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Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine

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Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of

(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business

(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of

(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business

(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business

Similar Question : LINK 1 & LINK 2 & LINK 3

Choice B, the best answer, uses clear and concise phrasing to state that it is the effects of drug and alcohol abuse that already cost business the sum mentioned.

In A, to business is awkwardly and confusingly inserted between cost and the propositional phrase that modifies it, and are already a cost to business is wordy and awkward compared to cost business.

In C, already with business costs of… is awkward and unclear, failing to specify that those prior effects generate the cost.

Choices D and E produce faulty constructions with the phrase significant in compounding, which cannot grammatically modify the verb form is growing.

https://www.nytimes.com/1988/12/12/business/workers-substance-abuse-is-increasing-survey-says.html

Executives and Federal officials say the use of cocaine and crack is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which cost business more than $100 billion a year.

I got this wrong.... can you please post answers with explanations?
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2012, 14:03
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misan wrote:
Would you please someone explain the reference of "which" in this question?
According to Manhattan SC book,page 91, I though "which" always refers to the noun immediately preceding it. So here "which" should refer to abuse.
Can someone tell me what I'm missing here?

Thank you:)


Hi there,

The correct answer for this question is B. Let's see the senetnce with the correct answer choice now:

Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business more than $100 billion a year.

"which" is a relative pronoun that must refer to a preceding noun entity. This entity can be a single word noun entity or a noun phrase. In this case, "which" modifies the preceding noun entity "the effects of drug and alcohol abuse", a noun phrase. Since "the effects" is the head of this noun phrase, "which" stands for that plural enity and hence takes plural verb "cost".

So Noun Modifiers can refer to a slightly far away noun as we saw in this sentence. To read more on this topic, click on the following link:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Hope this helps. :)
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2009, 13:42
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My answer would be B

According to Manhattan Gmat Sc VAN pattern Adverb is preferred here, thats why Significantly is correct. So D/E is out of the equation.
I thought A and C are redundant so I guess it is B
Please correct me If I am wrong
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Apr 2010, 23:34
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2
IMO B.

Clues:
1. A is wrong as "which already are a cost to business of" is incorrect usage.
2. the effects of drug and alcohol abuse [plural] - COST is required. So, C and E out.
3. D is wrong because initial non-underlined part "the use....is growing" which indicates it requires an adverb to indicate the emphasis and also u can see ", and already costing business" part in the end which add another clause rather than a modified form.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2010, 01:08
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nusmavrik wrote:
I don't get it.


ok i will try. 'which' does refer to a noun immideately preceding it is the genreal rule. but when we use 'of' we are attributing a misssion critical modifier to the subject.
correct: an ice sheet covers 80% of the surface area of greenland, which is an area roughly the size of alaska.

here the 'of clause' is essential to define the 80%. it is as if u r attributing a quality to the subject. something similar to using a possesive case. some thing like 'the strength of hercules' and 'hercule's strength'. both can be referred to by using 'which'. if u do observe, in many questions you can not use posseisive case and the 'of' clause together because it cause redudancy.

micheal's musuc is as famous as rehman's. correct
micheal's music is as famous as that of rehman. correct
micheal's music is as famous as that of reham's. incorrect
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2011, 10:50
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Quote:
Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of
(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business
(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of
(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business
(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business


Answer: B.
'Significantly' vs 'significant' ---> 'significantly' is correct. Eliminates D and E.
A is incorrect because it leaves us confused as to which holds a value of 'more than $100 billion a year' - is it the business? or is it the compounding costs of substance abuse?
C is incorrect as well because it changes the meaning of the statement.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2012, 03:11
Here is what I think:
Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of
"Significantly" is an adverb that modifies the adjective "compounding", which in turn modifies the noun "the effects" - This looks okay. "Which already are a cost" - is correct except that it is wordy. We need a plural verb for "the effects" => The effectS... cost.. XYZ. Note that "costs" is functioning as a noun and not a verb. Final part "... to business of more than $100 billion a year" - If I re-frame the latter half of the sentence - This sounds like => The effects ____ cost to business OF more than $100 billion a year - Here "of more than $100 billion a year" is an adjective phrase telling us more about the "business" instead of telling how the business if affected. However, it should be => The effects ____ cost business more than $100 billion a year - Here the "effects" correctly relates with the "cause".
(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business
Correct. Corrects the error pointed out in option A. More concise.
(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of
In addition to points discussed for option "A". The verb "cost" is now used as a noun "costs. Here "already" (adverb) modifies "business costs", which is a noun
(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business
Significant here modifies "workers" As if the the workers play a significant role in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse. "... and already costing business" This clause makes the sentence looks like ==> Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, (Worker Modifier) non-essential clause, and already costing business. It seems that the executives and federal officials are talking about two problems 1) The use of crack and cocaine... and 2) Saying that the use is costing business. This would have been right if the two clauses were parallel with the use of "that" => and that the use is already costing business more than $100 billion a year.
(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business
As explained in D. Also, the effects would have a plural verb "cost" and not the singular verb "costs"

Please correct me if I'm wrong.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2012, 07:47
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Would you please someone explain the reference of "which" in this question?
According to Manhattan SC book,page 91, I though "which" always refers to the noun immediately preceding it. So here "which" should refer to abuse.
Can someone tell me what I'm missing here?

Thank you:)
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2013, 23:04
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Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of >>> Wrong. Too wordy
(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business >>> Correct. Concise. "The effects" is plural + "cost" --> Correct
(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of >>> Wrong. the use of "with" is unclear.
(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business >>> Wrong. parallel structure is wrong.
(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business >>> Wrong . parallel structure is wrong.

So, B is the best.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2014, 01:16
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Bunuel wrote:

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Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year.

A. significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of
B. significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business
C. significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of
D. significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business
E. significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business


Choice B, the best answer, uses clear and concise phrasing to state that it is the effects of drug and alcohol abuse that already cost business the sum mentioned.

In A, to business is awkwardly and confusingly inserted between cost and the propositional phrase that modifies it, and are already a cost to business is wordy and awkward compared to cost business.

In C, already with business costs of is awkward and unclear, failing to specify that those prior effects generate the cost.

Choices D and E produce faulty constructions with the phrase significant in compounding, which cannot grammatically modify the verb form is growing.

Answer: B.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Dec 2015, 21:19
If you ask yourself how is it growing rapidly? The answer should be by significantly compounding something. So, we need the adverb "significantly". " Which" modifies "effects" and since "effects" is plural the verb is " cost". Hence, the only possible answer is B.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2017, 04:41
Hi,

Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of

(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business

(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of

(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business

(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business

In this sentence I do not understand why (E) is necessary wrong : In my opinion it should mean the following :

Executive say that the use of crack is growing AND already costs ...

"significantly [...] abuse" is just a modifier of "workers" and it is set into commas since is not essential.

Could you please explain what is wrong in this approach ?

Many thanks in advance for your kind help,
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2017, 05:40
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nickimonckom wrote:
Hi,

Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of

(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business

(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of

(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business

(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business

In this sentence I do not understand why (E) is necessary wrong : In my opinion it should mean the following :

Executive say that the use of crack is growing AND already costs ...

"significantly [...] abuse" is just a modifier of "workers" and it is set into commas since is not essential.

Could you please explain what is wrong in this approach ?

Many thanks in advance for your kind help,


Comma + present participle modifier does not refer to the noun it touches, but the entire previous clause or the subject of the previous clause.

Here, the present participle modifier " significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse" refers to the entire clause "the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers" ( the modifier indicates the effect of growing use of crack and cocaine).

In E, the modifier "significant...." is an adjective modifier and hence should ideally touch the noun it refers - this modifier wrongly refers to "workers". Hence E is wrong.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2017, 09:00
119. Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers,
significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of
more than $100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of
(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business
(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of
(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business
(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business

while significantly is modifying the clause before comma,and which is refering to the alcohol abuse.The acohol abuse has caused the business to suffer a loss of 100 billion.

Option B correctly provides correct meaning and references and is the correct answer.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2017, 08:55
119. Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers,
significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of
more than $100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of
a cost to business of ?
wrong.

(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business
Clear meaning and proper modifiers.
(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of
already with business costs of- wrong construction.

(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business
wrong construction.

(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business
wrong construction.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2017, 19:01
Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of

Meaning error : 'Drug & alcohol abuse are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year'
'of' phrase incorrectly modifies business & changes meaning.

(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business

Correct : drug and alcohol abuse cost business some X amount

(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of

Incorrect

(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business

"Significant" adjective can not modify verb 'the use' : incorrect


(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business

"Significant" adjective can not modify verb 'the use' : incorrect
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Sep 2017, 03:21

Very Important To Understand



"..xyz is growing among workers, significantly compounding the effects of .."
Here, the Modifier is the underlined part i.e. the entire clause - "significantly compounding the effects of".
This Modifier is modifying the clause before comma.
The word - "significantly" is Only modifying the clause "compounding the effects of..".



"..xyz is growing among workers, significant in compounding the effects of .."
Here, the Modifier is the underlined part i.e. the word - "significant".
This Modifier is modifying the noun preceding it, NOT the entire clause before comma.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Feb 2018, 02:56
egmat seek clarication here.

1) how does significantly as adverb modified far of verb "use" and not follow touch principle.

2) shouldn't the clause "significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse" act as appositive and hence leave which (noun modifier) without a comma and considered as unacceptable. Which should ideally modify the nearby entities of main clause rather than appositive clause.

Please help me to clear my doubts.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2018, 02:07
D. significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business

Answer seems D.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jun 2018, 04:01
B. significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business
- B is the correct answer.

D changes the meaning of the sentence.

significant after the comma incorrectly modifies workers creating ambiguity.

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