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Many GMAT test takers consider Bold Face (BF) questions to

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Many GMAT test takers consider Bold Face (BF) questions to  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 31 Jul 2013, 12:22
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Many GMAT test takers consider Bold Face (BF) questions to be the most challenging part of the GMAT test and fear facing them on the test day. However, facing these questions on the test day is actually better than not facing them at all because encountering a BF question is an indicator (in a majority of cases, not 100%) that you are performing well as the computer adaptive test finds you worthy to face these questions.

In this article, we try to understand the essence of BF questions and how can you successfully tackle them. For more practice and in depth explanations, visit e-GMAT and access the Bold Face concept and application file in the free trial.



WHAT DO BOLD FACE QUESTIONS TEST?



Bold Face questions test your ability to analyse complex arguments or reasoning.


A Bold Face (BF) question contains an argument with one or more highlighted (bolded) statements. The question stem asks you to select the answer choice that describes the role played by these highlighted statements.

Understanding Logic vs. Application



This is different from other Critical Reasoning (CR) questions, such as assumption, weaken/strengthen, evaluate, or inference questions that test your ability to understand the logic of the arguments and to select a fact or evidence that would provide additional information to strengthen or weaken the argument. Thus, in these questions you not only need to understand the logic of the argument and but also apply it in some way.

Bold Face questions, on the other hand, are just about understanding the logic, not its application. While one part is eliminated, the other part i.e. understanding of the logic is made more difficult. So, one conclusion and two or three statements (evidences or facts or opinions); a passage in a BF question would generally be longer to make the logic more complex.

So what are Bolded Statements?



These statements may play different roles - premises, intermediate conclusions, facts, opinions, judgements, interpretations, claims, justifications, etc. In addition, these statements may come in any order. For example: an opinion may be supported by a fact, then countered by some other evidence and then again favoured for some other reason. Your job, then, is to figure out what is happening, without getting bogged down by the complexity.

Image


WHAT CORE SKILLS SHOULD YOU MASTER TO ANSWER BOLD FACE QUESTIONS?



1. The ability to classify bold face statements correctly


The first foundational skill you need to tackle Bold Face questions is your ability to classify (bolded) statements correctly. This means an ability to think clearly in complex scenarios in the face of facts, evidences, counter-evidences, opinions, judgements all thrown together. This requires an ability to remove the disguise of appearances to figure out the real purpose of that statement in the argument. Read the example below:

=> Arg1: Since the average GMAT Club member scores 50 points higher than the average aspirant does, it is clear that GMAT Club helps students perform better on the GMAT.
=> Arg2: Since GMAT Club helps students perform better on the GMAT, Ron should join GMAT Club.

Note, the highlighted (bolded) statement is the same in both the statements. However, in the first argument, the bolded argument is a claim made by the author. It is also the author’s conclusion, while in the second argument, the author uses the highlighted statement as a fact (used as a premise) to substantiate his recommendation (conclusion).
In BF questions as well as in real life, you will encounter opinions presented as facts and facts presented as mere coincidences - all it boils down to is your ability to understand how an argument is framed and correspondingly classify a statement appropriately.

While some people are naturally good at handling complex reasoning, others can develop this skill by reading diverse materials, gradually increasing the complexity level and by applying their logical skills to evaluate the reasoning in these reading materials. The key is to proactively develop this skill.

2. Clear understanding of commonly used terms



Terms such as claim, intermediate conclusion, fact, evidence, principle, belief, etc. should be part of your vocabulary. This implies that you should understand clearly what a fact is and how it is different from a claim. This is because the answer choices in a Bold Face question will use these terms.

Another aspect of this key skill is to understand which of the terms above can be used interchangeably. For example, in most instances, evidence and fact can be used interchangeably. Similarly, claim and opinion can be interchanged in most instances as well.

3. The ability to link the highlighted statement to the conclusion of the argument.



Another crucial skill, this question assesses is your ability to ascertain whether a highlighted (bolded) statement supports/refutes the conclusion. There are many ways to determine this. Some people use the negation test – perfectly legitimate way to assess the linkage to the conclusion. You negate the highlighted statement. If the conclusion becomes less believable in the light of the negated statement, then the highlighted statement supports the conclusion, or vice versa. Let’s apply this to the argument above:

=> Original Argument: Since GMAT Club helps students perform better on the GMAT, Ron should join GMAT Club
=> Conclusion: Ron should join GMAT Club
=> Negated bolded statement: GMAT Club does not help students perform better on GMAT.
=> Impact: As you negate the bolded statement, the conclusion becomes less believable. Hence, the original statement supports the conclusion.

Quote:
However, since negation requires time and since most people are not as familiar with the negation test, we have devised a simpler test – the disappearance test. To apply this test, just remove the bolded statement from the argument. If the conclusion becomes stronger in the absence of highlighted statement, then the highlighted statement weakens the conclusion and vice versa.


Image


4. Understanding the purpose of the argument


This core skill is tested in a few Bold Face questions (about 25%). This skill tests your ability to understand why an argument is written. Let take an example below to highlight this point:

Most people have opposed the recent tax increase by the president because they believe that the tax increases will reduce their disposable income and hence have negative impact on the economy. However, the proposed tax increase only impacts 5% of the population who have amassed huge amounts of wealth, and thus this tax increase is not likely to impact the economy

What is the purpose of the bolded statement?

A. It describes a circumstance that the argument seeks to explain.
B. It describes a fact that has been taken as opposing the conclusion.

Even though the bolded portion is a circumstance, Choice A is incorrect because the purpose of the argument is not to explain the circumstance. The purpose of the argument is to debunk the belief that the proposed tax increase will have a negative impact on the economy.

How should you approach Bold Face questions?


Possessing core skills is like having an ability to walk; however, to reach your destination, you also need a road to walk on. It would be even better if the road is robust ( fewer pitfalls) and provides an efficient way to your destination.

Similarly, while you work on your core skills, you also require an effective and efficient approach, which lets you handle the BF questions within the time constraints of the test. Here is the approach that we recommend:

1. Read the passage actively. Make sure that you understand the logic of entire argument. The best way to do this is by classifying each statement and linking it to the previous statement. Pay special emphasis on the highlighted (bolded) statements.
2. Classify the bold face statements to prethink the answer: Classify each bold face statement. Write the following about each statement 1) what is the statement 2) how does it relate to the conclusion (Strengthen, Weaken, no relation).
3. Evaluate the answer choices and select the correct answer.

Solved Official Question



In countries where automobile insurance includes compensation for whiplash injuries sustained in automobile accidents, reports of having suffered such injuries are twice as frequent as they are in countries where whiplash is not covered. Presently, no objective test for whiplash exists, so it is true that spurious reports of whiplash injuries cannot be readily identified. Nevertheless, these facts do not warrant the conclusion drawn by some commentators that in the countries with the higher rates of reported whiplash injuries, half of the reported cases are spurious. Clearly, in countries where automobile insurance does not include compensation for whiplash, people often have little incentive to report whiplash injuries that they actually have suffered.

In the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a claim that the argument disputes; the second is a conclusion that has been based on that claim.
(B) The first is a claim that has been used to support a conclusion that the argument accepts; the second is that conclusion.
(C) The first is evidence that has been used to support a conclusion for which the argument provides further evidence; the second is the main conclusion of the argument.
(D) The first is a finding whose implications are at issue in the argument; the second is a claim presented in order to argue against deriving certain implications from that finding.
(E) The first is a finding whose accuracy is evaluated in the argument; the second is evidence presented to establish that the finding is accurate.

Argument Analysis and Prethinking



Start by actively read the passage once and then, look at the options.

1. “In countries where automobile insurance includes compensation for whiplash injuries sustained in automobile accidents, reports of having suffered such injuries are twice as frequent as they are in countries where whiplash is not covered” - The statement is written in a factual form, like reporting of a finding. The author simply states a fact that whiplash injuries are more commonly reported in countries where the automobile insurance includes compensation for such injuries.

2. “Presently, no objective test for whiplash exists, so it is true that spurious reports of whiplash injuries cannot be readily identified” – The author first presents a fact - no objective test for whiplash exists – and then presents his opinion or an intermediate conclusion - so it is true that spurious reports of whiplash injuries cannot be readily identified.

3. “Nevertheless, these facts do not warrant the conclusion drawn by some commentators that in the countries with the higher rates of reported whiplash injuries, half of the reported cases are spurious” – This statement is quite complex and may induce errors in understanding in a lot of people. Let’s understand. Firstly, it begins with ‘Nevertheless’, which means that something counter to the previous statement is going to come here. “these facts...” here refer to previous conclusion (that spurious reports of whiplash injuries cannot be readily identified) and the first statement. You can see how an intermediate conclusion is referred to as a fact in the next statement. So what is this statement – this statement is author’s opinion and may be the overall conclusion of the argument.

4. “Clearly, in countries where automobile insurance does not include compensation for whiplash, people often have little incentive to report whiplash injuries that they actually have suffered.” – Read it along with the previous statement. In this statement, the author provides justification for his opinion that the commentators are wrong in drawing their conclusion. The author says that in countries which don’t include compensation for whiplash injuries, people don’t have the incentive to report such injuries. This statement is author’s justification to support his conclusion.

BF1: Fact from which a conclusion has been drawn in the argument.
BF2: Author’s justification to support the conclusion of the argument

Image


Answer Choice Analysis



Now, let’s look at options C, D & E

Option C – BF1: we see that BF1 is indeed an evidence of the conclusion of commentators. Besides, there is further evidence for this conclusion in statement 2, which is also used as a premise for the conclusion.
BF2: As we have understood above, BF2 is not the main conclusion. It is author’s justification to support the conclusion of the argument.
So, option C eliminated.

Option D – BF1: We see that BF1 is a finding whose implication could refer to the conclusion drawn by the commentators. This conclusion is at issue. First part is correct.
BF2: is it a claim? Yes, it is presented like a view of the author. Is it presented against some implication of the BF1? Yes, it is presented as a view to counter the conclusion of the commentators.
So, option D could be correct.

Option E: We have seen that BF1 is treated like a fact in the argument and its accuracy is nowhere evaluated. Thus, this is incorrect.

So, we find that option D is the correct answer.

Key takeaways:

Bold Face questions test your ability of complex reasoning, which essentially, is a test of your skill to think clearly and logically in complex scenarios. While development of these skills is essential, an efficient and effective approach is also required to achieve the desired results.
Presence of skills and a good approach will take you far; however, to achieve mastery, you will also need practice. Practice of BF questions will allow you to figure out your common pitfalls so that you can avoid those during the actual test.
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Originally posted by egmat on 01 Jan 2013, 20:15.
Last edited by egmat on 31 Jul 2013, 12:22, edited 8 times in total.
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Re: Many GMAT test takers consider Bold Face (BF) questions to  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jan 2013, 22:37
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Here are a couple of fresh questions from e-GMAT bakery. Try out our concept on Bold Face in the e-GMAT free trial.

Exercise Question 1



The stock market has shorted HP stock in response to HP CEO Leo Apotheker’s decision to divest the tablet business to invest to achieve good positions in great industries. Such myopic behavior indicates that the stock market is focused at short term results even when they come at the expense of long term benefits. While HP could have made some money in the tablet market in the short term, it has no strategic advantage in the tablet space and refocusing and investing the management focus on industries where HP does have a strategic advantage will provide enduring profits in the long term.

In the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?
A. The first is a position that the argument as a whole seeks to defend whereas the second is a position that is contested in the argument.
B. The first states the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the second states an intermediate conclusion that is drawn in order to support the main conclusion.
C. The first is the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second provides evidence against the position being opposed.
D. The first states an intermediate conclusion that is drawn in order to support the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the 2nd states the conclusion of the argument as a whole
E. The first and second both state intermediate conclusions that are drawn in order to support jointly the conclusions of the argument as a whole

OA will be provided after we receive some responses.

Exercise Question 2



Products that are high performance and full of features generally provide higher profit margins than simpler products. Because stock market rewards higher returns on research and development and a company’s decisions are driven by stock prices, incumbents in any industry invest their research and development efforts on making products more complex, leaving the products that provide the lowest profit margins to competitors. However, such a strategy often backfires since it allows competitors to build competence and slowly come after those high margin products. Therefore, the best strategy for an incumbent is to invest to maintain leading positions in both low margin and high margin products.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
B. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second presents that strategy
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to justify a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
D. The first is a consideration raised in support of a strategy the argument endorses; the second presents grounds in support of that consideration.
E. The first is a consideration that has been used to justify pursuing a goal that the argument rejects; the second presents a course of action that has been adopted in pursuit of a goal.

OA will be provided after we receive some responses.
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Re: Bold Face tutorial and exercises  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2013, 01:30
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Nine Bold faced questions with answer choices attached here
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Re: Many GMAT test takers consider Bold Face (BF) questions to  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2013, 22:05
Exercise Question 1

The stock market has shorted HP stock in response to HP CEO Leo Apotheker’s decision to divest the tablet business to invest to achieve good positions in great industries. Such myopic behavior indicates that the stock market is focused at short term results even when they come at the expense of long term benefits. While HP could have made some money in the tablet market in the short term, it has no strategic advantage in the tablet space and refocusing and investing the management focus on industries where HP does have a strategic advantage will provide enduring profits in the long term.

A. The first is a position that the argument as a whole seeks to defend whereas the second is a position that is contested in the argument.
-- Second position is not contested in the argument, its the intermediate conclusion that supports the main conclusion of the argument.
B. The first states the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the second states an intermediate conclusion that is drawn in order to support the main conclusion.
-- Correct. First bold face is the main conclusion of the argument and second bold face acts as intermediate conclusion that supports the main conclusion of the argument.
C. The first is the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second provides evidence against the position being opposed.
-- Argument doesnt oppose the first bold face, rather its the main conclusion of the argument.
D. The first states an intermediate conclusion that is drawn in order to support the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the 2nd states the conclusion of the argument as a whole
-- The roles are reversed. First is main conclusion and second is the intermediate conclusion.
E. The first and second both state intermediate conclusions that are drawn in order to support jointly the conclusions of the argument as a whole
-- First is main conclusion and second is the intermediate conclusion.

Choice(B) for me.
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Re: Many GMAT test takers consider Bold Face (BF) questions to  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2013, 22:34
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Exercise Question 2

Products that are high performance and full of features generally provide higher profit margins than simpler products. Because stock market rewards higher returns on research and development and a company’s decisions are driven by stock prices, incumbents in any industry invest their research and development efforts on making products more complex, leaving the products that provide the lowest profit margins to competitors. However, such a strategy often backfires since it allows competitors to build competence and slowly come after those high margin products. Therefore, the best strategy for an incumbent is to invest to maintain leading positions in both low margin and high margin products.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
-- First is the consideration not assumption. Second bold face which presents the course of action is NOT endorsed by the argument. The main argument in fact opposes that position.
B. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second presents that strategy
-- The role of the first bold face is not to explain but to form the basis of certain strategy. Second bold face is that strategy.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to justify a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
-- First is the consideration not assumption. Second bold face doesn’t cast doubt on first bold face, rather it presents certain strategy.
D. The first is a consideration raised in support of a strategy the argument endorses; the second presents grounds in support of that consideration.
-- The first is a consideration raised in support of strategy that argument rather opposes. The second presents that strategy opposed by the argument.
E. The first is a consideration that has been used to justify pursuing a goal that the argument rejects; the second presents a course of action that has been adopted in pursuit of a goal.
-- Correct. First is the consideration used to justify pursuing a goal (higher profit margins & higher stock prices) and second presents the course of action/strategy - investing in R&D on making complex products, leaving lowest profit margin products to competitors - that argument rejects as author says this strategy often backfires – adopted in pursuit of that goal.

Choice (E) for me.
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Re: Many GMAT test takers consider Bold Face (BF) questions to  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Feb 2013, 18:43
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PraPon wrote:
Exercise Question 2

Products that are high performance and full of features generally provide higher profit margins than simpler products. Because stock market rewards higher returns on research and development and a company’s decisions are driven by stock prices, incumbents in any industry invest their research and development efforts on making products more complex, leaving the products that provide the lowest profit margins to competitors. However, such a strategy often backfires since it allows competitors to build competence and slowly come after those high margin products. Therefore, the best strategy for an incumbent is to invest to maintain leading positions in both low margin and high margin products.

A. The first is an assumption that forms the basis for a course of action that the argument criticizes; the second presents the course of action endorsed by the argument.
-- First is the consideration not assumption. Second bold face which presents the course of action is NOT endorsed by the argument. The main argument in fact opposes that position.
B. The first is a consideration raised to explain the appeal of a certain strategy; the second presents that strategy
-- The role of the first bold face is not to explain but to form the basis of certain strategy. Second bold face is that strategy.
C. The first is an assumption that has been used to justify a certain strategy; the second is a consideration that is used to cast doubt on that assumption.
-- First is the consideration not assumption. Second bold face doesn’t cast doubt on first bold face, rather it presents certain strategy.
D. The first is a consideration raised in support of a strategy the argument endorses; the second presents grounds in support of that consideration.
-- The first is a consideration raised in support of strategy that argument rather opposes. The second presents that strategy opposed by the argument.
E. The first is a consideration that has been used to justify pursuing a goal that the argument rejects; the second presents a course of action that has been adopted in pursuit of a goal.
-- Correct. First is the consideration used to justify pursuing a goal (higher profit margins & higher stock prices) and second presents the course of action/strategy - investing in R&D on making complex products, leaving lowest profit margin products to competitors - that argument rejects as author says this strategy often backfires – adopted in pursuit of that goal.

Choice (E) for me.


Hi,

In option E, "...pursuing a goal that the argument rejects..." - the term "that the argument rejects" is modifying the goal. It means that the first BF statement justifies pursuing a goal, a goal which is rejected in the argument. This is not the case. The argument only targets the strategy, not the goal itself.

Hope this helps :)

Let me know in case of further queries.

-Chiranjeev
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Re: Many GMAT test takers consider Bold Face (BF) questions to  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Jul 2013, 05:04
Exercise Question 1


The stock market has shorted HP stock in response to HP CEO Leo Apotheker’s decision to divest the tablet business to invest to achieve good positions in great industries. Such myopic behavior indicates that the stock market is focused at short term results even when they come at the expense of long term benefits. While HP could have made some money in the tablet market in the short term, it has no strategic advantage in the tablet space and refocusing and investing the management focus on industries where HP does have a strategic advantage will provide enduring profits in the long term.

In the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?
A. The first is a position that the argument as a whole seeks to defend whereas the second is a position that is contested in the argument.
B. The first states the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the second states an intermediate conclusion that is drawn in order to support the main conclusion.
C. The first is the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second provides evidence against the position being opposed.
D. The first states an intermediate conclusion that is drawn in order to support the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the 2nd states the conclusion of the argument as a whole
E. The first and second both state intermediate conclusions that are drawn in order to support jointly the conclusions of the argument as a whole


Can somebody explain, How Ans Choice B supports the main conclusion ?
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New post 24 Jul 2013, 19:42
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amitgup77 wrote:
Exercise Question 1


The stock market has shorted HP stock in response to HP CEO Leo Apotheker’s decision to divest the tablet business to invest to achieve good positions in great industries. Such myopic behavior indicates that the stock market is focused at short term results even when they come at the expense of long term benefits. While HP could have made some money in the tablet market in the short term, it has no strategic advantage in the tablet space and refocusing and investing the management focus on industries where HP does have a strategic advantage will provide enduring profits in the long term.

In the argument given, the two boldfaced portions play which of the following roles?
A. The first is a position that the argument as a whole seeks to defend whereas the second is a position that is contested in the argument.
B. The first states the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the second states an intermediate conclusion that is drawn in order to support the main conclusion.
C. The first is the position that the argument as a whole opposes; the second provides evidence against the position being opposed.
D. The first states an intermediate conclusion that is drawn in order to support the conclusion of the argument as a whole; the 2nd states the conclusion of the argument as a whole
E. The first and second both state intermediate conclusions that are drawn in order to support jointly the conclusions of the argument as a whole


Can somebody explain, How Ans Choice B supports the main conclusion ?


Hi Amit,

I think you mean to ask how BF2 supports the main conclusion.

Let's list down the main conclusion:
The main conclusion is BF1:
the stock market is focused at short term results even when they come at the expense of long term benefits

Now, why does the author makes the above conclusion. He concludes the above statement because the stock market has reacted negatively to HP's decision to divest tablet business. So, basically, HP said that they would not continue to market tablets and the stock market reacted negatively i.e. the stock of HP came down.

Now, on this basis, the author says that stock market is focused on short term results. But how does it mean that the stock market is short term focused? It would mean so if the action taken by HP may have short term disadvantage but a long term advantage. Isn't it? In such case, we can say that the market is only looking at short term and missing the big picture.

This meaning is what is conveyed by BF2. It says that HP does not have any long term benefit in the tablet space. By saying so, it supports the conclusion that stock market is only looking at short term loss but not at the fact that HP does not have any reason to continue tablet business in the long run.

Does this help?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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New post 01 Dec 2013, 05:17
Hi Could someone post the answers to the Bold Face file questions?
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New post 11 Dec 2013, 02:44
Hello Everyone,

At e-GMAT, we are celebrating the end of another very successful year. We achieved a number of milestones during the year, including:

1. Highest number of reviews by non-natives on GMAT Club (5x more than any other test prep company)
2. Highest number of success stories on “Share GMAT Experience”
3. Over 1400 Kudos for the year, the most by any test prep company on GMAT Verbal forum

As part of the celebrations, we are offering our otherwise paid session “Bold Face Session” for free for the first time. In this session, we’ll cover the following:

1. Learn a structured and well tested approach to ace Bold Face questions
2. Understand the common terminology used in Bold Face questions and how it is used
3. Become aware of the common pitfalls designed by the question makers

To know more about what we cover in the bold face session, please click here.

Image

As a warm-up to the session, let’s get our hands dirty on the following official bold face question:

Consumer advocate: it is generally true, at least in this state, that lawyers who advertise a specific service charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. It is also true that each time restrictions on the advertising of legal services have been eliminated, the number of lawyers advertising their services has increased and legal costs to consumers have declined in consequence. However, eliminating the state requirement that legal advertisements must specify fees for specific services would almost certainly increase rather than further reduce consumer’s legal costs. Lawyers would no longer have an incentive to lower their fees when they begin advertising and if no longer required to specify fee arrangements, many lawyers who now advertise would increase their fees.

In the consumer advocate’s argument, the two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a generalization that the consumer advocate accepts as true; the second is presented as a consequence that follows from the truth of that generalization.
(B) The first is a pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate argues will be repeated in the case at issue; the second acknowledges a circumstance in which that pattern would not hold.
(C) The first is pattern of cause and effect that the consumer advocate predicts will not hold in the case at issue; the second offers a consideration in support of that prediction.
(D) The first is evidence that the consumer advocate offers in support of a certain prediction; the second is that prediction.
(E) The first acknowledges a consideration that weighs against the main position that the consumer advocate defends; the second is that position.

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Re: Many GMAT test takers consider Bold Face (BF) questions to   [#permalink] 29 Aug 2019, 03:20
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