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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
AbdurRakib wrote:
GMAT® Official Guide 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 707
Page: 687

The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

(A) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974

(B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974

(C) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when first introduced in 1974

(D) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974

(E) bar codes have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974

Universal Product Code

(A) Subject-Verb (have); Pronoun (it)

(B) Pronoun (they)

(C) Subject-Verb (have)

(D) CORRECT

(E) Pronoun (it)


First glance

Most of the answers begin with either have or has; find the Subject to determine whether the Verb should be singular or plural.

Issues

(1) Subject-Verb: have

Check the subject-verb pairings for all of the answer choices. Answers (A) and (C) both say the use of the bar code … have become readily accepted. Use is singular and have is plural, so eliminate choices (A) and (C) for a bad subject-verb match.

Answers (B) and (D) both correctly use the use … has become. Answer (E) changes the form to insert a new, plural subject for the final, plural verb: bar codes have. Keep these choices in.

(2) Pronoun: it; they

The it pronoun in the original sentence does match the singular bar code, but there’s still a difficulty. It is a subject pronoun, so the first expectation is to check the subject earlier in the sentence to see whether that subject is the antecedent for the pronoun. In this case, the subject is use. But the use was not first introduced in 1974. Rather, the bar code was. This potential ambiguity is enough to give answer (A) a question mark, though the test will likely give you a stronger reason to eliminate this answer (in this case, that’s the subject-verb mismatch).

Answer (B) uses the pronoun they in the same position. Use, bar code, and Universal Product Code are all singular; none can match with the plural pronoun they.

Answer (E) introduces a new plural subject, bar codes, but then pairs that with the singular pronoun it. In this case, the sentence should use they; eliminate (E) for a faulty pronoun match.

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (D) pairs the singular verb has become with the singular subject use. It avoids the pronoun issue entirely by repeating the words bar code rather than using a pronoun.


Meaning is crucial to solving this problem:
Understanding the intended meaning is key to solving this question; the intended meaning of the crucial part of this sentence is that the use of the bar code has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974.

Concepts tested here: Subject-Verb Agreement + Pronouns + Grammatical Construction

• If a list has only two elements, they must be joined by a conjunction.
• Semicolons or "comma + conjunction" are used for introducing an independent clause.

A: This answer choice incorrectly refers to the singular noun phrase "The use of the bar code" with the plural verb phrase "have become readily accepted".

B: This answer choice suffers from a pronoun error, as the pronoun "they" lacks a clear and logical referent.

C: This answer choice incorrectly refers to the singular noun phrase "The use of the bar code" with the plural verb phrase "have become readily accepted".

D: Correct. This answer choice correctly refers to the singular noun phrase "The use of the bar code" with the singular verb phrase "has become readily accepted". Further, Option D avoids the pronoun error seen in Option B, as it uses no pronouns. Moreover, Option D uses the clause "The use of the bar code...has been readily accepted", conveying the intended meaning - that the practice of using bar codes has become readily accepted. Additionally, Option D correctly uses conjunction ("and" in this sentence) to join two elements in a list - the verb phrases "has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets" and "has become readily accepted...1974"; remember, if a list has only two elements, they must be joined by a conjunction.

E: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the clause "bar codes have become readily accepted"; the construction of this clause incorrectly implies that bar codes, themselves, have become readily accepted; the intended meaning is that the practice of using bar codes has become readily accepted. Further, Option E incorrectly uses conjunction ("and" in this case) to join the independent clauses "The use of the bar code...has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets" and "bar codes have become readily accepted...1974"; please remember, semicolons or "comma + conjunction" are used for introducing an independent clause.

Hence, D is the best answer choice.

All the best!
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AbdurRakib wrote:
The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

A) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974
B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974
C) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when first introduced in 1974
D) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974
E) bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974

OG 2017 New Question


D is the correct answer
no SVA, pronoun ambiguity
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AbdurRakib wrote:
The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

A) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974
B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974
C) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when first introduced in 1974
D) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974
E) bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974

OG 2017 New Question


The use of barcode has expanded and has become readily accepted. 'Has' is required to maintain parallelism and SV agreement. A, C and E are out.

B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974 . Barcode is singular, and its not clear what 'they' is referring to.

Choice 'D' is the right answer
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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
shashanksagar wrote:
CounterSniper wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

A) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974
B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974
C) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when first introduced in 1974
D) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974
E) bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974

OG 2017 New Question


D is the correct answer
no SVA, pronoun ambiguity


In my Opinion, the issue with E not only lies with use of 'Bar codes' again, but also with use of 'it' to refer to plural 'bar codes' that is introduced after and.


Right !!

But as soon as I find an error I am sure of ... I move on !!
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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
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AbdurRakib wrote:
The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

A) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974
B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974
C) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when first introduced in 1974
D) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974
E) bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974

Missing comma, 2 ICs should be connected with comma + FANBOYS
OG 2017 New Question


Please tag me, if u find any other error
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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
The use of the barcode, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

A) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974
B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974
C) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when first introduced in 1974
D) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974
E) bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974
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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
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Can someone explain why E is wrong. It appeared to me that "bar code become more accepted" makes more sense than "use of bar code become more accepted" !!

However, that also changes the intended meaning. Otherwise D.
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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
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RudraM wrote:
Can someone explain why E is wrong. It appeared to me that "bar code become more accepted" makes more sense than "use of bar code become more accepted" !!

However, that also changes the intended meaning. Otherwise D.


Correct answer must be (D) , for correct Pronoun usage ...

The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974.

Exploring option (E)

The use of the barcode, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

Check carefully, option (E) has Pronoun Antecedent error as highlighted above...
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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
Abhishek009 wrote:
RudraM wrote:
Can someone explain why E is wrong. It appeared to me that "bar code become more accepted" makes more sense than "use of bar code become more accepted" !!

However, that also changes the intended meaning. Otherwise D.


Correct answer must be (D) , for correct Pronoun usage ...

The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974.

Exploring option (E)

The use of the barcode, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.




Check carefully, option (E) has Pronoun Antecedent error as highlighted above...






Yes ...... That right. Choice E has a Pronoun error. I missed it. My bad :cry:
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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
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Abhishek009 wrote:
RudraM wrote:
Can someone explain why E is wrong. It appeared to me that "bar code become more accepted" makes more sense than "use of bar code become more accepted" !!

However, that also changes the intended meaning. Otherwise D.


Correct answer must be (D) , for correct Pronoun usage ...

The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974.

Exploring option (E)

The use of the barcode, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

Check carefully, option (E) has Pronoun Antecedent error as highlighted above...



Hi experts and GMATNinja

Option D is the best choice but is this construction correct:

The use of bar code has become readily accepted.............

The subject 'use' does not really makes sense as it won't be correct to say that 'use' has become readily accepted.

I assume that 'use' is the subject of both the verbs because the two verbs 'has expanded' and 'has become' are connected using 'and'.


Please explain if this understanding is correct or not?


Thanks
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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
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I have the same doubt as Shiv 2016 above
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The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

A) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974 - Subject-verb agreement issue
B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974 - plural pronoun “they” refers to singular “bar code”
C) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when first introduced in 1974 - Subject-verb agreement issue
D) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974 - Correct
E) bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974 - use of singular pronoun “it” is incorrect since this option uses plural “bar codes” ; also we need , and to connect two independent clauses

Answer D
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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

The use of the bar code did 2 things:

has expanded
and
has become readily accepted

"The use" is singular; therefore, "has" is required.
"has expanded ... and has accepted" also demonstrates correct parallelism.



A) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974
B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974
C) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when first introduced in 1974
D) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974
E) bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974
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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
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Quote:
The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.


Apart from other issues, major elimination may happen on the basis of S-V agreement.
The parallelism is on the basis of Universal Product Code, hence "have" being a plural verb form, doesn't go with it.
A, C and E go out.

Quote:
(A) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974

Pronoun Ambiguity: What does it refer to? Opposition or bar code?

Quote:
(B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974

What does They refer to? Logical referent should be "either bar code, or Universal Product Code", but "bar code, or Universal Product Code" is singular.
Also they seem to refer to opposition here.

(C) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when first introduced in 1974

Quote:
(D) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974

Tense :thumbup:
No Pronoun ambiguity. :thumbup:
Best Choice :grin:

Quote:
(E) bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974

There isn't any need to mention BAR CODES, destroys parallelism....
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, to find the correct option! Before we dive in, here is the original question with any major differences highlighted in orange:

The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

(A) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974
(B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974
(C) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when first introduced in 1974
(D) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974
(E) bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974

After a quick glance over each option, a couple major differences jump out at us:

1. have become vs. has become (verb tense)
2. it/they/the bar code (pronoun-antecedent agreement)


Let's start with #1 on our list, which is choosing the right verb tense. If we look at the original sentence, we see that there are two things that bar codes did for supermarkets:

The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

Whenever we're talking about two characteristics, properties, items, etc. they MUST use parallel structure and consistent verb tenses! Since the first part uses "has expanded," we need to use the same wording (has + verb) to match. Let's see how each option stacks up:

(A) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974
(B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974
(C) have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when first introduced in 1974
(D) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974
(E) bar codes have become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974

We can eliminate options A, C, and E because they don't uses consistent verb tense/wording for both phrases.

Now that we're only left with 2 options, let's tackle #2 on our list: pronouns! Whenever we're dealing with pronouns, we must make sure the pronouns are clear and refer back to the right antecedent. Let's see how each option handles this:

(B) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were first introduced in 1974

This option is INCORRECT because it's not 100% clear what "they" is referring to: bar codes, supermarkets, retail outlets, customers, etc? Since the writer didn't make it absolutely clear, we can rule this one out.

(D) has become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was first introduced in 1974

This is CORRECT because the writer makes it absolutely clear that bar codes were introduced in 1974, and nothing else! When you have so many nouns that a pronoun could refer back to, sometimes it's best to just repeat the antecedent instead of replacing it with a pronoun. It also uses consistent wording/verb tense throughout.

There you have it - option D is the best choice!


Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.

Originally posted by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 18 Oct 2018, 11:59.
Last edited by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 13 Mar 2019, 14:38, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
The use of the bar code (singular) , or Universal Product Code, which was created in part to enable supermarkets to process customers at a faster rate, has expanded beyond supermarkets to other retail outlets and have become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974.

(A) have (plural) become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when it was first introduced in 1974

(B) has (singular) become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when they were (plural) first introduced in 1974

(C) have (plural) become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when first introduced in 1974

(D) has (singular) become readily accepted despite some initial opposition when the bar code was (singular) first introduced in 1974

(E) bar codes have (change to plural - ok) become readily accepted despite initial opposition when it was (shift back to singular) first introduced in 1974

Only D correctly uses subject-verb agreement throughout.
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Re: The use of the bar code, or Universal Product Code, which was created [#permalink]
It is agreed that Option D is best.

My only query is whether repetition of 'has' after 'and' is required. I think first 'has' is sufficient.

Experts can advise.
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