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Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2010, 12:44
(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business-correct , the effects of X cost business...

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2010, 21:58
i do not quite agree with reason for DE.

DE is wrong because the there is a separate clause after ‘and’ in which ‘and’ is preceded by a comma. hence, the second clause must have a subject. Besides ‘significantly’ is required over here because an adverb pattern is predered here. E also has S-V problem

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2010, 22:53
Thanks in B what is the antecedent of "which" ?

Is this an exception from the rule we follow for which?

(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business




ykaiim wrote:
IMO B.

Clues:
1. A is wrong as "which already are a cost to business of" is incorrect usage.
2. the effects of drug and alcohol abuse [plural] - COST is required. So, C and E out.
3. D is wrong because initial non-underlined part "the use....is growing" which indicates it requires an adverb to indicate the emphasis and also u can see ", and already costing business" part in the end which add another clause rather than a modified form.

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2010, 00:09
No, it's not an exception.

WHICH refers to THE EFFECTS.


nusmavrik wrote:
Thanks in B what is the antecedent of "which" ?

Is this an exception from the rule we follow for which?

(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business




ykaiim wrote:
IMO B.

Clues:
1. A is wrong as "which already are a cost to business of" is incorrect usage.
2. the effects of drug and alcohol abuse [plural] - COST is required. So, C and E out.
3. D is wrong because initial non-underlined part "the use....is growing" which indicates it requires an adverb to indicate the emphasis and also u can see ", and already costing business" part in the end which add another clause rather than a modified form.

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2010, 00:20
which refers to immediate noun before the comma.

effects is way too far

ykaiim wrote:
No, it's not an exception.

WHICH refers to THE EFFECTS.


nusmavrik wrote:
Thanks in B what is the antecedent of "which" ?

Is this an exception from the rule we follow for which?

(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business




ykaiim wrote:
IMO B.

Clues:
1. A is wrong as "which already are a cost to business of" is incorrect usage.
2. the effects of drug and alcohol abuse [plural] - COST is required. So, C and E out.
3. D is wrong because initial non-underlined part "the use....is growing" which indicates it requires an adverb to indicate the emphasis and also u can see ", and already costing business" part in the end which add another clause rather than a modified form.

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2010, 00:37
so what if it is far? when you have "X of Y" before a modifier ‘which’, the modifier could potentially refer either to "Y" by itself or to the whole unit "X of Y". It's up to context to determine which

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2010, 01:08
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nusmavrik wrote:
I don't get it.


ok i will try. 'which' does refer to a noun immideately preceding it is the genreal rule. but when we use 'of' we are attributing a misssion critical modifier to the subject.
correct: an ice sheet covers 80% of the surface area of greenland, which is an area roughly the size of alaska.

here the 'of clause' is essential to define the 80%. it is as if u r attributing a quality to the subject. something similar to using a possesive case. some thing like 'the strength of hercules' and 'hercule's strength'. both can be referred to by using 'which'. if u do observe, in many questions you can not use posseisive case and the 'of' clause together because it cause redudancy.

micheal's musuc is as famous as rehman's. correct
micheal's music is as famous as that of rehman. correct
micheal's music is as famous as that of reham's. incorrect

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2010, 01:30
Thanks.
What you are saying is use "of" is like possessive noun

Why don't u use that to avoid all this confusion. Why which is used to refer that far in the sentence?

roshanaslam wrote:
nusmavrik wrote:
I don't get it.


ok i will try. 'which' does refer to a noun immideately preceding it is the genreal rule. but when we use 'of' we are attributing a misssion critical modifier to the subject.
correct: an ice sheet covers 80% of the surface area of greenland, which is an area roughly the size of alaska.

here the 'of clause' is essential to define the 80%. it is as if u r attributing a quality to the subject. something similar to using a possesive case. some thing like 'the strength of hercules' and 'hercule's strength'. both can be referred to by using 'which'. if u do observe, in many questions you can not use posseisive case and the 'of' clause together because it cause redudancy.

micheal's musuc is as famous as rehman's. correct
micheal's music is as famous as that of rehman. correct
micheal's music is as famous as that of reham's. incorrect

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2010, 01:47
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while 'which' can be used to refer to the subject of the if clause, 'that' can not be used to do so.

X of y, which..... ( this would refer to X)
X of y that......... ( this would refer to Y) ( in this case u will end up modifying 'drug and alcohol abuse' instead of 'effects'


and also note that in the correct choice, 'which' clause gives non essential information about 'effects'.

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2010, 02:51
Pls look at the following examples.

1. This is one of the cars that run on hydrogen
that refers to cars

2. Cleveland is one of a large number of communities on the Great Lakes that are looking to improve the quality of urban life
that refers to communities NOT to Great Lakes
Quote:
X of y that......... ( this would refer to Y) ( in this case u will end up modifying 'drug and alcohol abuse' instead of 'effects'

X of y that.........
So that can refer either to X or to Y.

roshanaslam wrote:
while 'which' can be used to refer to the subject of the if clause, 'that' can not be used to do so.

X of y, which..... ( this would refer to X)
X of y that......... ( this would refer to Y) ( in this case u will end up modifying 'drug and alcohol abuse' instead of 'effects'


and also note that in the correct choice, 'which' clause gives non essential information about 'effects'.

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2010, 05:11
sentence 2 is x on y and not x of y. when we use 'of' we are talking about a attribute. the 'on' clause in sentence 2 worked as an mission critical modifier. besides these rules, infact most of the style based rules in gmat can be broken. what we are talking about is a rule that works 95% of the time. decide using situation in hand. there are examples in which the 'which' in X of Y. which.... refers to y. please see the context. the main rule with 'which' is that it can not refer to a clause. it must refer to a noun/noun phrase. so 'noun phrase' part is were the catch lies. if 'gmat' has to confuse u with 'which', it will muddy the other options really bad.
what u must remember is that that ambigious pronoun rule is a style rule. if other options break the grammatical rule or change the meaning, then u can definitely go for a choice with the ambigious pronoun but doesnt break the above 2 rules(grammar and meaning)

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2011, 03:27
B, this one should have the word businesses in it, shouldn't it?

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2011, 10:41
+1 B

However, I think that the verb "cost" should be "costS" because it refers to abuse. "Which" refers to the noun which is next to it.
Or could it refer to a noun phrase ("the effects of drug and alcohol abuse")?

Thanks!
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2011, 23:46
which is referring effects (plural) not only abuse.
hence,Cost will be plural

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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Quote:
Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year.

(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of
(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business
(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of
(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business
(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business


Answer: B.
'Significantly' vs 'significant' ---> 'significantly' is correct. Eliminates D and E.
A is incorrect because it leaves us confused as to which holds a value of 'more than $100 billion a year' - is it the business? or is it the compounding costs of substance abuse?
C is incorrect as well because it changes the meaning of the statement.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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119. Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers,
significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of
more than $100 billion a year.
128
(A) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business
of
(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business
(C) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, already with business costs of
(D) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costing business
(E) significant in compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, and already costs business

OA is B.

According to me none of the options are correct.

Restructuring the sentence ::

use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly , middle participial phrase ,which already cost business ....
Should be wrong because which should be used only to modify nouns just before them and not the whole clause.

What do you say guys ??
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 17 Mar 2012, 01:23
OG can never be wrong. :-)

It is not necessary that which will only modify the nouns before the comma. There are exceptions. In this case which refers to the 'Effects'.

This sentence "the effects of.......... " includes a prepositional phrase. Here 'which' could either refer to the prepositional phrase or to the subject. But reading the sentence clearly you will know that which refers to the effects and not to the prep phrase.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 17 Mar 2012, 01:27
Agree with the above user. OG can never be wrong. What you have to ask yourself is 'what concept i have gone wrong while solving the problem'

'Which' here in B modifies effects of alcohol and drug use.

X of Y, Which - 'which' can modify both X and Y based on the context and verb following 'which'. In this case it is plural cost in agreement with effects.
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 17 Mar 2012, 05:02
shikhar wrote:
119. Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine is growing rapidly among workers, significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already are a cost to business of more than $100 billion a year.

(B) significantly compounding the effects of drug and alcohol abuse, which already cost business


blue : extends the idea correctly, the -ing form is required here.
green: effects and cost are good with respect to SV agreement.

HTH
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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine [#permalink]

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New post 23 Mar 2012, 10:08
B as it maintains the meaning of the sentence.

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Re: Executives and federal officials say that the use of crack and cocaine   [#permalink] 23 Mar 2012, 10:08

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