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Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called

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Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2009, 22:33
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61% (01:17) correct 39% (01:42) wrong based on 1705 sessions

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Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,

Comma + which : LINK 1 & LINK 2 & LINK 3

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2012, 07:08
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kuttingchai wrote:
agreed that it refers to substance, but then what is wrong with C or D, is it because it has 2 verbs ???



Hi there,

Let us split choice C into clauses:

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.
• A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
o which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
• (Cont. of Cl. 1) is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

“developed” is not a verb here. It’s a verb-ed modifier. The only verb that clause 1 has is “is finding”. (Click on the following link to learn how to distinguish between a past tense verb and verb-ed modifier: ed-forms-verbs-or-modifiers-134691.html#p1100855)

In choice C, “called proton-induced x-ray emission” has been separated from the entity it should modify – “a technique”. As a result, relative pronoun “which” is now only modifying the preceding noun “proton-induced x-ray emission”. It is not modifying “a technique” anymore. This leads to the modification error in Choice C.

Same is the case with Choice D as well.

Now let’s take a look at the correct Choice A:
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

In this sentence, the opening modifier “developed” is correctly modifying the subject of the preceding clause “a technique”. Now another modifier “called…” is placed just after “a technique”. So here the sentence is really saying:
a technique = proton-induced X-ray emission
“a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission” makes one big noun phrase here and hence, “which” correctly modifies this entire noun phrase, including “a technique”.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2012, 00:12
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(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

CORRECT


(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

The modifier starting with originally is too far from technique. so wrong


(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

Why do you need a comma after pollutants? The initial modifer starting with A technique seems to modify called. wrong


(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,


which has the ability is wordy


(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,

has the ability ?? parallelism problem as well after AND. So, wrong
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2009, 00:22
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Hi,

You can refer to Stacey's discussion here http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/og- ... t1277.html
I found it to be a nice explanation of this problem.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 04 May 2010, 09:21
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but in A, which is modifying emission, and that is incorrect, isnt it?

hi noboru, I was under the same impression that 'which' is modifying 'emission' but that is not correct. "which" in A is correctly modifying "technique" . Actually "called proton-induced X-ray emission" is just a descriptive phrase for "technique" and "which" is modifying the extended noun phrase. Also, "proton-induced X-ray emission" is the name of the technique and the phrase "technique called proton-induced X-ray emission" has to be together and closer to "Originally developed for directing air pollutants".

Hope that makes sense.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2010, 09:19
can anyone help to find out the principal clause and all the subordinate clauses. I think we are missing comma..
Here the principal clause has two verbs.

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a
technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which
can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost
any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in
medicine, archaeology, and criminology.
(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance
without destroying it,
(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission
(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced X-ray emission,
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2010, 02:30
1
(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

- Construction is A has correct modifier
Orginally developed ..., a technique x-ray emission, which...


(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

Construction is C is such that the part called proton-induced x-ray emission has become a sub-ordinate clause which can be supressed. So rewriting the sentence supressing the clause shows that which after comma is redundant

If I were to write it correctly, I would say -
A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Nov 2010, 10:34
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noboru wrote:
but in A, which is modifying emission, and that is incorrect, isnt it?

thanks.


Hi noboru,
"Which" is not modifying emission, it is modifying "proton-induced x-ray emission". That's the noun.
"Which" gives more detail abou the technique. That's why A is correct.

Hope it helps 8-)
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Feb 2012, 00:06
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(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

Let us analyse these two sentences closely.Which is used to give in some additional information and non restrictive in nature .Remove the underlined portion and insert the remaining sentence into the original sentence .

When you do this only sentence a makes sense .Hope i make sense let me know if you are still not clear .
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2012, 04:18
I could get onto the correct choice based on various other routes but I still dont know how can we ascertain antecedent of "it".

Can some explain, based on the concepts of subject/object?
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2012, 08:23
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pavanpuneet wrote:
I could get onto the correct choice based on various other routes but I still dont know how can we ascertain antecedent of "it".

Can some explain, based on the concepts of subject/object?


Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

It is sort of confusing, but to me it looks like the "it" refers to "substance." It can't refer to the other nouns "air pollutants" or "chemical elements" because they are plural. That leaves the last noun "technique," but I don't think you can logically destroy a technique.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2012, 09:19
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pavanpuneet wrote:
I could get onto the correct choice based on various other routes but I still dont know how can we ascertain antecedent of "it".

Can some explain, based on the concepts of subject/object?


Hi there,

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

A pronoun must not only have an antecedent but also have a logical antecedent.

According to this sentence, the proton-induced x-ray emission technique can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it.

From meaning standpoint, this particular technique can analyze chemical elements in almost any substance and does not even destroy it. So where does it do the function of analyzing? In any almost any substance. So it does that function without destroying the substance.

Now, it is true that “chemical elements” does not agree in number with “it” and hence that cannot be the antecedent for “it”. Another singular entity is “technique” but it will make no sense to say that technique is used to so something without destroying the technique.

Hence, there is no problem with the reference of “it” in this sentence.

At e-gmat we cover in detail about grammatical antecedent and logical antecedent of pronouns in our concept called Pronouns.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2012, 06:48
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thangvietnam wrote:
In C and D, "developed" is parallel to " called" , so we need "and" to connect them.

There is no "and" so, C and D are wrong.
please, confirm/comment.


Hi there,

Yes, you are correct in saying that “developed” and “called” are parallel in the sense that both are verb-ed modifiers that modifies “a technique”.

Now, the usage of “called” or “named” is little different from other verb-ed modifiers. “Called” and “named” must be placed immediately after the entities they modify. They cannot be placed far away as seen in Choices C and D.
So yes, in a way we can say that placing only “and” without preceded by comma before “called” can solve this modification error. But, this will make the choices wordy. In choice A, both these modifiers are placed perfectly.
Also, there are “which” modification error in choice C and D. These also make choices C and D incorrect.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2012, 14:31
egmat wrote:
pavanpuneet wrote:
I could get onto the correct choice based on various other routes but I still dont know how can we ascertain antecedent of "it".

Can some explain, based on the concepts of subject/object?


Hi there,

Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

A pronoun must not only have an antecedent but also have a logical antecedent.

According to this sentence, the proton-induced x-ray emission technique can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it.

From meaning standpoint, this particular technique can analyze chemical elements in almost any substance and does not even destroy it. So where does it do the function of analyzing? In any almost any substance. So it does that function without destroying the substance.

Now, it is true that “chemical elements” does not agree in number with “it” and hence that cannot be the antecedent for “it”. Another singular entity is “technique” but it will make no sense to say that technique is used to so something without destroying the technique.

Hence, there is no problem with the reference of “it” in this sentence.

At e-gmat we cover in detail about grammatical antecedent and logical antecedent of pronouns in our concept called Pronouns.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha



agreed that it refers to substance, but then what is wrong with C or D, is it because it has 2 verbs ???

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

Main clause
A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.
Subject: A technique

verb1: originally developed
verb2: is finding
2verbs ????

subordinate clause
which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
subject: which
verb: can quickly analyze

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

Main clause
A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.
Subject: A technique

verb1: originally developed
verb2: is finding
2verbs ????

subordinate clause
which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
subject: which
verb: has
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2012, 07:24
A. Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze

C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze

The structure of these two sentences is vastly different from each other
A.
1. originally developed for detecting air pollutants, --- A participial modifier
2. a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission,--- the modified subject
3. which can quickly analyze – another modifier for the subject. This is a subject sandwiched by two modifiers. It is clear that the ‘which’ modifier modifies the technique. We cannot remove the noun clause because, and then the clause becomes meaningless.
C.
1. A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants---- subject
2 called proton-induced X-ray emission,--- modifier of the subject
3. which can quickly analyze --- modifier of the modifier

Here you can see the change of the wholesome subject, part becoming the subject and the other part becoming a modifier. The essence of the sentence that the technique is called ‘proton-induced X-ray emission’ is rendered into a secondary fact. That is the reason why the specific name should not separated from the generic name.

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2012, 06:23
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Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission usage of having is incorrect

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, called should be placed right next to technique without any comma

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it, called should be placed right next to technique without any comma

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced X-ray emission,called should be placed right next to technique without any comma
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2012, 08:39
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In Shraddha's example, which modifies a noun phrase. A noun phrase is not the same as a clause because a noun phrase acts as the subject of a sentence and thus requires a verb following it.

“a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission” - Not a sentence

“a technique called proton-induced X-ray emission is very useful” - A sentence
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2012, 06:06
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gmatpunjabi wrote:
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,


Why and how is the OA correct. Why is the use of "which" correct in Answer A, but not C/



To come out of the confusion of placing 'a technique' lets analyze the two options :

The first clause is modifier of the second clause and modifies correctly.
(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique

When we change the position of 'a technique' we need to remove the ',' before called, else the sentence has a modifier error, relative pronoun which here will refer to emission.
(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission,

So the correct option is A (this question is there in OG as well)
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2013, 19:48
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2013, 23:30
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akhandamandala wrote:
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks


(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

The intended subject of "which" is the "technique". In option A "which" correctly modifies it, but in option C (and D) the noun "technique" is too far away: "which" cannot jump to it.
Even though in A the preceding noun is "emission" the modifier which refers to the "technique", and this is an exception of the touching rule of this modifier.

So if you have something like : noun + modifier/perp phrase, which <== the which jumps to the noun, ignoring the modifier/perp phrase.

Another Official question that tests the same: emily-dickinsons-letters-to-susan-huntington-dickinson-were-10142.html

Hope everything is clear
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called &nbs [#permalink] 07 Jul 2013, 23:30

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