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Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2012

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 10
Page: 659

Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.

(A) which kept
(B) that keeps
(C) which has kept
(D) that has been keeping
(E) having kept

[Reveal] Spoiler:
If which keeps was an option would you choose it ?
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This is a question that tests knowledge of restrictive vs. non-restrictive clauses.

Check this link out...Know this stuff cold...like in your sleep :)

http://grammartips.homestead.com/nonres ... ommas.html

Hope it helps....
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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink]

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tracyyahoo wrote:
10. Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept
b) that keeps
c) which has kept
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept

why c is not correct. I think C is more acceptable.


Hi Tracyyahoo,

Try to avoid use of Perfect tense unless we don't have any other option as correct answer.
For sake of understanding,
We use present perfect tense for two purpose
1. To show that any action is continuous from past and still in active status or if action is over at least its effect is there.
2. To show the sequence of events.
Here whatever is coming after "heat-exchange network" is describing/modifying only "heat-exchange network ". Now if we will use perfect tense then the sentence will be like below.
heat-exchange network which has kept the brain from getting too hot.
So here we don't have sequence of events, no action which should have completed till now or any effect" so use is wrong.

Anyway for regular thing we use simple tense, that is option B.

KISS = "Keep it simple Sir"


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A few things to watch out for:

Which vs. That

The sentence is describing a special 'heat-exchange network' not all 'heat-exchange networks.' In the latter case, we would use 'which.' A heat-exchange network, which is found in both nature and computing, has many practical advantages. However, in this sentence we are not describing all 'heat-exchange networks' only the one relating to carnivorous animals. Thus, we use 'that.'

Another tip off: there is no comma between 'which' and the noun it is modifying. Used in this manner 'which' must always be separated from the subject it is modifying by a comma. 'That', on other hand, does not take a comma.

Present Tense vs. Perfect Tense

The present tense is used to describe an unchanging characteristic of something:

1) Running several miles each day burns many calories vs. Running several miles each day is burning many calories.

2) The sloth is a mammal known to move with more deliberation than the most circumspect of snails vs. The sloth has been a mammal known to move with more deliberation than the most circumspect of snails.


Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept
b) that keeps
c) which has kept
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept

Hope that helps :)
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New post 14 Sep 2012, 05:35
@ ChrisLele: please explain the which vs that point again. I remember something about using "that" for a restrictive clause and "which" for everything else. So "that" should be used for referring to something specific and removing the part of the sentence following "that" will change its meaning. However, "which" is used for an unrestrictive clause and can refer to anything in general and removing the phrase following "which" wont change the meaning. In a sense, "Which" is used to state qualities or qualifiers.
eg. Trips that take longer than 2 hours are discouraged by the office. Vs. Trips, which can take as long as ten hours, are discouraged by the office. Is this correct?
vs

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iindi wrote:
@ ChrisLele: please explain the which vs that point again. I remember something about using "that" for a restrictive clause and "which" for everything else. So "that" should be used for referring to something specific and removing the part of the sentence following "that" will change its meaning. However, "which" is used for an unrestrictive clause and can refer to anything in general and removing the phrase following "which" wont change the meaning. In a sense, "Which" is used to state qualities or qualifiers.
eg. Trips that take longer than 2 hours are discouraged by the office. Vs. Trips, which can take as long as ten hours, are discouraged by the office. Is this correct?
vs


To my understanding, The basic difference b/w usage of "Which and that" is ,
Which is used with non essential Modifiers, for instance, This Car, which is painted red, is mine,

where as

That is used with a essential modifiers, for instance, The car that is painted red is mine.

Here in the question usage of That is justifiable based on the above mention rule.

Thanks :-D

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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink]

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Use THAT when you are restricting the scope of what you're talking about.
Use WHICH when you define, or generally describe what you're talking about.

In this case, the sentence is describing a particular type of heat-exchange network so you use THAT.

More details here:



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New post 17 Jul 2013, 04:03
GMAT Tips:
1.Almost always comma is placed before "which". if not then almost it is incorrect.
2.Comma is placed before "which" because which introduces non-restrictive clause..in laymen language---> after "which" extra information follows.
by applying this knowledge Option A & C is out since comma is not placed before "which"

since current situation is discussed so verb should in present tense.clearly verb keeping(in option D) and kept(in option E) are wrong.
hence this POE left with choice B as a correct answer!!
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New post 06 Mar 2014, 19:20
gmatter0913
It's not only "that" vs "which", the lack of comma before the clause suggests that we should use "that" since it is essential modifier.

No comma before "THAT", but comma before "WHICH"

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New post 07 Mar 2014, 02:45
It is not necessarily true that "which" is always preceded by "comma". Understand that "which" always refers to non-essential clause. Here "keeps the brain from getting too hot" is an essential clause making it clear that because of this "Carnivorous mammals can endure". So usage of "that" should be preferred.

Hope this clears the ambiguity. :-D

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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink]

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New post 12 Mar 2014, 10:44
The explanation for Q10 in the official guide suggests that the GMAT prefers "that" for use with a restrictive clause, but mentions that insistence on the rule is controversial. I've also seen other official questions in which "which" was used with a restrictive clause (without the comma).

But I doubt that the GMAT would include "that" and "which" in future questions with no other grounds to choose between them. :)
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New post 12 Mar 2014, 11:20
Agreed - I would be surprised to see the GMAT continue with a problem like this on the real test.

It may be helpful for the forum to see some of your OG examples of "which" in restrictive uses without the comma. Can you share those?

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New post 12 Mar 2014, 19:44
In q10 of the OG, note that two options use which. Both the options make crucial tense errors.

Similarly, in Q92 of the Verbal Review (second edition), three options use which with a restrictive clause. Those options contain crucial errors (missing a definite article, using cycles to refer to the life cycle of a single parasite, ambiguous pronoun references). The explanation doesn't call out the use of which with a restrictive clause. If it had been an important distinction, they would have mentioned it.

It's possible that the explanations aren't written by the same team that framed the questions. But even so, the inclusion of which without the comma in three of the five options suggests (to me, anyway) that the GMAT doesn't seem to consider the distinction important. I am fairly certain that the GMAT won't make this the primary error in any question.

If it does do that, then we are in trouble. :)
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I agree...based on the "controversial" wording of the explanations I don't think we will see any "which" vs. "that" questions in the future. It is interesting that the uses of "which" with a restrictive clause (no comma) all have other fatal flaws. Perhaps that is the GMAT's way of warming people up to that new usage of "which", but I really would be surprised to see "which" used correctly with a restrictive clause. The GMAT is always changing, so only time will tell...

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New post 07 Apr 2016, 06:27
tracyyahoo wrote:
Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
a) which kept
b) that keeps
c) which has kept
d) that has been keeping
e) having kept


Meaning:The sentence is stating a simple fact about carnivorous mammals that their body can endure very high heat levels ( such heat levels could be lethal for other animals). The sentence further say that these mammals can do so because they have a heat-exchange network that keeps the brain from getting too hot.

Note: tense is checked here not the which vs that concept

a) kept is past tense which is suggesting that the way heat-exchange network worked is no more valid today. it used to work like this.
c) perfect tense is required if something is started in the past and is still continuing but the sentence is a fact which need a simple present tense.
d) same as C. we need simple present
e) simple present is required to state facts.

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rhine29388 wrote:
can i get some more examples (a bit tough ones) on the use of which vs that?


Clauses beginning with relative pronoun which are usually non-restrictive and are always enclosed within commas. For instance,

It's my dream to study in your college, which is ranked as India's best engineering college.

Here "which is India's best ranked engineering college" is a non-restrictive clause as it is just providing additional information. Here possessive pronoun "your" before college makes it clear that we are talking about a particular college which happens to be India's best engineering college. So even if you remove the non-restrictive college we still know that college here is referring to a particular college i.e. "your college".

Clauses beginning with relative pronoun that are restrictive and should not enclosed within commas For instance,

It's my dream to study in a college that is ranked as India's best engineering college.

Here restrictive clause "that is ranked as India's best engineering college" is qualifying college. So if you ask which college is the dream college referred here, the you can only answer this with the information in the restrictive clause. If you remove the restrictive clause then it will completely change the meaning as you do not know anymore which particular college is "the dream college" referred here.

Hope it helps.
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New post 21 Oct 2016, 00:16
hi experts
appreciate if further explain the "having" in E, I am confused that when "having" is correct

I have some office problems which include "having" in options.

#51 OG 16
Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.
(A) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are
(B) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are -- CORRECT
(C) Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are
(D) Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,
(E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,


#108 OG 16
As rainfall began to decrease in the Southwest about the middle of the twelfth century, most of the Monument Valley Anasazi abandoned their homes to join other clans whose access to water was less limited.
(A) whose access to water was less limited
(B) where there was access to water that was less limited
(C) where they had less limited water access
(D) with less limitations on water access
(E) having less limitations to water access -- incorrect

desiring your help

thanks a lot
have a nice day
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New post 23 Oct 2016, 03:59
zoezhuyan wrote:
zoezhuyan wrote:
hi experts
appreciate if further explain the "having" in E, I am confused that when "having" is correct

I have some office problems which include "having" in options.

#51 OG 16
Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are now drawing solid conclusions about how the human brain grows and how babies acquire language.
(A) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood, are
(B) Neuroscientists, having amassed a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are -- CORRECT
(C) Neuroscientists amassing a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood over the past twenty years, and are
(D) Neuroscientists have amassed a wealth of knowledge over the past twenty years about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,
(E) Neuroscientists have amassed, over the past twenty years, a wealth of knowledge about the brain and its development from birth to adulthood,


#108 OG 16
As rainfall began to decrease in the Southwest about the middle of the twelfth century, most of the Monument Valley Anasazi abandoned their homes to join other clans whose access to water was less limited.
(A) whose access to water was less limited
(B) where there was access to water that was less limited
(C) where they had less limited water access
(D) with less limitations on water access
(E) having less limitations to water access -- incorrect

desiring your help

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~


experts,
HELP PLEASE...

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~


"Having" is not the issue in either of the examples you mentioned.

The first is an example of perfect participle: having + past participle: this structure is used to indicate a completed action. The base verb here is "amass", not "have".
Having done my home work, I went to play... correct.


The second example uses "having" directly as a present participle modifier. The base verb is "have". The usage of present participle to refer to a noun touching it is NOT wrong. Option E is not wrong because of the use of "having" - it is wrong because of the faulty use of "water access", which may mean "access by water" rather than "access to water".

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New post 23 Oct 2016, 22:41
sayantanc2k wrote:
"Having" is not the issue in either of the examples you mentioned.

The first is an example of perfect participle: having + past participle: this structure is used to indicate a completed action. The base verb here is "amass", not "have".
Having done my home work, I went to play... correct.


The second example uses "having" directly as a present participle modifier. The base verb is "have". The usage of present participle to refer to a noun touching it is NOT wrong. Option E is not wrong because of the use of "having" - it is wrong because of the faulty use of "water access", which may mean "access by water" rather than "access to water".


thanks sayantanc2k,
would please explain further when "having" is incorrect,
I read one thread once from GMATCLUB forum, the thread says mistaken use of "having",
so embarrassed that I cannot remember explicitly and cannot find the thread at the moment although I tried many times...

my implicit memory is that "having" modifier is totally replaced by other modifier... :oops: :oops: if this poor memory disturb you, please forget it.

that's why I am confused recently.

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~

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Re: Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2017, 05:03
Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.

'Kept' here shows that this is no more a fact and thus does not makes sense.
As this sentence is showing a fact about carnivorous animals, the tense should be present tense 'keeps'.
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