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Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m

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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2017, 16:24
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snjainpune wrote:
Hello egmat,

Could you please explain this OG 18 Question using the egmat 3 step process?

Thanks



Hello snjainpune,

Sorry for replying late. But better late than never. :grin:


Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.


Meaning Analysis: The meaning is pretty clear. Gusty westerly winds will bring in cool air mass into the region. And a big area of high pressure will build and bring dry weather for many days.


Error Analysis: Let's identify the errors now.

i. The sentence uses incorrect idiom usher in. As a verb, only usher is used.
ii. Use of as is incorrect because in the context of the sentence. As can mean because as well as while.
iii. The sentence intends to convey that while A happens, B will happen. Hence, use of the verb will build is not correct as these verbs do not convey the sequence of the events clearly.


Answer Choice Analysis:


A. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and: Incorrect for the reason stated in the Error Analysis section.


B. ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that: Incorrect

i. The expression continue ushering is incorrect. The word continue is generally followed by to verb phrase.
ii. Two independent clauses have been connected only by and.
iii. The express will bring that build makes no sense at all.


C. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and: Incorrect

i. Same expression error as in Choice A.
ii. The structure a broad area of high pressure building seems to act as a noun modifier that illogically modifies the preceding noun the region.
iii. This choice says that the gusty westerly winds will bring in dry weather, the information not in sync with the meaning conveyed by the original sentence.


D. ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and: Incorrect

i. Same expression error as in Choice B.
ii. The words building and bring are not parallel.


E. to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will: Correct

I do understand that the noun modifier which is preceded by a verb. However, I will regard this usage as just one-off usage and will continue to use which as a relative pronoun modifier modifying the immediate preceding noun.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Dec 2017, 03:12
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A real tough question. But when you go by meaning only E makes. Of course i came to that conclusion after choosing the incorrect answer!
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2018, 02:06
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verb,which : are generally considered wrong, is this the exception to the question. Never eliminated on the basis of being verb and action verb before.
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jan 2018, 09:45
egmat wrote:
snjainpune wrote:
Hello egmat,

Could you please explain this OG 18 Question using the egmat 3 step process?

Thanks



Hello snjainpune,

Sorry for replying late. But better late than never. :grin:


Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.


Meaning Analysis: The meaning is pretty clear. Gusty westerly winds will bring in cool air mass into the region. And a big area of high pressure will build and bring dry weather for many days.


Error Analysis: Let's identify the errors now.

i. The sentence uses incorrect idiom usher in. As a verb, only usher is used.
ii. Use of as is incorrect because in the context of the sentence. As can mean because as well as while.
iii. The sentence intends to convey that while A happens, B will happen. Hence, use of the verb will build is not correct as these verbs do not convey the sequence of the events clearly.


Answer Choice Analysis:


A. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and: Incorrect for the reason stated in the Error Analysis section.


B. ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that: Incorrect

i. The expression continue ushering is incorrect. The word continue is generally followed by to verb phrase.
ii. Two independent clauses have been connected only by and.
iii. The express will bring that build makes no sense at all.


C. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and: Incorrect

i. Same expression error as in Choice A.
ii. The structure a broad area of high pressure building seems to act as a noun modifier that illogically modifies the preceding noun the region.
iii. This choice says that the gusty westerly winds will bring in dry weather, the information not in sync with the meaning conveyed by the original sentence.


D. ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and: Incorrect

i. Same expression error as in Choice B.
ii. The words building and bring are not parallel.


E. to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will: Correct

I do understand that the noun modifier which is preceded by a verb. However, I will regard this usage as just one-off usage and will continue to use which as a relative pronoun modifier modifying the immediate preceding noun.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
Shraddha



Thank you the detailed explanation Shraddha.

Regards,
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2018, 22:52
mikemcgarry wrote:
leanhdung wrote:
hi mikemcgarry

Can you explain which phrase relative pronoun which in E modifies ?
I feel that the use of which in E is very strange.

Many thanks!

Dear leanhdung,

How are you, my friend? I'm happy to respond. :-)

Here's (E), the OA:
Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days.

As I'm sure you understand, a noun-modifying clause beginning with "which" normally should obey the Modifier Touch Rule. Of course, there are a few exceptions to the Touch Rule. One is that a single, grammatically necessary word can come between the target noun and the "which" clause.

Here, the target noun modified by "which" is "a broad area of high pressure." All that comes between this target noun and the "which" is the verb "builds." Now, this structure may raise your suspicions: normally the structure [noun][verb]"which" is highly problematic because that "which" clause is trying to modify the action of the verb, a highly naughty thing for it to be attempting! Normally, that's a problem, because most verbs are "action verbs," so the word "which" would be touching an action! The situation is totally different with what I would call "being verbs," rather than "action verbs," especially a "being verb" that is about the noun coming into greater existence, because then the verb functions logically almost as an intensifier for the noun. That's exactly what is happening here. The verb "builds," used here, is a "being verb"--it's simply about the noun coming into greater existence, so it "points to" and intensifies the noun. Therefore, it does not interrupt the logical link between the target noun and the modifier clause--in fact, it enhances that logical link.

It's one of the many reasons this question is a gem--a structure that normally would be a trainwreck is actually exquisitely correct here. The official questions are simply extraordinary.

BTW, kunalsingh1991, with all due respect to egmat, I am going to disagree with part of what Shraddha said. I don't believe the fact that "as" has two potential meanings necessarily creates any problems for (A). I would agree, though, that the tense of the verb "will build" is a problem. When the may clause verb is in the future, the verb in a "when" or "as" clause should be in the present to indicate simultaneity.
"She'll be coming 'round the mountain when she comes."
That's a quote from a traditional American folk song, not a likely sentence for the GMAT! Nevertheless, it's a good example of the correct verb tense in this situation. Thus, even with the "in . . . into" mess cleaned up, (A) would have other problems.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)



Hey Mike , I really like your enlightening explanation about being verbs . According to me it is the buildup of high pressure which brings in dry winds . However , as per your explanation , it is the high pressure area itself which brings in dry winds.Since , in your explanation you mentioned which to modify the noun. This noun brings in dry winds . Doesn’t this distort the meaning .
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2018, 08:11
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Why can't we eliminate choice B and D simply by it use of ING form.
Gusty westerly winds will continue ushering...
here ing form is neither being used as verb form nor Gerund so it is modifier since it does not touch noun so it is not adj rather adverb modifying the previous clause. if it modifies the previous clause then the previous clause will not stand alone as " Gusty westerly winds will continue"
Am i right on eliminating the choices on basis of use of ing form
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Aug 2018, 08:14
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mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:

Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

A. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and
B. ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that
C. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and
D. ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and
E. to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will

Dear AbdurRakib,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

This is a great question, as all the official questions are!

This uses a quite idiosyncratic idiom, involving the verb "to usher." The literal use of this word is the action of the person called an "usher," the person in a theater or at a classical concern who escorts patrons to their seats. Metaphorically, it is used about anything that brings something into existence. The basic idiom is:
I usher X in.
If I want to specify the region in which this X is introduced, I would say:
I usher X into A.

The "in . . . into" is redundant and wrong: choice (A) & (B) have this, and the "in . . . to" in (C) is far from ideal. Choices (D) & (E) get the idiom completely correct.

This is not a strict rule, but "continue" +[infinitive] sounds formal and sophisticated, whereas "continue" +[gerund] sounds casual and colloquial.

Choice (D) also makes a mistake with "with" + [noun] + [participle]. That's very subtle.

This leave (E), the OA.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Why can't we eliminate choice B and D simply by it use of ING form.
Gusty westerly winds will continue ushering...
here ing form is neither being used as verb form nor Gerund so it is modifier since it does not touch noun so it is not adj rather adverb modifying the previous clause. if it modifies the previous sentence then the previous sentence can not stand alone as " Gusty westerly winds will continue" will become clause and could not stand alone
Am i right on eliminating the choices on basis of use of ing form
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Aug 2018, 10:54
Hello Everyone!

There seems to be a lot of great discussion on this question already, mostly around how to answer this type of question quickly. Let's take a fresh look at it, and figure out how to tackle such a difficult question in a timely manner!

To get started, here is the original question, with any major differences between each option highlighted in orange:

Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

(A) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and
(B) ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that
(C) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and
(D) ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and
(E) to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will

After a quick glance over each option, there are a few major differences we can address that will help narrow our options down quickly:

1. to usher / ushering
2. into / to / in
3. conjunctions & punctuation after "region"
4. each option's ending


Let's look at #1 on this list first: to usher / ushering. This was a tough one for a lot of people, and for good reason! As it turns out, you can use both of these in this sentence and they'll work. If you find yourself stuck on to usher / ushering for too long, it's a good sign that you need to move on to something else on the list. You can always come back to it later if you need to!

Instead of staying stuck on #1 for too long, let's jump into #2 on the list: into / to / in. One thing that jumped out to me right away is that some options say "ushering/to usher in....into the region," which is redundant! You can usher something into a region, or usher in something to a region, but you cannot usher in something into a region! Let's see which options we can eliminate that are redundant:

(A) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and
(B) ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that
(C) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and
(D) ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and
(E) to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will

You can eliminate options A & B quickly because they are redundant.

This leaves us with only 3 options left, so let's focus on #3 and #4 on the list: conjunctions/punctuation after "region" & their endings. We need to make sure commas and conjunctions are being used correctly, and that the endings work with the rest of the sentence. Here's how each option breaks down:

(C) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and

This option is INCORRECT because the comma after "region" creates an awkward comma splice. It also doesn't work to say that high pressure is "building, and bring fair and dry weather..." because it's not parallel. It should be "building and bringing" for it to be parallel! It also says that ALL of the actions happen at the same time, which isn't accurate. First, the cool air mass comes in and builds pressure, and THEN fair and dry weather happens over the next several days.

(D) ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and

This option is INCORRECT because it uses the phrase "building and bring," which isn't parallel. We don't really have a problem using the comma before "with" in this case because it's being used to indicate that everything after it is non-essential information (which it is). The meaning of the sentence doesn't change if you take it out, so it's a non-essential phrase that merely adds colorful details. This sentence also suggests that ALL of the actions happen at the same time, instead of in a particular order.

(E) to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will

This option is CORRECT because it's not redundant (to usher...into the region), "while" is being used correctly to show two actions occur at the same time, and the conjunction "which will" properly shows that the action "bring fair and dry weather for several days" happens after the cool air mass shows up. This sentence is clear, concise, and shows the proper order of events!

There you go - option E is the correct answer, and hopefully we got to it quickly enough for you to tackle more GMAT questions in the allotted time!


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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2018, 02:45
Hello Experts,

I've gone through all the posts posted in this tread but still not 100% clear and understood the solution. I think, I lack some basics that are needed for this question. Can anyone please help me the list of basics that I should go through before attempting this question one more time?

Thank you!
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 10:14
mikemcgarry wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:

Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

A. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and
B. ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that
C. to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and
D. ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and
E. to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will

Dear AbdurRakib,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

This is a great question, as all the official questions are!

This uses a quite idiosyncratic idiom, involving the verb "to usher." The literal use of this word is the action of the person called an "usher," the person in a theater or at a classical concern who escorts patrons to their seats. Metaphorically, it is used about anything that brings something into existence. The basic idiom is:
I usher X in.
If I want to specify the region in which this X is introduced, I would say:
I usher X into A.

The "in . . . into" is redundant and wrong: choice (A) & (B) have this, and the "in . . . to" in (C) is far from ideal. Choices (D) & (E) get the idiom completely correct.

This is not a strict rule, but "continue" +[infinitive] sounds formal and sophisticated, whereas "continue" +[gerund] sounds casual and colloquial.

Choice (D) also makes a mistake with "with" + [noun] + [participle]. That's very subtle.

This leave (E), the OA.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)



Thanks for your explanation!!
I have one question regarding usage of "while". I have read while is used for two purposes i.e for constrast and other of continuation of activity.
Clearly both are not the cases here. Can you please explain??
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Re: Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air m  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2018, 03:01
Gusty westerly winds will continue to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and bring fair and dry weather for several days.

(A) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass into the region, as a broad area of high pressure will build and - seems like broad area of high pressure will bring fair and dry weather, which is not correct

(B) ushering in a seasonably cool air mass into the region and a broad area of high pressure will build that - broad area of high pressure 'brings' is correct. Bring distorts SV agreement

(C) to usher in a seasonably cool air mass to the region, a broad area of high pressure building, and - all 3 are not parallel

(D) ushering a seasonably cool air mass in the region, with a broad area of high pressure building and - meaning is distorted. This option doesn't really makes sense

(E) to usher a seasonably cool air mass into the region while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will - correct

Comma + which : LINK 1 & LINK 2

Gusty Winds

(A) Meaning (usher in … into)

(B) Meaning (usher in … into); Subject-Verb (area … build)

(C) Modifier / Meaning (broad area…)

(D) Parallelism (X and Y); Idiom (usher in)

(E) CORRECT


First glance
The beginning of each choice is either to usher or ushering, indicating a potential structural or idiomatic issue. (Note: It turns out that this particular split is a red herring; either form could be okay in the sentence. Use other differences to solve this one!)

Issues
(1) Meaning: usher in … into
You can usher someone in or you can usher someone into your home—but you don’t usher in someone into your home. Use either in or into, not both. Eliminate choices (A) and (B) for using a redundant structure.

(2) Subject-Verb: area … build
Parallelism: building and bring

Each answer choice leads into the verb bring (the first word after the underline ends). Three of the choices end in and, indicating a potential parallelism issue, so check how this occurs.

(A) a broad area … will build and bring
(B) a broad area … will build that bring
(C) winds will continue to usher … and bring
(D) a broad area … building and bring
(E) a broad area … builds, which will bring

This one is going to be a bit tricky; start with the two definite errors. In choice (B), the singular subject area is paired with the plural verb bring (an area … bring). Eliminate (B) for a subject-verb mismatch.

Choice (D) has faulty parallelism, pairing the –ing word building with the regular verb bring. Eliminate (D) as well.

Choice (E) is the tricky one. A comma-which modifier refers to a noun and that noun has to be close enough to the modifier that the relationship is clear. In this case, a broad area (of high pressure) is that noun, and it is in fact only one word away from the modifier—but, unusually, a verb (builds) comes in between. A lot of people will cross this answer off because, typically, a verb does not intervene between a noun and a noun modifier.

This particular clause (while a broad area of high pressure builds) is itself a modifier of the main sentence that appears before it. In this case, the author must choose between these two constructions:

… while a broad area of high pressure builds, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days.
… while a broad area of high pressure, which will bring fair and dry weather for several days, builds.

Given the length of the noun modifier—and the shortness of the verb—an author might choose to place that verb first. Think of this as an extension of the convention that a noun followed by two noun modifiers will place the essential modifier first:

The box of nails, which is sitting on the table, …

It’s still clear that the second modifier refers to box, as in choice (E) it’s clear that the which modifier refers to the broad area of high pressure. So leave choice (E) in for now and compare the two remaining answers: (C) and (E).

(3) Modifier / Meaning: broad area of high pressure building

The words a broad area of high pressure building are set off by commas, so this is a modifier. What is it modifying?

It’s not entirely clear. The region? The air mass[i]? The whole clause? Further, the sentence structure has changed in such a way that the [i]gusty winds (not the area of high pressure) … bring fair and dry weather. This increases the confusion over what the area of high pressure is referring to in the sentence. Eliminate choice (C) for an ambiguous modifier.

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (E) fixes the redundancy error in the original sentence (usher into) and does not introduce any new errors, as choices (C) and (D) do. This choice unusually inserts a verb between a noun and its modifier, likely in an attempt to get people to cross off the correct answer. Keep this mantra in mind: a noun modifier has to be placed close enough to its noun for the relationship to be clear—but the modifier does not necessarily have to be placed immediately next to its noun. Additionally, while and which in choice (E) help to communicate the intended timeline and cause-and-effect relationships.”
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