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Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m

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New post 13 Jun 2017, 12:06
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question No.: 781

Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

(A) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and

(B) ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that

(C) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and

(D) ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and

(E) to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will

Comma + which : LINK 1 & LINK 2

Gusty Winds

(A) Meaning (usher in … into)

(B) Meaning (usher in … into); Subject-Verb (area … build)

(C) Modifier / Meaning (broad area…)

(D) Parallelism (X and Y); Idiom (usher in)

(E) CORRECT


First glance
The beginning of each choice is either to usher or ushering, indicating a potential structural or idiomatic issue. (Note: It turns out that this particular split is a red herring; either form could be okay in the sentence. Use other differences to solve this one!)

Issues
(1) Meaning: usher in … into
You can usher someone in or you can usher someone into your home—but you don’t usher in someone into your home. Use either in or into, not both. Eliminate choices (A) and (B) for using a redundant structure.

(2) Subject-Verb: area … build
Parallelism: building and bring

Each answer choice leads into the verb bring (the first word after the underline ends). Three of the choices end in and, indicating a potential parallelism issue, so check how this occurs.

(A) a broad area … will build and bring
(B) a broad area … will build that bring
(C) winds will continue to usher … and bring
(D) a broad area … building and bring
(E) a broad area … builds, which will bring

This one is going to be a bit tricky; start with the two definite errors. In choice (B), the singular subject area is paired with the plural verb bring (an area … bring). Eliminate (B) for a subject-verb mismatch.

Choice (D) has faulty parallelism, pairing the –ing word building with the regular verb bring. Eliminate (D) as well.

Choice (E) is the tricky one. A comma-which modifier refers to a noun and that noun has to be close enough to the modifier that the relationship is clear. In this case, a broad area (of high pressure) is that noun, and it is in fact only one word away from the modifier—but, unusually, a verb (builds) comes in between. A lot of people will cross this answer off because, typically, a verb does not intervene between a noun and a noun modifier.

This particular clause (while a broad area of high pressure builds) is itself a modifier of the main sentence that appears before it. In this case, the author must choose between these two constructions:

… while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days.
… while a broad area of high pressure, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days, builds.

Given the length of the noun modifier—and the shortness of the verb—an author might choose to place that verb first. Think of this as an extension of the convention that a noun followed by two noun modifiers will place the essential modifier first:

The box of nails, which is sitting on the table, …

It’s still clear that the second modifier refers to box, as in choice (E) it’s clear that the which modifier refers to the broad area of high pressure. So leave choice (E) in for now and compare the two remaining answers: (C) and (E).

(3) Modifier / Meaning: broad area of high pressure building

The words a broad area of high pressure building are set off by commas, so this is a modifier. What is it modifying?

It’s not entirely clear. The region? The air mass[i]? The whole clause? Further, the sentence structure has changed in such a way that the [i]gusty winds (not the area of high pressure) … bring fair and dry weather. This increases the confusion over what the area of high pressure is referring to in the sentence. Eliminate choice (C) for an ambiguous modifier.

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (E) fixes the redundancy error in the original sentence (usher into) and does not introduce any new errors, as choices (C) and (D) do. This choice unusually inserts a verb between a noun and its modifier, likely in an attempt to get people to cross off the correct answer. Keep this mantra in mind: a noun modifier has to be placed close enough to its noun for the relationship to be clear—but the modifier does not necessarily have to be placed immediately next to its noun. Additionally, while and which in choice (E) help to communicate the intended timeline and cause-and-effect relationships.”

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New post 13 Jun 2017, 16:04
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AbdurRakib wrote:

Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

A. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and
B. ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that
C. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and
D. ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and
E. to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will

Dear AbdurRakib,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

This is a great question, as all the official questions are!

This uses a quite idiosyncratic idiom, involving the verb "to usher." The literal use of this word is the action of the person called an "usher," the person in a theater or at a classical concern who escorts patrons to their seats. Metaphorically, it is used about anything that brings something into existence. The basic idiom is:
I usher X in.
If I want to specify the region in which this X is introduced, I would say:
I usher X into A.

The "in . . . into" is redundant and wrong: choice (A) & (B) have this, and the "in . . . to" in (C) is far from ideal. Choices (D) & (E) get the idiom completely correct.

This is not a strict rule, but "continue" +[infinitive] sounds formal and sophisticated, whereas "continue" +[gerund] sounds casual and colloquial.

Choice (D) also makes a mistake with "with" + [noun] + [participle]. That's very subtle.

This leave (E), the OA.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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New post 14 Jun 2017, 01:56
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hi mikemcgarry

Can you explain which phrase relative pronoun which in E modifies ?
I feel that the use of which in E is very strange.

Many thanks!
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New post 14 Jun 2017, 06:36
is there any other error in option A apart from in....into thing !!

can someone please provide some feedback on this one.
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New post 14 Jun 2017, 09:03
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kunalsingh1991 wrote:
is there any other error in option A apart from in....into thing !!

can someone please provide some feedback on this one.



Hello kunalsingh1991,

I would be glad to help you resolve your doubt. :)

In Choice A, use of as is incorrect because in the context of the sentence, as can mean because as well as while.

In addition, the sentence intends to convey that while A happens, B will happen. Hence, use of the verb will build is not correct as these verbs do not convey the sequence of the events clearly.

Gusty westerly winds will usher in cool winds when high pressure builds. However, use of will build suggests that this event will take place in future.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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New post 14 Jun 2017, 10:36
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leanhdung wrote:
hi mikemcgarry

Can you explain which phrase relative pronoun which in E modifies ?
I feel that the use of which in E is very strange.

Many thanks!

Dear leanhdung,

How are you, my friend? I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's (E), the OA:
Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days.

As I'm sure you understand, a noun-modifying clause beginning with "which" normally should obey the Modifier Touch Rule. Of course, there are a few exceptions to the Touch Rule. One is that a single, grammatically necessary word can come between the target noun and the "which" clause.

Here, the target noun modified by "which" is "a broad area of high pressure." All that comes between this target noun and the "which" is the verb "builds." Now, this structure may raise your suspicions: normally the structure [noun][verb]"which" is highly problematic because that "which" clause is trying to modify the action of the verb, a highly naughty thing for it to be attempting! Normally, that's a problem, because most verbs are "action verbs," so the word "which" would be touching an action! The situation is totally different with what I would call "being verbs," rather than "action verbs," especially a "being verb" that is about the noun coming into greater existence, because then the verb functions logically almost as an intensifier for the noun. That's exactly what is happening here. The verb "builds," used here, is a "being verb"--it's simply about the noun coming into greater existence, so it "points to" and intensifies the noun. Therefore, it does not interrupt the logical link between the target noun and the modifier clause--in fact, it enhances that logical link.

It's one of the many reasons this question is a gem--a structure that normally would be a trainwreck is actually exquisitely correct here. The official questions are simply extraordinary.

BTW, kunalsingh1991, with all due respect to egmat, I am going to disagree with part of what Shraddha said. I don't believe the fact that "as" has two potential meanings necessarily creates any problems for (A). I would agree, though, that the tense of the verb "will build" is a problem. When the may clause verb is in the future, the verb in a "when" or "as" clause should be in the present to indicate simultaneity.
"She'll be coming 'round the mountain when she comes."
That's a quote from a traditional American folk song, not a likely sentence for the GMAT! Nevertheless, it's a good example of the correct verb tense in this situation. Thus, even with the "in . . . into" mess cleaned up, (A) would have other problems.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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New post 27 Jun 2017, 06:04
GMATNinja, Please help in this question.

From the POE, I was left between choice A and E. Now as per the context of the sentence, I understood that
A says - AS [Because] pressure is building, winds will continue to usher
E Says - WHILE pressure is building, winds will continue to usher.

Meaning wise, both the sentences appeared clear to me [though they actually mean different], and I chose choice A.

I have two doubts
1. As I stated above, is the use of AS is correct [Considering only the meaning, ignoring tense - "will build"]?
2. As Mike stated above, we need to disregard choice A only because it uses "will build" with "AS"? It may sound correct if we had - as a broad area of high pressure is building and it will bring fair
Also if this is true, do we need to omit the use of future tense with the use of "AS" when "AS" is used to present a reason?
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New post 27 Jun 2017, 09:56
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RMD007 wrote:
GMATNinja, Please help in this question.

From the POE, I was left between choice A and E. Now as per the context of the sentence, I understood that
A says - AS [Because] pressure is building, winds will continue to usher
E Says - WHILE pressure is building, winds will continue to usher.

Meaning wise, both the sentences appeared clear to me [though they actually mean different], and I chose choice A.

I have two doubts
1. As I stated above, is the use of AS is correct [Considering only the meaning, ignoring tense - "will build"]?
2. As Mike stated above, we need to disregard choice A only because it uses "will build" with "AS"? It may sound correct if we had - as a broad area of high pressure is building and it will bring fair
Also if this is true, do we need to omit the use of future tense with the use of "AS" when "AS" is used to present a reason?

Dear RMD007,

I'm happy to respond, my friend. :-) I hope you don't mind that I'm responding in the place of my intelligent colleague, GMATNinja.

I would say that (A) is wrong for a few reasons. The future tense "will build" is certainly not ideal, but there's also an idiom mistake, as I explain in my entry of 2017.06.13 in this thread. Choice (A) has a few problems.

I also discussed the use of "as" and "when" with the future tense in that post.

Let me know if you have any questions.

Mike :-)
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New post 02 Jul 2017, 21:46
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I am amazed by the explanation provided by top GMAT instructors of recognized institutes such as idiom pattern, usage of as.

Nonetheless, Below is my line of reasoning to select option E.

1)....Cool air mass....fair and dry weather.....
This represent contrast hence we need conjunction such as Although, but , while

2) First sentence is in future tense , second sentence should be in present tense.( well known pattern)
A will happen while B happens.

3) a broad area of high pressure builds, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days.
vs
a broad area of high pressure, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days, builds

both sentences are correct. GMAT prefers to keep long description(which will bring fair and dry weather for several days) of subject(a broad area of high pressure) at end if object (builds)is very short.
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New post 07 Jul 2017, 21:33
Hi mikemcgarry

Interesting approach and beautiful explanation.
Is below idiom usage correct?
I usher Mark to seat C.

Let me know your views.
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New post 08 Jul 2017, 01:39
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Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

This amazing question has lead to a variety of explanations and interpretations by the top brass. Of course, to think so much in the pressure cooker of the GMAT hall will render this question beyond the reach of the average and may even disrupt the test takers' pacing. Is there a means for them?


A. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and -- 'as' may mean simultaneity or even causality but not contrast. Contrast is an essential feature in this context. 'As' is an improper diction because the cool air mass is going to be ushered despite the dry weather for several days. One can safely keep off this choice.

B. ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that -- Reading with the non-underlined part, we can find the SV error in the relative clause.

C. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and -- This is a list containing an unparallel third arm.

D. ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and ---- a broad area of high pressure is not joining hands with the westerly winds either to continue or to usher or to bring back -- wrong

E. to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will -- Now, we are just left with one option. If one is sure about the other four choices, then he or she could click this and get along.

Of course, this is just a blind shot. May not suit all.
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New post 08 Jul 2017, 08:10
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adkikani wrote:
Hi mikemcgarry

Interesting approach and beautiful explanation.
Is below idiom usage correct?
I usher Mark to seat C.

Let me know your views.

Dear adkikani,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

The idiom is fine in your example sentence. What is odd is the use of the unqualified present tense. This make it sound as if you do this ushering every day. Also, something sounds impersonal about giving the seat a code name only. This sounds more natural:
I ushered Mark to his seat.
Same idioms, but the other elements are more natural.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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New post 08 Jul 2017, 10:43
Imo E
We need infinitive to show the future and also to maintain parallelism we need will so only option E is the correct choice .
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New post 09 Jul 2017, 07:01
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mikemcgarry wrote:
leanhdung wrote:
hi mikemcgarry

Can you explain which phrase relative pronoun which in E modifies ?
I feel that the use of which in E is very strange.

Many thanks!

Dear leanhdung,

How are you, my friend? I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's (E), the OA:
Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days.

As I'm sure you understand, a noun-modifying clause beginning with "which" normally should obey the Modifier Touch Rule. Of course, there are a few exceptions to the Touch Rule. One is that a single, grammatically necessary word can come between the target noun and the "which" clause.

Here, the target noun modified by "which" is "a broad area of high pressure." All that comes between this target noun and the "which" is the verb "builds." Now, this structure may raise your suspicions: normally the structure [noun][verb]"which" is highly problematic because that "which" clause is trying to modify the action of the verb, a highly naughty thing for it to be attempting! Normally, that's a problem, because most verbs are "action verbs," so the word "which" would be touching an action! The situation is totally different with what I would call "being verbs," rather than "action verbs," especially a "being verb" that is about the noun coming into greater existence, because then the verb functions logically almost as an intensifier for the noun. That's exactly what is happening here. The verb "builds," used here, is a "being verb"--it's simply about the noun coming into greater existence, so it "points to" and intensifies the noun. Therefore, it does not interrupt the logical link between the target noun and the modifier clause--in fact, it enhances that logical link.

It's one of the many reasons this question is a gem--a structure that normally would be a trainwreck is actually exquisitely correct here. The official questions are simply extraordinary.

BTW, kunalsingh1991, with all due respect to egmat, I am going to disagree with part of what Shraddha said. I don't believe the fact that "as" has two potential meanings necessarily creates any problems for (A). I would agree, though, that the tense of the verb "will build" is a problem. When the may clause verb is in the future, the verb in a "when" or "as" clause should be in the present to indicate simultaneity.
"She'll be coming 'round the mountain when she comes."
That's a quote from a traditional American folk song, not a likely sentence for the GMAT! Nevertheless, it's a good example of the correct verb tense in this situation. Thus, even with the "in . . . into" mess cleaned up, (A) would have other problems.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Another great explanation Mike :P

I'm happy to receive your reply: it is clear and full of useful information, and sometimes comes with advice outside GMAT scope :-D
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New post 09 Jul 2017, 07:04
Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

A. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and

B. ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that

C. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and

D. ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and

E. to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will
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New post 11 Jul 2017, 19:30
mikemcgarry wrote:
leanhdung wrote:
hi mikemcgarry

Can you explain which phrase relative pronoun which in E modifies ?
I feel that the use of which in E is very strange.

Many thanks!

Dear leanhdung,

How are you, my friend? I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's (E), the OA:
Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days.

As I'm sure you understand, a noun-modifying clause beginning with "which" normally should obey the Modifier Touch Rule. Of course, there are a few exceptions to the Touch Rule. One is that a single, grammatically necessary word can come between the target noun and the "which" clause.

Here, the target noun modified by "which" is "a broad area of high pressure." All that comes between this target noun and the "which" is the verb "builds." Now, this structure may raise your suspicions: normally the structure [noun][verb]"which" is highly problematic because that "which" clause is trying to modify the action of the verb, a highly naughty thing for it to be attempting! Normally, that's a problem, because most verbs are "action verbs," so the word "which" would be touching an action! The situation is totally different with what I would call "being verbs," rather than "action verbs," especially a "being verb" that is about the noun coming into greater existence, because then the verb functions logically almost as an intensifier for the noun. That's exactly what is happening here. The verb "builds," used here, is a "being verb"--it's simply about the noun coming into greater existence, so it "points to" and intensifies the noun. Therefore, it does not interrupt the logical link between the target noun and the modifier clause--in fact, it enhances that logical link.

It's one of the many reasons this question is a gem--a structure that normally would be a trainwreck is actually exquisitely correct here. The official questions are simply extraordinary.

BTW, kunalsingh1991, with all due respect to egmat, I am going to disagree with part of what Shraddha said. I don't believe the fact that "as" has two potential meanings necessarily creates any problems for (A). I would agree, though, that the tense of the verb "will build" is a problem. When the may clause verb is in the future, the verb in a "when" or "as" clause should be in the present to indicate simultaneity.
"She'll be coming 'round the mountain when she comes."
That's a quote from a traditional American folk song, not a likely sentence for the GMAT! Nevertheless, it's a good example of the correct verb tense in this situation. Thus, even with the "in . . . into" mess cleaned up, (A) would have other problems.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


I love your explanation on this, especially about the "action verb" and "being verb". In Japanese we have such verbs as well so it was quite clear to me to understand when I read your explanation but in the beginning I did not realize such sophisticated usage of the verbs in this problem. Such a great question from OG.
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2017, 00:32
egmat wrote:
kunalsingh1991 wrote:
is there any other error in option A apart from in....into thing !!

can someone please provide some feedback on this one.



Hello kunalsingh1991,

I would be glad to help you resolve your doubt. :)

In Choice A, use of as is incorrect because in the context of the sentence, as can mean because as well as while.

In addition, the sentence intends to convey that while A happens, B will happen. Hence, use of the verb will build is not correct as these verbs do not convey the sequence of the events clearly.

Gusty westerly winds will usher in cool winds when high pressure builds. However, use of will build suggests that this event will take place in future.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha



Thanks for the explanation Shraddha (e-gmat). It helped.


what does 'which' refer to in this sentence? How can it jump over a verb?
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Sep 2017, 01:17
Quote:
Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

A. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and
B. ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that
C. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and
D. ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and
E. to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will


i agree with daagh here . Also the explanations , some of which are nice, but break the simplicity of question.
I took 4 minutes to solve it, may be because it's a 95% difficulty question.
To keep it simple , as far as my experience with gmat official questions goes , they primarily intend to test the meaning first.
Here we need a contrast
something will continue to usher ((( future or prediction))) , while/as something builds (( in present))
that leaves us with only two viable options A and E.
In a AS is confusing . It's equivocating . You get to two meanings
1) both actions occur in a similar fashion as causality.
2) both actions are different in some or other way
Also it intends to say two actions in future WILL CONTINUE ....... WILL BUILD Isn't that more confusing.
A clear construction IF present ,,then future is easy to understand, a case described in option E
Also E uses WHILE to explain that contrast correctly.
As far as usage of which goes , Manhattan SC guide clearly explains that a mission critical modifier (( the prepositional phrase"" of high pressure"" falls between braod area and which to make the intended meaning more clear

So , The simplcity of the question is to stick to the meaning of the sentence , not to basic grammer rules.
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2017, 05:53
Hello egmat,

Could you please explain this OG 18 Question using the egmat 3 step process?

Thanks
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2017, 02:40
pradeepgupta02 wrote:
I am amazed by the explanation provided by top GMAT instructors of recognized institutes such as idiom pattern, usage of as.

Nonetheless, Below is my line of reasoning to select option E.

1)....Cool air mass....fair and dry weather.....
This represent contrast hence we need conjunction such as Although, but , while

2) First sentence is in future tense , second sentence should be in present tense.( well known pattern)
A will happen while B happens.

3) a broad area of high pressure builds, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days.
vs
a broad area of high pressure, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days, builds

both sentences are correct. GMAT prefers to keep long description(which will bring fair and dry weather for several days) of subject(a broad area of high pressure) at end if object (builds)is very short.


I‘ve never replied anyone on this forum, but your response is exactly the same as that of GMAC, which replied a private tutor via an email.
Here's the context of that email:
In the item referred to below (IBN 12131, OG 2018 #781), ‘which’ could be interpreted as having the preceding clause as its antecedent, but it is better understood as having the noun phrase ‘a broad area of high pressure’ as its antecedent. Certain types of verbs that indicate arrival, positioning, coming into being, and the like can stand between a relative pronoun and its antecedent in cases where there is unlikely to be any confusion and the writer wants to avoid the awkwardness of putting the verb after a long intervening phrase.

For example, one could say “A new CEO is coming who will change the way our company does business.” In the sentence in OG #781, this construction is a simple and efficient alternative to a wording such as “while a broad area of high pressure, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days builds.” Interpreted either way (with ‘which’ referring to the front or to the front’s building), option E is clearer and more effectively expressed than any of the other options.
Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m &nbs [#permalink] 30 Nov 2017, 02:40

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