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Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called

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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2013, 23:46
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akhandamandala wrote:
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks


Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
here the which clause is modifying the entire noun phrase "proton-induced x-ray emission" and hence is correct. If a noun phrase is present, whole of it is modified by which and not just the last word.
(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
This sentence says "air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission" hence wrong
(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
This sentence says "air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission" hence wrong.

hope it helps!!
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2013, 23:54
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ankurgupta03 wrote:
akhandamandala wrote:
Hi there,
I'm grateful if anyone help to explain the problem of which-clause in A C and D. If we consider which-clause will modify the noun right before it, the which-clause in A is right after "emission" and accepted, while in D & C is not accepted. Why???
Is is true that noun in an adjective /participle and preposition phrase cannot be an antecedent ???

Thanks


Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
here the which clause is modifying the entire noun phrase "proton-induced x-ray emission" and hence is correct. If a noun phrase is present, whole of it is modified by which and not just the last word.


Hi ankurgupta03, I am sorry but this is not correct.
The "which" does not refer to ""proton-induced x-ray emission" because then the sentence would say something like:
"proton-induced x-ray emission" "can quickly analyze the chemical elements" : no sense.
The correct antecedent of which is the "technique called(...)" and now the sentence makes sense:
"technique called(...)""can quickly analyze the chemical elements" : better.

The noun phrase is the entire part " a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission" because "called" is not a verb, is a modifier => "a technique + modifier"
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2013, 17:06
To keep it simple, here's how we look at it:

Originally developed for [X], [a particular technique]...is finding uses in x, y, and z.

This is a lot easier to comprehend and work with. Thinking like this will cut down the potential for stupid, overlooked mistakes.

Pay attention to "prepositional phrases" - keywords like "for" "in" etc...or just general phrases.

In the above example, I read:

"which can quickly analyze the chemical elements"

as "which can blah blah blah"

I read: "in almost any substance without destroying"
as: "in blah...without destroying it"

I read: "Originally developed for detecting air pollutants"
as
"Originally developed for blah..."

I read: "a technique called proton-induced X-ray remission"
as
"a technique called blah.."

Get used to using "blah" to replace fancy parts of the sentence and you'll be surprised at how simple a lot of these GMAT questions actually are.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Sep 2013, 12:19
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Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
Correct ! As 'Originally developed' modifies 'a technique' and 'which' modifies 'x-ray emission' and the sentence has a verb 'is finding'
(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission
Two Long modifiers in a sequence => awkwardness
(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants,called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
Cutting of non-essential modifier , sentence doesn't make sense.
(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
Same as (C).
(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
Quickly should modify CAN and has been placed incorrectly.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jun 2016, 05:48
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tejal777 wrote:
[url]Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it[/url], is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,


-ed form modifies the closest noun. So 'called' must modify 'technique'. C, D and E are out.

'Originally developed for detecting air pollutants' and 'having the ability to analyze the chemical elements' are two modifies of 'a technique'. Either both should be closer to 'technique' or must be connected with a proper conjunction. It is lacking in option B.

Hence A is the answer
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2016, 03:53
Is it me or does it seem awkward that the modifier in A modifies a technique?
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2016, 04:02
warriorguy wrote:
Is it me or does it seem awkward that the modifier in A modifies a technique?


In A, both the modifiers are clearly modifying the technique without any ambiguity.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Oct 2016, 05:56
abhimahna wrote:
warriorguy wrote:
Is it me or does it seem awkward that the modifier in A modifies a technique?


In A, both the modifiers are clearly modifying the technique without any ambiguity.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,



I don't think the second modifier is modifying the technique. Or is it? Lol. I was under the impression that which will modify the noun it touches.

So the first part modifies technique and second part modifies emission or x-ray emission.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Oct 2016, 02:36
Well, in this case "proton-induced x-ray emission" is the name of the technique, so it's all the same. Similarly, if a sentence began "A man named Larry, who . . . ," we wouldn't have to worry about whether "who" modified "man" or "Larry."
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2016, 06:38
Hi experts,
sometimes, I am still confused that what does "comma which" modify, for this case, I wanna deep discuss the "comma which" modifier, purely discuss it , based on grammar rather than other errors.

Please review C,
A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

here, called proton-induced X-ray emission is a modifier and set off by a pair of comma, this structure means that called proton-induced X-ray emission is a non vital modifier, so I can split it , then the simple version is :

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

we can figure out which modifier follows air pollutants and is without comma, generally, which modifier follows a comma,-- this is error 1
when I split it, which modifies preceding noun "air pollutants", -- this is error 2 -- nonsense.

my question is :
1/
cross off it because error 1 -- without comma before which,
does this reasoning apply to GMAT SC as a reason to cross off ?

2/
non vital modifier set off by a pair of commas, then the simple version will be which modifier follows a noun/noun phrase, in this case, which modifier modifies air pollutants,
Does this condition imply which modifier can jump over the non vital modifier and then modify the preceding noun if the meaning is logical ? what's the role of which modifier? is it still a non vital modifier? (because i know, comma which modifier is general non vital modifier.

genuinely wanna your help, especial @Mike's :P

have a nice day.
>_~
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Nov 2016, 12:24
1
zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi experts,
sometimes, I am still confused that what does "comma which" modify, for this case, I wanna deep discuss the "comma which" modifier, purely discuss it , based on grammar rather than other errors.

Please review C,
A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced X-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

here, called proton-induced X-ray emission is a modifier and set off by a pair of comma, this structure means that called proton-induced X-ray emission is a non vital modifier, so I can split it , then the simple version is :

A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

we can figure out which modifier follows air pollutants and is without comma, generally, which modifier follows a comma,-- this is error 1
when I split it, which modifies preceding noun "air pollutants", -- this is error 2 -- nonsense.

my question is :
1/
cross off it because error 1 -- without comma before which,
does this reasoning apply to GMAT SC as a reason to cross off ?

2/
non vital modifier set off by a pair of commas, then the simple version will be which modifier follows a noun/noun phrase, in this case, which modifier modifies air pollutants,
Does this condition imply which modifier can jump over the non vital modifier and then modify the preceding noun if the meaning is logical ? what's the role of which modifier? is it still a non vital modifier? (because i know, comma which modifier is general non vital modifier.

genuinely wanna your help, especial @Mike's :P

have a nice day.
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Dear zoezhuyan,

My friend, I hope you are well. I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, I am going to say two things:
1) Please stop picking incorrect answers to GMAT SC questions and asking about the grammar of them. These are incorrect because they are flawed, often in more than one way. If you want to understand correct grammar, only pick correct answer as examples about which to ask.
2) You are looking for mathematical rules for how modifiers behave. Modifiers depend on logic and meaning, and these don't follow clean neat patterns.

You may be familiar with ancient Chinese Daoist master Laozi. His Daodejing begins with the sentence:
Attachment:
Daodejing, first sentence.jpg
Daodejing, first sentence.jpg [ 28.76 KiB | Viewed 1113 times ]

Roughly, we could say that this implies that patterns of meaning, whether in GMAT SC or in the larger questions of life, do not follow fixed rigid mathematical patterns.

Does all this make sense?

Take very good care of yourself, my friend.

Mike :-)
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2016, 09:23
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission
The structure: Modifier, Modifier, Subject... is not a strong choice. The modifier(s) of a subject must be placed close to the subject.

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
Verb-ed modifier error - 'called' seems to modify 'pollutants'

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
Verb-ed modifier error - 'called' seems to modify 'pollutants'

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
Verb-ed modifier error - 'called' seems to modify 'substance'

Thus, I chose option A.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2016, 08:05
12/27/16. LA. Manhattan GMAT SC Navigator Explanation. Modifier. There are a number of modifiers: "Originally developed…", "called proton-induced X-rays…", and "which can quickly analyze the chemical elements…" = all of the three modifiers refer back to the subject "the technique". Out of the 3 modifiers, the only essential modifier is "called proton-induced X-rays" and this noun modifier should be close to the main clause "technique". C, D and E are out.

Split2) Modifier. "Ability" word in the sentence "machines do not have the ability" is wrong. What sort of things have ability = human beings. The word "ability" is closely attached to living things such as human beings. We cannot attibute "abilities" to a machine, this is not a correct meaning. B,D and E are out.

Split3) Modifier "which" - vita modifier exemption to the touch rule. the noun modifier that starts with "which" must be close to the noun it modifies "technique." See the sentence "a technique called proton-induced x-ray emissions, which can quickly analyze the chemical..." => "which..." is a noun modifier that modifies "technique". The modifier "...called proton-induced X-ray emission" is a vita modifier => exception to the modifier rule = a vital modifier can come between the noun and the modified noun. A is right.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2017, 14:59
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.

This question is testing our understanding in modifier.

(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
very clear

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission

modifier+modifier + n + modifier, confused

(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,


(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Oct 2017, 07:43
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tejal777 wrote:
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, is finding uses in medicine, archaeology, and criminology.


(A) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
Perfect! Opening modifier modifying technique correctly. Usage of which is correct. What does 'it' refer to? it refers unambiguously to substance. Hold on this choice.

(B) Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission
The opening modifier is modifying having the ability, which is NON SENSICAL. This choice is having misplaced modifiers therefore, incorrect.

Lets try displacing the modifier and make it correct,
Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called proton induced x-ray emission, having the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
After displacement, still the usage of having is not correct. Having is used, when we have two actions in the past and having is used to convey the first action. Here, we are not having that scenario.


(C) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which can quickly analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance without destroying it,
The VERB-ed modifier should be placed close to the noun it is modifying. Here, called is placed too far away from the technique. Therefore, incorrect.

(D) A technique originally developed for detecting air pollutants, called proton-induced x-ray emission, which has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying it,
The VERB-ed modifier should be placed close to the noun it is modifying. Here, called is placed too far away from the technique. Therefore, incorrect.

(E) A technique that was originally developed for detecting air pollutants and has the ability to analyze the chemical elements in almost any substance quickly and without destroying the substance, called proton-induced x-ray emission,
Verb is missing for the main subject technique. Repeats similar errors as choice C and D. Here, the pronoun it is replaced with the substance to remove the ambiguity. But because of the previous errors this choice is incorrect.
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2018, 06:39
egmat wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
In C and D, "developed" is parallel to " called" , so we need "and" to connect them.

There is no "and" so, C and D are wrong.
please, confirm/comment.


Hi there,

Yes, you are correct in saying that “developed” and “called” are parallel in the sense that both are verb-ed modifiers that modifies “a technique”.

Now, the usage of “called” or “named” is little different from other verb-ed modifiers. “Called” and “named” must be placed immediately after the entities they modify. They cannot be placed far away as seen in Choices C and D.
So yes, in a way we can say that placing only “and” without preceded by comma before “called” can solve this modification error. But, this will make the choices wordy. In choice A, both these modifiers are placed perfectly.
Also, there are “which” modification error in choice C and D. These also make choices C and D incorrect.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha



Hi,

I am having one doubt with regards to usage of "which", can it modify subject of the preceding clause or it is strictly Noun/ Noun phrase modifier?

It is not exactly related to the question under discussion, but I couldn't find any other topic having similar discussion so posted here.

Thanks,
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2018, 08:05
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Sumitdave wrote:
egmat wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
In C and D, "developed" is parallel to " called" , so we need "and" to connect them.

There is no "and" so, C and D are wrong.
please, confirm/comment.


Hi there,

Yes, you are correct in saying that “developed” and “called” are parallel in the sense that both are verb-ed modifiers that modifies “a technique”.

Now, the usage of “called” or “named” is little different from other verb-ed modifiers. “Called” and “named” must be placed immediately after the entities they modify. They cannot be placed far away as seen in Choices C and D.
So yes, in a way we can say that placing only “and” without preceded by comma before “called” can solve this modification error. But, this will make the choices wordy. In choice A, both these modifiers are placed perfectly.
Also, there are “which” modification error in choice C and D. These also make choices C and D incorrect.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
Shraddha



Hi,

I am having one doubt with regards to usage of "which", can it modify subject of the preceding clause or it is strictly Noun/ Noun phrase modifier?

It is not exactly related to the question under discussion, but I couldn't find any other topic having similar discussion so posted here.

Thanks,
Sumit
Hey from Sumit to another Sumit,

You can't use which in that way.. Which /that can modify nearest noun or noun phrase but cannot skip a verb to modify the subject. This is important rule.
Don't skip the verb to modify an entity

Hope this helps.


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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2018, 10:07
sumit411 wrote:
Sumitdave wrote:
egmat wrote:
In C and D, "developed" is parallel to " called" , so we need "and" to connect them.

There is no "and" so, C and D are wrong.
please, confirm/comment.

Hi,

I am having one doubt with regards to usage of "which", can it modify subject of the preceding clause or it is strictly Noun/ Noun phrase modifier?

It is not exactly related to the question under discussion, but I couldn't find any other topic having similar discussion so posted here.

Thanks,
Sumit
Hey from Sumit to another Sumit,

You can't use which in that way.. Which /that can modify nearest noun or noun phrase but cannot skip a verb to modify the subject. This is important rule.
Don't skip the verb to modify an entity

Hope this helps.


Thank you = Kudos


Thanks from Sumit to another Sumit :p

This certainly helps! :)

Thanks,
Sumit
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Re: Originally developed for detecting air pollutants, a technique called &nbs [#permalink] 31 Aug 2018, 10:07

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