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# Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m

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leanhdung
hi mikemcgarry

Can you explain which phrase relative pronoun which in E modifies ?
I feel that the use of which in E is very strange.

Many thanks!
Dear leanhdung,

How are you, my friend? I'm happy to respond.

Here's (E), the OA:
Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days.

As I'm sure you understand, a noun-modifying clause beginning with "which" normally should obey the Modifier Touch Rule. Of course, there are a few exceptions to the Touch Rule. One is that a single, grammatically necessary word can come between the target noun and the "which" clause.

Here, the target noun modified by "which" is "a broad area of high pressure." All that comes between this target noun and the "which" is the verb "builds." Now, this structure may raise your suspicions: normally the structure [noun][verb]"which" is highly problematic because that "which" clause is trying to modify the action of the verb, a highly naughty thing for it to be attempting! Normally, that's a problem, because most verbs are "action verbs," so the word "which" would be touching an action! The situation is totally different with what I would call "being verbs," rather than "action verbs," especially a "being verb" that is about the noun coming into greater existence, because then the verb functions logically almost as an intensifier for the noun. That's exactly what is happening here. The verb "builds," used here, is a "being verb"--it's simply about the noun coming into greater existence, so it "points to" and intensifies the noun. Therefore, it does not interrupt the logical link between the target noun and the modifier clause--in fact, it enhances that logical link.

It's one of the many reasons this question is a gem--a structure that normally would be a trainwreck is actually exquisitely correct here. The official questions are simply extraordinary.

BTW, kunalsingh1991, with all due respect to egmat, I am going to disagree with part of what Shraddha said. I don't believe the fact that "as" has two potential meanings necessarily creates any problems for (A). I would agree, though, that the tense of the verb "will build" is a problem. When the may clause verb is in the future, the verb in a "when" or "as" clause should be in the present to indicate simultaneity.
"She'll be coming 'round the mountain when she comes."
That's a quote from a traditional American folk song, not a likely sentence for the GMAT! Nevertheless, it's a good example of the correct verb tense in this situation. Thus, even with the "in . . . into" mess cleaned up, (A) would have other problems.

Does all this make sense?
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snjainpune
Hello egmat,

Could you please explain this OG 18 Question using the egmat 3 step process?

Thanks

Hello snjainpune,

Sorry for replying late. But better late than never.

Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

Meaning Analysis: The meaning is pretty clear. Gusty westerly winds will bring in cool air mass into the region. And a big area of high pressure will build and bring dry weather for many days.

Error Analysis: Let's identify the errors now.

i. The sentence uses incorrect idiom usher in. As a verb, only usher is used.
ii. Use of as is incorrect because in the context of the sentence. As can mean because as well as while.
iii. The sentence intends to convey that while A happens, B will happen. Hence, use of the verb will build is not correct as these verbs do not convey the sequence of the events clearly.

A. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and: Incorrect for the reason stated in the Error Analysis section.

B. ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that: Incorrect

i. The expression continue ushering is incorrect. The word continue is generally followed by to verb phrase.
ii. Two independent clauses have been connected only by and.
iii. The express will bring that build makes no sense at all.

C. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and: Incorrect

i. Same expression error as in Choice A.
ii. The structure a broad area of high pressure building seems to act as a noun modifier that illogically modifies the preceding noun the region.
iii. This choice says that the gusty westerly winds will bring in dry weather, the information not in sync with the meaning conveyed by the original sentence.

D. ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and: Incorrect

i. Same expression error as in Choice B.
ii. The words building and bring are not parallel.

E. to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will: Correct

I do understand that the noun modifier which is preceded by a verb. However, I will regard this usage as just one-off usage and will continue to use which as a relative pronoun modifier modifying the immediate preceding noun.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

This amazing question has lead to a variety of explanations and interpretations by the top brass. Of course, to think so much in the pressure cooker of the GMAT hall will render this question beyond the reach of the average and may even disrupt the test takers' pacing. Is there a means for them?

A. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and -- 'as' may mean simultaneity or even causality but not contrast. Contrast is an essential feature in this context. 'As' is an improper diction because the cool air mass is going to be ushered despite the dry weather for several days. One can safely keep off this choice.

B. ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that -- Reading with the non-underlined part, we can find the SV error in the relative clause.

C. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and -- This is a list containing an unparallel third arm.

D. ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and ---- a broad area of high pressure is not joining hands with the westerly winds either to continue or to usher or to bring back -- wrong

E. to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will -- Now, we are just left with one option. If one is sure about the other four choices, then he or she could click this and get along.

Of course, this is just a blind shot. May not suit all.
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Video solution from Quant Reasoning starts at 01:00:42
Subscribe for more: https://www.youtube.com/QuantReasoning? ... irmation=1
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[quote="AbdurRakib"]Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

(A) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and

(B) ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that

(C) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and

(D) ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and

(E) to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will

This is a question based on Idiomatic Usage.

The options give us a choice between “usher in” and “usher into”.
We usher in a person/thing. – We ushered in this year’s Christmas on a grand scale.
We usher a person/thing into something. (used with a noun to convey the place into which the object is ushered) – He ushered his guests into the drawing room.
The correct expression in this sentence is “usher into” as the place into which the seasonably cool air mass is ushered is also mentioned.
Option A contains the expression ‘usher in’ and the preposition ‘into’, which is redundant.
Option C contains the expression ‘usher in’ followed by the preposition ‘to’; this usage is incorrect.
Option E contains the correct expression ‘usher into’.

Another choice given to us by the options is between “continue ushering” and “continue to usher”.
The correct usage is “continue to usher” because certain verbs such as agree, appear, decide, need etc. are not followed by the participle form. ‘Continue’ is another such verb. On this basis, we can rule out Options B and D.

Option C has a modifier “a broad area of high pressure building” placed in the middle of the sentence. This modifier doesn’t seem to modify anything in particular. The conjunction ‘and’ also changes the meaning and structure of the sentence by making “gusty westerly winds” the subject of the verb ‘bring’ in the latter half of the sentence. This construction conveys the meaning that gusty westerly winds will continue to bring fair and dry weather. The meaning of the sentence is thus distorted as the first part of the sentence states that the winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass. So, Option C can also be eliminated.

The first and second parts of the sentence convey contradictory ideas, so the conjunction ‘while’ is more appropriate than the conjunction ‘as’ that conveys a cause-effect relationship. So, Option A can also be eliminated.

Therefore, E is the most appropriate option.

Jayanthi Kumar.
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Dear Friends,

Here is a detailed explanation to this question-
AbdurRakib
Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

(A) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and

(B) ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that

(C) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and

(D) ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and

(E) to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will

Meaning is crucial to solving this problem:
Understanding the intended meaning is key to solving this question; the intended meaning of this sentence is that gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, and simultaneously, a broad area of high pressure, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days, will build.

Concepts tested here: Meaning + Verb Forms + Awkwardness/Redundancy

• The simple future tense is used to refer to actions that will take place in the future.
• The simple present tense is used to indicate actions taking place in the current time frame, indicate habitual actions, state universal truths, and convey information that is permanent in nature.
• For referring to purpose/intent of action the infinitive verb form ("to +base form of verb") is preferred over the present participle ("verb+ing").
• The introduction of present participle ("verb+ing"- “building” in this case) after comma generally leads to a cause-effect relationship.
• Any elements linked by a conjunction ("and" in this sentence) must be parallel.

A: This answer choice redundantly uses "in" alongside "into", rendering it awkward and needlessly wordy.

B: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "and a broad area of high pressure will build"; the construction of this phrase incorrectly implies that gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, and at an indeterminate time a broad area of high pressure, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days, will build; the intended meaning is that gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, and simultaneously, a broad area of high pressure, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days, will build. Moreover, Option B incorrectly uses the simple present tense verb "bring" to refer to a future action; please remember, the simple future tense is used to refer to actions that will take place in the future, and the simple present tense is used to indicate actions taking place in the current time frame, indicate habitual actions, state universal truths, and convey information that is permanent in nature. Further, Option B uses the present participle ("verb+ing" - "ushering" in this case) to refer to the intent of the action "continue"; please remember, for referring to purpose/intent of action the infinitive verb form ("to +base form of verb") is preferred over the present participle ("verb+ing"). Additionally, Option B redundantly uses "in" alongside "into", rendering it awkward and needlessly wordy.

C: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "a broad area of high pressure building"; the use of the "comma + present participle ("verb+ing" - "building" in this case) incorrectly implies that gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, and as a result, a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days; the intended meaning gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, and [b]simultaneously, as a separate action[/b] a broad area of high pressure, which will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days; remember, the introduction of present participle ("verb+ing"- “building” in this case) after comma generally leads to a cause-effect relationship. Further, Option C fails to maintain parallelism between "building" and "bring"; please remember, any elements linked by a conjunction ("and" in this sentence) must be parallel.

D: This answer choice alters the meaning of the sentence through the phrase "with a broad area of high pressure building"; the use of the "comma + present participle ("verb+ing" - "building" in this case) incorrectly implies that gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, and as a result, a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days; the intended meaning gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, and [b]simultaneously, as a separate action[/b] a broad area of high pressure, which will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days; remember, the introduction of present participle ("verb+ing"- “building” in this case) after comma generally leads to a cause-effect relationship. Further, Option D fails to maintain parallelism between "building" and "bring"; please remember, any elements linked by a conjunction ("and" in this sentence) must be parallel. Additionally, Option D uses the present participle ("verb+ing" - "ushering" in this case) to refer to the intent of the action "continue"; please remember, for referring to purpose/intent of action the infinitive verb form ("to +base form of verb") is preferred over the present participle ("verb+ing").

E: Correct. This answer choice uses the phrase "while a broad area of high pressure builds", conveying the intended meaning - that gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, and simultaneously, a broad area of high pressure, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days, will build. Moreover, Option E correctly uses the simple future tense verb "will bring" to refer to an action that will take place in the future. Further, Option E avoids the parallelism error seen in Option C and D, as it does not employ a conjunction. Additionally, Option E uses the infinitive verb form ("to + base form of verb" - "to + usher" in this sentence)" to refer to the intent of the action "continue". Besides, Option E is free of any awkwardness or redundancy.

Hence, E is the best answer choice.

To understand the concept of "Simple Tenses" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~1 minute):

To understand the concept of using "Infinitive Verb Forms" and "Present Participles" on GMAT, you may want to watch the following video (~2 minutes):

All the best!
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m [#permalink]
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hi mikemcgarry

Can you explain which phrase relative pronoun which in E modifies ?
I feel that the use of which in E is very strange.

Many thanks!
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m [#permalink]
is there any other error in option A apart from in....into thing !!

can someone please provide some feedback on this one.
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kunalsingh1991
is there any other error in option A apart from in....into thing !!

can someone please provide some feedback on this one.

Hello kunalsingh1991,

In Choice A, use of as is incorrect because in the context of the sentence, as can mean because as well as while.

In addition, the sentence intends to convey that while A happens, B will happen. Hence, use of the verb will build is not correct as these verbs do not convey the sequence of the events clearly.

Gusty westerly winds will usher in cool winds when high pressure builds. However, use of will build suggests that this event will take place in future.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m [#permalink]

From the POE, I was left between choice A and E. Now as per the context of the sentence, I understood that
A says - AS [Because] pressure is building, winds will continue to usher
E Says - WHILE pressure is building, winds will continue to usher.

Meaning wise, both the sentences appeared clear to me [though they actually mean different], and I chose choice A.

I have two doubts
1. As I stated above, is the use of AS is correct [Considering only the meaning, ignoring tense - "will build"]?
2. As Mike stated above, we need to disregard choice A only because it uses "will build" with "AS"? It may sound correct if we had - as a broad area of high pressure is building and it will bring fair
Also if this is true, do we need to omit the use of future tense with the use of "AS" when "AS" is used to present a reason?
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RMD007

From the POE, I was left between choice A and E. Now as per the context of the sentence, I understood that
A says - AS [Because] pressure is building, winds will continue to usher
E Says - WHILE pressure is building, winds will continue to usher.

Meaning wise, both the sentences appeared clear to me [though they actually mean different], and I chose choice A.

I have two doubts
1. As I stated above, is the use of AS is correct [Considering only the meaning, ignoring tense - "will build"]?
2. As Mike stated above, we need to disregard choice A only because it uses "will build" with "AS"? It may sound correct if we had - as a broad area of high pressure is building and it will bring fair
Also if this is true, do we need to omit the use of future tense with the use of "AS" when "AS" is used to present a reason?
Dear RMD007,

I'm happy to respond, my friend. I hope you don't mind that I'm responding in the place of my intelligent colleague, GMATNinja.

I would say that (A) is wrong for a few reasons. The future tense "will build" is certainly not ideal, but there's also an idiom mistake, as I explain in my entry of 2017.06.13 in this thread. Choice (A) has a few problems.

I also discussed the use of "as" and "when" with the future tense in that post.

Let me know if you have any questions.

Mike
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I am amazed by the explanation provided by top GMAT instructors of recognized institutes such as idiom pattern, usage of as.

Nonetheless, Below is my line of reasoning to select option E.

1)....Cool air mass....fair and dry weather.....
This represent contrast hence we need conjunction such as Although, but , while

2) First sentence is in future tense , second sentence should be in present tense.( well known pattern)
A will happen while B happens.

3) a broad area of high pressure builds, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days.
vs
a broad area of high pressure, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days, builds

both sentences are correct. GMAT prefers to keep long description(which will bring fair and dry weather for several days) of subject(a broad area of high pressure) at end if object (builds)is very short.
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Hi mikemcgarry

Interesting approach and beautiful explanation.
Is below idiom usage correct?
I usher Mark to seat C.

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Hi mikemcgarry

Interesting approach and beautiful explanation.
Is below idiom usage correct?
I usher Mark to seat C.

I'm happy to respond.

The idiom is fine in your example sentence. What is odd is the use of the unqualified present tense. This make it sound as if you do this ushering every day. Also, something sounds impersonal about giving the seat a code name only. This sounds more natural:
I ushered Mark to his seat.
Same idioms, but the other elements are more natural.

Does all this make sense?
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Hello egmat,

Could you please explain this OG 18 Question using the egmat 3 step process?

Thanks
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I am amazed by the explanation provided by top GMAT instructors of recognized institutes such as idiom pattern, usage of as.

Nonetheless, Below is my line of reasoning to select option E.

1)....Cool air mass....fair and dry weather.....
This represent contrast hence we need conjunction such as Although, but , while

2) First sentence is in future tense , second sentence should be in present tense.( well known pattern)
A will happen while B happens.

3) a broad area of high pressure builds, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days.
vs
a broad area of high pressure, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days, builds

both sentences are correct. GMAT prefers to keep long description(which will bring fair and dry weather for several days) of subject(a broad area of high pressure) at end if object (builds)is very short.

I‘ve never replied anyone on this forum, but your response is exactly the same as that of GMAC, which replied a private tutor via an email.
Here's the context of that email:
In the item referred to below (IBN 12131, OG 2018 #781), ‘which’ could be interpreted as having the preceding clause as its antecedent, but it is better understood as having the noun phrase ‘a broad area of high pressure’ as its antecedent. Certain types of verbs that indicate arrival, positioning, coming into being, and the like can stand between a relative pronoun and its antecedent in cases where there is unlikely to be any confusion and the writer wants to avoid the awkwardness of putting the verb after a long intervening phrase.

For example, one could say “A new CEO is coming who will change the way our company does business.” In the sentence in OG #781, this construction is a simple and efficient alternative to a wording such as “while a broad area of high pressure, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days builds.” Interpreted either way (with ‘which’ referring to the front or to the front’s building), option E is clearer and more effectively expressed than any of the other options.
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EMPOWERgmatVerbal
Hello Everyone!

There seems to be a lot of great discussion on this question already, mostly around how to answer this type of question quickly. Let's take a fresh look at it, and figure out how to tackle such a difficult question in a timely manner!

To get started, here is the original question, with any major differences between each option highlighted in orange:

Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

(A) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and
(B) ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that
(C) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and
(D) ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and
(E) to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will

After a quick glance over each option, there are a few major differences we can address that will help narrow our options down quickly:

1. to usher / ushering
2. into / to / in
3. conjunctions & punctuation after "region"
4. each option's ending

Let's look at #1 on this list first: to usher / ushering. This was a tough one for a lot of people, and for good reason! As it turns out, you can use both of these in this sentence and they'll work. If you find yourself stuck on to usher / ushering for too long, it's a good sign that you need to move on to something else on the list. You can always come back to it later if you need to!

Instead of staying stuck on #1 for too long, let's jump into #2 on the list: into / to / in. One thing that jumped out to me right away is that some options say "ushering/to usher in....into the region," which is redundant! You can usher something into a region, or usher in something to a region, but you cannot usher in something into a region! Let's see which options we can eliminate that are redundant:

(A) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and
(B) ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that
(C) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and
(D) ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and
(E) to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will

You can eliminate options A & B quickly because they are redundant.

This leaves us with only 3 options left, so let's focus on #3 and #4 on the list: conjunctions/punctuation after "region" & their endings. We need to make sure commas and conjunctions are being used correctly, and that the endings work with the rest of the sentence. Here's how each option breaks down:

(C) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and

This option is INCORRECT because the comma after "region" creates an awkward comma splice. It also doesn't work to say that high pressure is "building, and bring fair and dry weather..." because it's not parallel. It should be "building and bringing" for it to be parallel! It also says that ALL of the actions happen at the same time, which isn't accurate. First, the cool air mass comes in and builds pressure, and THEN fair and dry weather happens over the next several days.

(D) ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and

This option is INCORRECT because it uses the phrase "building and bring," which isn't parallel. We don't really have a problem using the comma before "with" in this case because it's being used to indicate that everything after it is non-essential information (which it is). The meaning of the sentence doesn't change if you take it out, so it's a non-essential phrase that merely adds colorful details. This sentence also suggests that ALL of the actions happen at the same time, instead of in a particular order.

(E) to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will

This option is CORRECT because it's not redundant (to usher...into the region), "while" is being used correctly to show two actions occur at the same time, and the conjunction "which will" properly shows that the action "bring fair and dry weather for several days" happens after the cool air mass shows up. This sentence is clear, concise, and shows the proper order of events!

There you go - option E is the correct answer, and hopefully we got to it quickly enough for you to tackle more GMAT questions in the allotted time!

Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.

I’m little confused by the while. if "while" means at the same time, it will connect the same time fame. why "...will continue while xx builds" is true? pls comment, many thanks~
Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m [#permalink]
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