It is currently 18 Oct 2017, 02:56

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Events & Promotions

Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

4 KUDOS received
Director
Director
User avatar
B
Status: I don't stop when I'm Tired,I stop when I'm done
Joined: 11 May 2014
Posts: 570

Kudos [?]: 2662 [4], given: 220

Location: Bangladesh
Concentration: Finance, Leadership
GPA: 2.81
WE: Business Development (Real Estate)
In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 Jul 2016, 16:48
4
This post received
KUDOS
18
This post was
BOOKMARKED
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

  35% (medium)

Question Stats:

68% (01:48) correct 32% (02:00) wrong based on 947 sessions

HideShow timer Statistics

In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it is inadvisable to require the best results that state-of-the-art technology can achieve. Current technology is able to detect and eliminate even extremely minute amounts of contaminants, but at a cost that is exorbitant relative to the improvement achieved. So it would be reasonable instead to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risks involved.

The argument given concerning the reasonable way to set standards presupposes that

A. industry currently meets the standards that have been set by environmental authorities
B. there are effective ways to take into account all of the relevant risks posed by allowing different levels of contaminants
C. the only contaminants worth measuring are generated by industry
D. it is not costly to prevent large amounts of contaminants from entering the environment
E. minute amounts of some contaminants can be poisonous

OG V 2017 New Question(Book Question: 153)
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

_________________

Md. Abdur Rakib

Please Press +1 Kudos,If it helps
Sentence Correction-Collection of Ron Purewal's "elliptical construction/analogies" for SC Challenges

Kudos [?]: 2662 [4], given: 220

Manager
Manager
User avatar
Joined: 13 Jun 2016
Posts: 135

Kudos [?]: 120 [0], given: 424

Location: United States
Concentration: Finance, Technology
Re: In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 Jul 2016, 17:33
The conclusion is 'it would be reasonable instead to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risks involved' which is particularly strong.

It assumes that it is possible to account for all the risks and answer choice B does just the job. All the other answer choices either take it too far or just irrelevant to what the argument is.

Kudos [?]: 120 [0], given: 424

Expert Post
7 KUDOS received
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4420

Kudos [?]: 8427 [7], given: 102

Re: In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 Jul 2016, 17:45
7
This post received
KUDOS
Expert's post
5
This post was
BOOKMARKED
AbdurRakib wrote:
In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it is inadvisable to require the best results that state-of-the-art technology can achieve. Current technology is able to detect and eliminate even extremely minute amounts of contaminants, but at a cost that is exorbitant relative to the improvement achieved. So it would be reasonable instead to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risks involved.

The argument given concerning the reasonable way to set standards presupposes that

A. industry currently meets the standards that have been set by environmental authorities
B. there are effective ways to take into account all of the relevant risks posed by allowing different levels of contaminants
C. the only contaminants worth measuring are generated by industry
D. it is not costly to prevent large amounts of contaminants from entering the environment
E. minute amounts of some contaminants can be poisonous

OG V 2017 New Question(Book Question: 153)

Dear AbdurRakib,

I'm happy to respond. :-) This is a subtle and difficult question, a very good question.

First, let's consider the prompt. Suppose we are looking at some contaminant---call it X. We want to most of the X in, say, drinking water. A cleansing system that eliminates down to one part-per-thousand might leave some X at the order of parts-per-million (ppm). A more expensive system might detect and eliminate X down to 1 ppm might leave residue amounts at the order of a few parts-per-billion (ppb). You can imagine extending this process to parts-per-trillion, etc., all the time getting more and more expensive. The very best system might be so efficient that not one molecule of X is left, but it might cost $100 billion. The argument is saying: we don't necessarily need the most rigorous and most expensive system: we have to assess risk, because maybe one of the less rigorous systems would be perfectly fine.

To make the situation more clear, I will bring in a couple examples from my own knowledge. A chemical such as bleach or lye is toxic in high concentrations, but at the order of 1 part-per-thousand, it is 100% harmless. It would be complete overkill and total waste money to purifying drinking water of these chemicals beyond that level. By contrast, the neurotoxins, such as lead, are really bad: lead causes measurable neurological damage at 1 ppb, so the standards for lead are much much more stringent than they are for most other chemicals. This is outside knowledge, but it might help to give you a real world sense of the context of the problem.

OK, now let's look at the answers. What is assumed by the argument? This is essentially an assumption question. We can use the Negation Test.

A. industry currently meets the standards that have been set by environmental authorities
Not necessarily. The argument would still be valid even if industry were outdoing any standards that had been set. They may be overachieving, say, purifying down to less than 1 ppb when the official standard is 1 ppm, but it still would be unreasonable to require them to do the very best that current technology could do. We can negate this, and the argument is fine. This is not an assumption.

B. there are effective ways to take into account all of the relevant risks posed by allowing different levels of contaminants
Interesting. Suppose there were no ways to assess those risk. Suppose we had no idea whether 1 part-per-thousand or 1 ppm or 1 ppb would be safe: then would we have to use the highest possible standard, the most technologically advanced method of cleansing, regardless of the cost. This would shatter the argument. The argument depends on the fact that risk for different chemicals at different concentrations are already well known. This is a promising answer.

C. the only contaminants worth measuring are generated by industry
Some contaminate might occur naturally, or some might come from household processes or from vehicle exhaust. This could be (and is) completely false, and it doesn't change the requirement on industry. This is not an assumption.

D. it is not costly to prevent large amounts of contaminants from entering the environment
Negate this. Suppose it were quite expensive to prevent large amounts of contaminants from entering the environment. What does this mean for the argument? It's unclear. Suppose it costs an industry $1 million to remove 90% of item X. What would it cost to use the best technology, to eliminate the X completely? Maybe just another million, or maybe $100 billion. It could still be unreasonable to require the most advanced technology, so the argument still works. This is not an assumption.

E. minute amounts of some contaminants can be poisonous
Negate this. Suppose minute amounts of anything are completely safe. Then, there would be no absolutely no reason to use the most advanced technology, to eliminate even microscopic quantities, because these microscopic quantities are perfectly safe. Negating this strengthens the argument, so this choice wildly fails the negation test. This is not an assumption.

The best answer is the OA, (B).

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Image

Image

Kudos [?]: 8427 [7], given: 102

Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 27 Jul 2011
Posts: 61

Kudos [?]: 75 [0], given: 15

In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 Jul 2016, 17:52
Type: Presuppose = Assumption
P1: In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it is inadvisable to require the best results that state-of-the-art technology can achieve.
P2: Current technology is able to detect and eliminate even extremely minute amounts of contaminants, but at a cost that is exorbitant relative to the improvement achieved.
Conc: So it would be reasonable instead to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risks involved.

Pre-think:
Diagram:
{Current tech able to detect and eliminate contaminant, but Cost > Benefit ---> Reasonable to take current and future risk}

Assume skill and/ or will (MGMAT)

Missing gap
Conc: nothing mention about KEYWORD: contaminant, Cost > Benefit

Use negation to confirm ans

The argument given concerning the reasonable way to set standards presupposes that

A. industry currently meets the standards that have been set by environmental authorities
[industry currently does not necessarily meet the standard that have been set by environmental authorities - No impact]
B. there are effective ways to take into account all of the relevant risks posed by allowing different levels of contaminants
[there are no effective ways to take into account all of the relevant risks posed by allowing different levels of contaminants - current and future risks cannot be determined, thus weaken]
C. the only contaminants worth measuring are generated by industry
[the only contaminants worth measuring are not generated by industry - No impact - even if not generated by industry current risks and future risks can be determined]
D. it is not costly to prevent large amounts of contaminants from entering the environment
[it is costly to prevent large amounts of contaminants from entering the environment - No impact on whether current and future risks can be determined]
E. minute amounts of some contaminants can be poisonous
[minute amounts of some contaminants cannot be poisonous - argument on hand needs to take into consideration current and future risks]

Please comment. Still learning. Thanks

Kudos [?]: 75 [0], given: 15

Manager
Manager
User avatar
B
Status: In the realms of Chaos & Night
Joined: 13 Sep 2015
Posts: 171

Kudos [?]: 90 [0], given: 94

Re: In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 07 Jul 2016, 01:52
AbdurRakib wrote:
In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it is inadvisable to require the best results that state-of-the-art technology can achieve. Current technology is able to detect and eliminate even extremely minute amounts of contaminants, but at a cost that is exorbitant relative to the improvement achieved. So it would be reasonable instead to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risks involved.

The argument given concerning the reasonable way to set standards presupposes that

A. industry currently meets the standards that have been set by environmental authorities
B. there are effective ways to take into account all of the relevant risks posed by allowing different levels of contaminants
C. the only contaminants worth measuring are generated by industry
D. it is not costly to prevent large amounts of contaminants from entering the environment
E. minute amounts of some contaminants can be poisonous

OG V 2017 New Question(Book Question: 153)


Premise: 1. In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it is inadvisable to require the best results that state-of-the-art technology can achieve.
2. Current technology is able to detect and eliminate even extremely minute amounts of contaminants, but at a cost that is exorbitant relative to the improvement achieved. Conclusion: 1. So it would be reasonable instead to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risks involved.

Question type : Assumption
Prephase: Ans should refer to risks/ reasonable cost & standards. Particularly the phrase "taking into account all of the current and future risks involved", gives a hint that - is the elimination at a higher cost necessary.

Took me more than 2mins to solve, but the ans does not stand out. I used elimination method which eventually left Ans B. a second look at (B) made things fall in place.
B. there are effective ways to take into account all of the relevant risks posed by allowing different levels of contaminants - Allowing Contamination within specific limits.

AbdurRakib - Thanks for posting the OG 2017Questions - Please keep them coming .. +1Kudos given
Good luck
=========================================================================================
"If a street performer makes you stop walking, you owe him a buck"
"If this post helps you on your GMAT journey, drop a +1 Kudo "

_________________

Good luck
=========================================================================================
"If a street performer makes you stop walking, you owe him a buck"
"If this post helps you on your GMAT journey, drop a +1 Kudo "


"Thursdays with Ron - Consolidated Verbal Master List - Updated"

Kudos [?]: 90 [0], given: 94

Director
Director
User avatar
Joined: 18 Oct 2014
Posts: 906

Kudos [?]: 411 [0], given: 69

Location: United States
GMAT 1: 660 Q49 V31
GPA: 3.98
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 07 Jul 2016, 11:57
AbdurRakib wrote:
In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it is inadvisable to require the best results that state-of-the-art technology can achieve. Current technology is able to detect and eliminate even extremely minute amounts of contaminants, but at a cost that is exorbitant relative to the improvement achieved. So it would be reasonable instead to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risks involved.

The argument given concerning the reasonable way to set standards presupposes that

A. industry currently meets the standards that have been set by environmental authorities
B. there are effective ways to take into account all of the relevant risks posed by allowing different levels of contaminants
C. the only contaminants worth measuring are generated by industry
D. it is not costly to prevent large amounts of contaminants from entering the environment
E. minute amounts of some contaminants can be poisonous

OG V 2017 New Question(Book Question: 153)


Conclusion :- it would be reasonable instead to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risks involved

Basically, it says that instead of measuring all the pollutants (for example), its good to know the risks and then control contaminants.

There are certain below assumptions:-
1) Risks can be measured.
2) Setting standards for contaminants is not necessarily controlling risks
3) Risks can be controlled even by not setting strict standards

A. industry currently meets the standards that have been set by environmental authorities. We don't know if standards are currently met. We ar concerend about future risks.
B. there are effective ways to take into account all of the relevant risks posed by allowing different levels of contaminants. This is one of the assumptions we derived.
C. the only contaminants worth measuring are generated by industry. It does'nt matter. It can be generated by others also. We are talking about industries only.
D. it is not costly to prevent large amounts of contaminants from entering the environment. We know that it is costly to remove contaminants from enviornment. We don't know if preventing the entry is costly or not.
E. minute amounts of some contaminants can be poisonous. We want to know about risks and not really poisoning effect.
_________________

I welcome critical analysis of my post!! That will help me reach 700+

Kudos [?]: 411 [0], given: 69

Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 03 Aug 2015
Posts: 37

Kudos [?]: 4 [0], given: 2

GMAT ToolKit User
Re: In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 07 Jul 2016, 20:57
Conclusion: standards should be set by considering current and future risks involved...

A. industry currently meets the standards that have been set by environmental authorities::: If the industry meets or doesnot meet the requirement the above conclusion still holds
B. there are effective ways to take into account all of the relevant risks posed by allowing different levels of contaminants: If there are ways to account the risks then the conclusion hold and in case there are no ways then conclusion stands void
C. the only contaminants worth measuring are generated by industry: Here we are talking of Industry and thats written in the stem of the question but we cannot generalize that only industry generates the contaminant
D. it is not costly to prevent large amounts of contaminants from entering the environment: Prevention is costly or not is not discussed in Stem of the question. we are talking of risk analysis to be made while setting standards to remove the contaminants.
E. minute amounts of some contaminants can be poisonous: risk / Benefits of using a standard needs to be evaluated before implementing it, so effects need not to be considered.

Kudos [?]: 4 [0], given: 2

Manager
Manager
avatar
B
Joined: 26 Jan 2016
Posts: 116

Kudos [?]: 23 [0], given: 55

Location: United States
GPA: 3.37
Re: In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 03 Sep 2016, 20:36
Can someone elaborate on why E is wrong?

Conclusion : it would be reasonable instead to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risks involved

If we're assuming that even minute amounts of contaminants can be poisonous then isn't that the basis for needing to establish any type of standards?

I was down between B and E.

Is E wrong because of the word "some". If it didn't have that and said minute amounts of contaminats can be posionous would the answer change?

Kudos [?]: 23 [0], given: 55

Expert Post
Verbal Expert
User avatar
S
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 3150

Kudos [?]: 3282 [0], given: 22

Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE: Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge
In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Sep 2016, 13:31
joannaecohen wrote:
Can someone elaborate on why E is wrong?

Conclusion : it would be reasonable instead to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risks involved

If we're assuming that even minute amounts of contaminants can be poisonous then isn't that the basis for needing to establish any type of standards?

I was down between B and E.

Is E wrong because of the word "some". If it didn't have that and said minute amounts of contaminats can be posionous would the answer change?


It is generally misleading to consider the conclusion in isolation. Always relate the conclusion with the premise and then find out the missing link (i.e., the assumption).

When the conclusion is considered in isolation then E can be an assumption, but selecting E would be wrong because it does not fill the gap between the premise and the conclusion.

Premise: Current technology is able to detect and eliminate even extremely minute amounts of contaminants, but at a cost that is exorbitant relative to the improvement achieved.

Conclusion: So it would be reasonable instead to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risks involved.

Rather than filling in a gap between premise and conclusion, option E points at a weakness in the premise-conclusion link - the gist of the argument is that since the cost for detecting minute amounts is high, it is prudent to set standards as per risk (i.e. not to set very stringent standards unnecessarily). Option E is a weakener for this argument.

Kudos [?]: 3282 [0], given: 22

Manager
Manager
avatar
S
Joined: 03 Jan 2017
Posts: 197

Kudos [?]: 9 [0], given: 4

Re: In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 14 Mar 2017, 15:29
loved this questions!

premise: current techs do a lot, but the cost sometimes is not reasonable verusus improvement
conclusion: it is reasonable to set standarts involving risks of present and future

B fits perfectly. To be sure, let's negate it: there are no effective ways to take into account all of the relevant risks posed by allowing different levels of contaminants. This does break the argument, fits!

Kudos [?]: 9 [0], given: 4

Mannheim Thread Master
User avatar
S
Status: It's now or never
Joined: 10 Feb 2017
Posts: 275

Kudos [?]: 27 [0], given: 51

Location: India
GMAT 1: 650 Q40 V39
GPA: 3
WE: Consulting (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User
Re: In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Aug 2017, 03:18
Although the answer choice 'B' is correct. I would request folks to share their thoughts on how to answer these kind of questions. Presupposes... I didn't get it at all.
_________________

2017-2018 MBA Deadlines

Threadmaster for B-school Discussions
Class of 2019: Mannheim Business School
Class 0f 2020: HHL Leipzig

Kudos [?]: 27 [0], given: 51

Expert Post
Magoosh GMAT Instructor
User avatar
G
Joined: 28 Dec 2011
Posts: 4420

Kudos [?]: 8427 [0], given: 102

Re: In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 18 Aug 2017, 10:42
AnubhavK wrote:
Although the answer choice 'B' is correct. I would request folks to share their thoughts on how to answer these kind of questions. Presupposes... I didn't get it at all.

Dear AnubhavK,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

For GMAT CR purposes, "presupposes" is the same as "assumes." This is another way of asking an assumption question. See:
Assumptions and the Negation Test on the GMAT
GMAT Critical Reasoning: More on Assumption Questions

The strategies discussed in those blogs will be helpful to some extent. What you really need to do to get comfortable with GMAT CR questions is to develop a habit of reading. Why do you think that a 1/3 of the GMAT Verbal questions are about arguments? Any manager or executive has to hear many arguments every single day. Fundamentally, every sales pitch is an argument. A successful executive is one who can learn a great deal from the arguments he hears, discern the flaws and what not to believe, and understand when an argument indicates that he has to change course. You get better by reading arguments and thinking about them. If you read the business news, you will find tons of arguments. Read these arguments and reflect on them. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score
That is really how you improve.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
_________________

Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Image

Image

Kudos [?]: 8427 [0], given: 102

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 03 Sep 2017
Posts: 4

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

Geologists recently discovered marks that closely resemble worm tracks [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Oct 2017, 11:05
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it is inadvisable to require the best results that state-of-the-art technology can achieve. Current technology is able to detect and eliminate even extremely minute amounts of contaminants, but at a cost that is exorbitant relative to the improvement achieved. So it would be reasonable instead to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risks involved.

The argument given concerning the reasonable way to set standards presupposes that

A. industry currently meets the standards that have been set by environmental authorities

B. there are effective ways to take into account all of the relevant risks posed by allowing different levels of contaminants

C. the only contaminants worth measuring are generated by industry

D. it is not costly to prevent large amounts of contaminants from entering the environment

E. minute amounts of some contaminants can be poisonous


Hi Folks, there are some questions with really twisted logics in OG 18. Request you to help me with above question, thanks!

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 27 Feb 2015
Posts: 8

Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 1

Re: CR_help me with the logic! [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Oct 2017, 11:50
B. Conclusion says It would be reasonable to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risk so it presupposes that there are effective ways to take into account all the relevant risks

Sent from my SM-G935F using GMAT Club Forum mobile app

Kudos [?]: 1 [0], given: 1

Intern
Intern
avatar
Joined: 03 Sep 2017
Posts: 4

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

CR_help me with the logic! [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 12 Oct 2017, 12:01
Ejiroghene wrote:
B. Conclusion says It would be reasonable to set standards by taking into account all of the current and future risk so it presupposes that there are effective ways to take into account all the relevant risks



Thanks for replying.

What do you make of " allowing different levels of contaminants"?

Nowhere, the arguments says anything about type or level of contaminants. Moreover, last line says environmental standards should be set by considering all present and future risks, it doesn't specify risks associated with contaminants. There may be a dozen other kinds of risks involved while setting environmental standards.

Please enlighten!

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

CR_help me with the logic!   [#permalink] 12 Oct 2017, 12:01
Display posts from previous: Sort by

In setting environmental standards for industry and others to meet, it

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.