive because they are unoriginal in nature.
E. It has been easy for women to voice their demands and opinions when they have felt the need to do so.

A.Incorrect: Out of Scope
Although the authors of Women's Way of knowing hold the view expressed in this choice, the author does not. Since this is an inference question, the correct answer has to be a view expressed by the author. If another party's view is to be expressed, it has to be qualified appropriately. Accordingly, had the answer choice been "Some people think that women have a way of acquiring knowledge that is unique to them", it would have been correct.
B.Correct
The author agrees with the critics of Women's way of Knowing who challenge that the findings are not fully uncontaminated, i.e. they are contaminated to some extent since the interviewees were told the topic of the study in advance. Hence, one can infer that the author would agree with the statement given in this choice.
C. Incorrect: Inconsistent
The author does mention in the last sentence of the passage that critical thinking is an integral part of the education; however, on the basis of the same, we cannot infer that it is the most integral part.
D. Incorrect: Inconsistent
Even though the author does imply that these books are regressive, it is not because these books are copies in general; it's because these books are imitations of ideas that the author considers regressive.
E. Incorrect: Out of Context
The topic of women voicing their demands is mentioned in the final paragraph; however, the author does not comment on the feasibility of the same.

3. Which of the following is the function of the second paragraph in the passage?
A. To raise a consideration that is in the opposite direction to the information given in the preceding paragraph.
B. To criticize the regressive thinking expressed by Gilligan and her followers.
C. To suggest that regressive ideas about women's individuality become popular despite any merits in them.
D.To mention the influence a particular author's views had on various other writers while using one book as an example.
E. To discuss the writings of various authors inspired by a particular writer's views.
A. Incorrect: Inconsistent
The author does raise a consideration that even though Gilligan's views were regressive, they were quite popular; however, this consideration is not in the opposite direction to the thoughts/discussion in the preceding paragraph.
B. Incorrect: Out of Scope
Although the author’s overall purpose in writing the passage is to do so, in the second paragraph, the author doesn’t criticize the views at all. Hence, it is out of scope for the second paragraph.
C. Incorrect: Out of Scope
This is a generalized statement that is not supported by the passage. The passage contents are really specific and do not make an effort to discuss any trend in general.
D. Correct
The author mentions how Gilligan's views inspired a spate of authors and uses the example of Women's way of Knowing to illustrate the same. Hence, this indeed is the correct choice.
E.Incorrect: Inconsistent
Even though this part of the answer choice is correct "inspired by a particular writer's view", the author never discusses (instead mentions) the writings of various authors.

4. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?
A. Many people who criticize Gilligan's concept of difference feminism are more enraged by her take on women's idea of morality than by any idea in Women's Way of Knowing.
B. The findings of Women's Way of Knowing were deliberately contaminated by the writers of the book.
C. The process of evaluating and forming an opinion forms the basis for thinking critically.
D. Both In a Different Voice and Women's way of Knowing are based on studies that are somewhat contaminated.
E. The 135 women interviewees who contributed to Women's Way of Knowing were aware of how their opinions could be construed as regressive.

A.Incorrect: Out of Scope
Although the author does mention that what most infuriates the critics of Gilligan is her view that women have their own special version of morality rooted in relationships and caring rather than the supposedly abstract notions of justice and equity, there is no such comparison given for critics' take on the views expressed in the two books.
B.Incorrect: Out of Scope
In the final paragraph, the author does agree with the critics that the findings were not contamination-free but nowhere does he/she make the allegation that it was a deliberate effort to do so.
C. Correct
This information is explicitly stated in the final sentence of the passage: ... the whole point of critical thinking...is to know what to accept and what to reject by assessment and judgment.
D. Incorrect: Inconsistent
The author definitely agrees that the findings of Women’s way of Knowing are contaminated but doesn’t hold the same opinion about In a Different Voice. What the author says in the final paragraph is that even if we don’t take the authenticity of the findings in to account, the conclusions drawn by the authors are not justified.
E. Incorrect: Out of Scope
The only information we get to know about these women is that they knew the topic of the study prior to be interviewed. Nowhere does the author mention that they were aware of how their views were going to be perceived.

_________________

When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
+1 Kudos if you find this post helpful

MBA Section Director
Affiliations: GMATClub
Joined: 22 May 2017
Posts: 2091
Concentration: Nonprofit
GPA: 4
WE: Engineering (Computer Software)
Re: The concept of difference feminism, proposed by  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

08 Sep 2018, 20:58
6
1. The author is primarily concerned with

A. To discuss the various merits and demerits of a particular view on women in general.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The author is very critical in his/her take on the views expressed by the various authors discussed in the passage. There is no mention of any merits of such views.

B. To evaluate the relevance of a proposed theory in the modern world.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. There is no mention of a single proposed theory. The author does discuss, however, how the views expressed don't reflect the mindset of the women, but there is no way to determine whether these women are set in the modern world.

C. To objectively describe a commonality among the works of certain authors.

Incorrect: Inconsistent. The author has sided with the critics of the views expressed by different authors/in different books mentioned in the passage. Also the word "described" does not encapsulate the discussion the author holds on these views. Hence, we cannot say that the author has objectively described anything.

D. To advocate a line of reasoning that is counter to a proposed old-fashioned idea.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. Even when the author discusses how the ideas expressed in the two books (mentioned in the third paragraph) are baseless, he/she does not propose any line of reasoning that is opposite to any idea mentioned in the passage. All the author does is question the basis of such views.

E. To criticize a line of thought deemed evidence-less.

Correct. This is indeed consistent with the overall tone and nature of comments made by the author in the entire passage. The author criticizes the views expressed by Gilligan and those expressed in a book considered by the author inspired by Gilligan's views.

2. Which of the following statements can be derived from the passage?

A. Women have a way of acquiring knowledge that is unique to them.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. Although the authors of Women's Way of knowing hold the view expressed in this choice, the author does not. Since this is an inference question, the correct answer has to be a view expressed by the author. If another party's view is to be expressed, it has to be qualified appropriately. Accordingly, had the answer choice been "Some people think that women have a way of acquiring knowledge that is unique to them", it would have been correct.

B. In order to obtain unbiased responses, the participants of a study should not have prior awareness of the subject of the study.

Correct. The author agrees with the critics of Women's way of Knowing who challenge that the findings are not fully uncontaminated, i.e. they are contaminated to some extent since the interviewees were told the topic of the study in advance. Hence, one can infer that the author would agree with the statement given in this choice.

C. Critical thinking is the most central aspect of the education system.

Incorrect: Inconsistent. The author does mention in the last sentence of the passage that critical thinking is an integral part of the education; however, on the basis of the same, we cannot infer that it is the most integral part.

D. Books such as Nodding's Caring are regressive because they are unoriginal in nature.

Incorrect: Inconsistent. Even though the author does imply that these books are regressive, it is not because these books are copies in general; it's because these books are imitations of ideas that the author considers regressive.

E. It has been easy for women to voice their demands and opinions when they have felt the need to do so.

Incorrect: Out of Context. The topic of women voicing their demands is mentioned in the final paragraph; however, the author does not comment on the feasibility of the same.

3. Which of the following is the function of the second paragraph in the passage?

A. To raise a consideration that is in the opposite direction to the information given in the preceding paragraph.

Incorrect: Inconsistent. The author does raise a consideration that even though Gilligan's views were regressive, they were quite popular; however, this consideration is not in the opposite direction to the thoughts/discussion in the preceding paragraph.

B. To criticize the regressive thinking expressed by Gilligan and her followers.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. Although the author’s overall purpose in writing the passage is to do so, in the second paragraph, the author doesn’t criticize the views at all. Hence, it is out of scope for the second paragraph.

C. To suggest that regressive ideas about women's individuality become popular despite any merits in them.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. This is a generalized statement that is not supported by the passage. The passage contents are really specific and do not make an effort to discuss any trend in general.

D.To mention the influence a particular author's views had on various other writers while using one book as an example.

Correct. The author mentions how Gilligan's views inspired a spate of authors and uses the example of Women's way of Knowing to illustrate the same. Hence, this indeed is the correct choice.

E. To discuss the writings of various authors inspired by a particular writer's views.

Incorrect: Inconsistent. Even though this part of the answer choice is correct "inspired by a particular writer's view", the author never discusses (instead mentions) the writings of various authors.

4. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?

A. Many people who criticize Gilligan's concept of difference feminism are more enraged by her take on women's idea of morality than by any idea in Women's Way of Knowing.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. Although the author does mention that what most infuriates the critics of Gilligan is her view that women have their own special version of morality rooted in relationships and caring rather than the supposedly abstract notions of justice and equity, there is no such comparison given for critics' take on the views expressed in the two books.

B. The findings of Women's Way of Knowing were deliberately contaminated by the writers of the book.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. In the final paragraph, the author does agree with the critics that the findings were not contamination-free but nowhere does he/she make the allegation that it was a deliberate effort to do so.

C. The process of evaluating and forming an opinion forms the basis for thinking critically.

Correct. This information is explicitly stated in the final sentence of the passage: ... the whole point of critical thinking...is to know what to accept and what to reject by assessment and judgment.

D. Both In a Different Voice and Women's way of Knowing are based on studies that are somewhat contaminated.

Incorrect: Inconsistent. The author definitely agrees that the findings of Women’s way of Knowing are contaminated but doesn’t hold the same opinion about In a Different Voice. What the author says in the final paragraph is that even if we don’t take the authenticity of the findings in to account, the conclusions drawn by the authors are not justified.

E. The 135 women interviewees who contributed to Women's Way of Knowing were aware of how their opinions could be construed as regressive.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The only information we get to know about these women is that they knew the topic of the study prior to be interviewed. Nowhere does the author mention that they were aware of how their views were going to be perceived.
_________________
##### General Discussion
VP
Status: It's near - I can see.
Joined: 13 Apr 2013
Posts: 1393
Location: India
GMAT 1: 480 Q38 V22
GPA: 3.01
WE: Engineering (Real Estate)
Re: The concept of difference feminism, proposed by  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

19 Jun 2018, 09:12
9:52 including 5:03 minutes to read the passage .

Got the last one wrong.
_________________

"Do not watch clock; Do what it does. KEEP GOING."

Manager
Joined: 13 Aug 2018
Posts: 63
Re: The concept of difference feminism, proposed by  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

08 Sep 2018, 20:32
Got the first question wrong. I picked D over E while able to eliminate other answers. I eliminated E because of the fact that there are evidences given, but it was just that the authenticity of the evidence was a problem. How did you guys pick E? Where did you get the clue from? Please help.

Thanks
Intern
Joined: 20 Jan 2018
Posts: 22
Re: The concept of difference feminism, proposed by  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

18 Sep 2018, 18:14
workout For answer of 1st question, while reading the passage i could not get from the tone of the author that he is criticizing a line of thought. In the passage author keeps referring to the critics whenever any discussion comes up of criticizing anything. Can you please quote some lines from the passage which gives an idea that the author himself is criticizing??
Manager
Joined: 20 Apr 2018
Posts: 175
Concentration: Technology, Nonprofit
WE: Analyst (Non-Profit and Government)
Re: The concept of difference feminism, proposed by  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

20 Sep 2018, 07:06
2
MG1105 wrote:
workout For answer of 1st question, while reading the passage i could not get from the tone of the author that he is criticizing a line of thought. In the passage author keeps referring to the critics whenever any discussion comes up of criticizing anything. Can you please quote some lines from the passage which gives an idea that the author himself is criticizing??

MG1105

The findings of the book have rightly been challenged by critics who point out that the responses elicited from the interviewees were not fully uncontaminated as these women were told the topic of the study in advance. However, irrespective of the authenticity of the findings of studies that confirm the ideas propagated in books such as In a Different Voice and Women’s way of Knowing, the conclusions drawn by the authors of these books are unwarranted. If the idea that women prefer to avoid disagreement and to promote understanding and acceptance over judgment and assessment had been true, there would have been clear and loud demands from women to change the basic nature of education provided to them as clearly the whole point of critical thinking, which forms an integral part of the education system, is to know what to accept and what to reject by assessment and judgment.

the highlighted parts are the author being critical. The italicized part is support for his conclusion in blue. Hope it helps
Intern
Joined: 26 Jan 2018
Posts: 2
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Re: The concept of difference feminism, proposed by  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

26 Sep 2018, 04:36
Took 7.5 min but got last wrong
Intern
Joined: 11 Sep 2017
Posts: 32
GMAT 1: 740 Q50 V40
Re: The concept of difference feminism, proposed by  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Sep 2018, 03:12
@gmatninja@mikemcgarry
For question no.3, i understand that option e goes in the right line of reasoning.
However, can the experts pl explain how option a is not correct answer.
In the first paragraph it has been said that the views have been criticised by many.
And in second para it has been said that their are few people who admire the views. Hence both views look to be going in opposite direction
Intern
Joined: 20 Jan 2018
Posts: 22
The concept of difference feminism, proposed by  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 Oct 2018, 18:10
sandman13 wrote:
MG1105 wrote:
workout For answer of 1st question, while reading the passage i could not get from the tone of the author that he is criticizing a line of thought. In the passage author keeps referring to the critics whenever any discussion comes up of criticizing anything. Can you please quote some lines from the passage which gives an idea that the author himself is criticizing??

MG1105

The findings of the book have rightly been challenged by critics who point out that the responses elicited from the interviewees were not fully uncontaminated as these women were told the topic of the study in advance. However, irrespective of the authenticity of the findings of studies that confirm the ideas propagated in books such as In a Different Voice and Women’s way of Knowing, the conclusions drawn by the authors of these books are unwarranted. If the idea that women prefer to avoid disagreement and to promote understanding and acceptance over judgment and assessment had been true, there would have been clear and loud demands from women to change the basic nature of education provided to them as clearly the whole point of critical thinking, which forms an integral part of the education system, is to know what to accept and what to reject by assessment and judgment.

the highlighted parts are the author being critical. The italicized part is support for his conclusion in blue. Hope it helps

Thanks sandman13. It's clear now.
Director
Joined: 20 Sep 2016
Posts: 582
Re: The concept of difference feminism, proposed by  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

03 Oct 2018, 21:21
for q1 - E. To criticize a line of thought deemed evidence-less.

please someone explain, the bold part. where has the auth mentioned the line of thot is evidence less.If he refersto the book being criticized in last para, then there is evidence ,though not accurate.

2. which line of thot is he referring to? if its the one from 1st para then please explain the opposing view where the author deems that thot evidence less. He mentions critics POV which itself doesnt argue for evidence. chetan2u @sayatanc2k egmat
Re: The concept of difference feminism, proposed by   [#permalink] 03 Oct 2018, 21:21
Display posts from previous: Sort by