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Traditional social science models of class groups in the United States

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Traditional social science models of class groups in the United States  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 13 Aug 2019, 09:48
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Passage-24 GMATPrep RCs-Collection (Main article)

Traditional social science models of class groups in the United States are based on economic status and assume that women's economic status derives from association with men, typically fathers or husbands, and that women therefore have more compelling common interest with men of their own economic class than with women outside it. Some feminist social scientists, by contrast, have argued that the basic division in American society is instead based on gender, and that the total female population, regardless of economic status, constitutes a distinct class. Social historian Mary Ryan, for example, has argued that in early-nineteenth-century America the identical legal status of working-class and middle-class free women outweighed the differences between women of these two classes: married women, regardless of their family's wealth, did essentially the same unpaid domestic work, and none could own property or vote. Recently, though, other feminist analysts have questioned this model, examining ways in which the condition of working-class women differs from that of middle-class women as well as from that of working-class men. Ann Oakley notes, for example, that the gap between women of different economic classes widened in the late nineteenth century: most working-class women, who performed wage labor outside the home, were excluded from the emerging middle-class ideal of femininity centered around domesticity and volunteerism.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. offer social historical explanations for the cultural differences between men and women in the United States
B. examine how the economic roles of women in the United States changed during the nineteenth century
C. consider differing views held by social scientists concerning women's class status in the United States
D. propose a feminist interpretation of class structure in the United States
E. outline specific distinctions between working-class women and women of the upper and middle classes



2. It can be inferred from the passage that the most recent feminist social science research on women and class seeks to do which of the following?

A. Introduce a divergent new theory about the relationship between legal status and gender
B. Illustrate an implicit middle-class bias in earlier feminist models of class and gender
C. Provide evidence for the position that gender matters more than wealth in determining class status
D. Remedy perceived inadequacies of both traditional social science models and earlier feminist analyses of class and gender
E. Challenge the economic definitions of class used by traditional social scientists



3. Which of the following statements best characterizes the relationship between traditional social science models of class and Ryan's model, as described in the passage?

(A) Ryan's model differs from the traditional model by making gender, rather than economic status, the determinant of women's class status.
(B) The traditional social science model of class differs from Ryan's in its assumption that women are financially dependent on men.
(C) Ryan's model of class and the traditional social science model both assume that women work, either within the home or for pay.
(D) The traditional social science model of class differs from Ryan's in that each model focuses on a different period of American history.
(E) Both Ryan's model of class and the traditional model consider multiple factors, including wealth, marital status, and enfranchisement, in determining women's status.

This question asks you to review the information given in the passage and choose the statement that best describes the relationship between Ryan's model and the traditional models. The first is the best choice. In the passage, Ryan is given as an example of a feminist social scientist who holds that basic social divisions are based on gender, as opposed to traditional models that base divisions on economic status.

The second choice is not correct. Although the passage states that traditional models assume that women's economic status derives from association with men, it does not specifically address whether the traditional models, or Ryan's model, assumed that women are financially dependent on men.

The third choice is also incorrect; the passage does not address traditional models' assumptions about women's work.

The fourth choice incorrectly suggests that the passage mentions a specific time period in American history that traditional models focus on.

And the fifth choice is incorrect because the passage only mentions one factor—wealth—considered by.


Originally posted by PiyushK on 12 Aug 2014, 08:34.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 13 Aug 2019, 09:48, edited 4 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (129).
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New post 09 Nov 2017, 16:43
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ShashankDave wrote:
Please explain Q2 in detail. I chose B as my answer. I cannot figure out what makes D correct.

Quote:
2. It can be inferred from the passage that the most recent feminist social science research on women and class seeks to do which of the following?

A. Introduce a divergent new theory about the relationship between legal status and gender
B. Illustrate an implicit middle-class bias in earlier feminist models of class and gender
C. Provide evidence for the position that gender matters more than wealth in determining class status
D. Remedy perceived inadequacies of both traditional social science models and earlier feminist analyses of class and gender
E. Challenge the economic definitions of class used by traditional social scientists

The passage never illustrates an "implicit middle-class bias in earlier feminist models of class and gender", so (B) must be eliminated.

Choice (D) is tricky, but think about how the passage is organized. First, the author talks about the traditional model, which is that class groups are based on economic status. According to that model, working-class women would be put in the same category as working-class men.

Then, the passage discusses the model used by "some feminist social scientists". This model says "that the basic division in American society is based on gender, and that the total female population, regardless of economic status, constitutes a distinct class." According to that model, women of different economic classes would be put in the same category.

"Recently, {...} other feminist analysts have questioned {the model presented by some feminist social scientists}" by "examining ways in which the condition of working-class women differs from that of middle-class women as well as from that of working-class men." In other words, the recent research questions the traditional model by saying that you can't put working-class women in the same category as working-class men. The recent research also questions the model of the feminist social scientists by saying that you can't put WORKING-CLASS women in the same category as MIDDLE-CLASS women.

Thus, the recent research addresses apparent inadequacies of BOTH the traditional model and the model of the feminist social scientists (earlier feminist analyses). This fits with choice (D).
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New post 14 Aug 2014, 02:59
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1 C, because three different models(views) are discussed: 1-The traditional 2-Social historian Mary Ryan's 3-Ann Oakley's
2 B, i did this by eliminating other options (not sure about this)
3 A, it is clearly given in the passage " Some feminist social scientists, by contrast, have argued that the basic division in American society is instead based on gender
Mary Ryan is one of the "some feminist scientists"
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Re: Traditional social science models of class groups in the United States  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2014, 10:01
Time taken - 6 mins

1.C
2.D
3.A (feminist social scientists argued that the basic division in American society is instead based on gender and not on the economic status as described by the Traditional social science models )
Option E - seems to suggest a similarity
Hope anyone can clear this.
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New post 10 Feb 2016, 04:05
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manishkhare wrote:
1C 2D 3A (All correct )

Time taken =4 minutes 23 seconds

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I have noticed that you often complete passages within a short amount of time with high accuracy. What is your strategy?
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New post 06 Jun 2016, 06:21
why D ??


2. It can be inferred from the passage that the most recent feminist social science research on women and class seeks to do which of the following?
A. Introduce a divergent new theory about the relationship between legal status and gender
B. Illustrate an implicit middle-class bias in earlier feminist models of class and gender
C. Provide evidence for the position that gender matters more than wealth in determining class status
D. Remedy perceived inadequacies of both traditional social science models and earlier feminist analyses of class and gender
E. Challenge the economic definitions of class used by traditional social scientists
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Re: Traditional social science models of class groups in the United States  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2016, 00:41
3
Took 6 mins 10 seconds , including 2 mins 20 seconds to read
-The author does not state an opinion
- The author merely states that there have been multiple views held by social scientists

1 .Since the author provides 3 different views, he clearly wants to express the differing opinions on women’s class status held by social scientists. Hence option C is the correct answer.

2.
"Recently, though, other feminist analysts have questioned this model, examining ways in which the condition of working-class women differs from that of middle-class women as well as from that of working-class men."

Since the latest feminist social science research changes the view on women’s relationship with other women as well as men, we could infer that this research rectifies the 2 earlier research models.

Answer D

3.
"Some feminist social scientists, by contrast, have argued that the basic division in American society is instead based on gender"
Answer A
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New post 07 Nov 2017, 03:50
Please explain Q2 in detail. I chose B as my answer. I cannot figure out what makes D correct.
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New post 20 Jun 2018, 05:25
took around 7 mins.

got 1 wrong...can someone pls explain 2nd to me?
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Re: Traditional social science models of class groups in the United States  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2018, 20:31
Bob2018 wrote:
took around 7 mins.

got 1 wrong...can someone pls explain 2nd to me?

Bob2018, I didn't address every answer choice in detail, but there's a fairly long explanation of question #2 here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/gmatprep-cha ... l#p1959414. Let me know if that doesn't clear things up.
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New post 24 Mar 2019, 01:19
Q1 I got confused between C and D can u explain Why D is wrong and C is correct.

Q3) How do eliminate 2nd answer choice i.e " The traditional social science model of class differs from Ryan's in its assumption that women are financially dependent on men."
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Re: Traditional social science models of class groups in the United States  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2019, 04:41
mallya12 wrote:
Q1 I got confused between C and D can u explain Why D is wrong and C is correct.

Q3) How do eliminate 2nd answer choice i.e " The traditional social science model of class differs from Ryan's in its assumption that women are financially dependent on men."

Question #1 asks us to determine the primary purpose of the passage. To do that, let's take a look at the passage's structure:
  • First, the author introduces "traditional social science models of class groups."
  • Then, the author examines the views of certain "feminist social scientists," which are contrasted with the traditional models.
  • Finally, the author examines the views of "other feminist analysts," which differ from both the traditional models and previously discussed feminist views.

Let's first look at (D):
Quote:
D. propose a feminist interpretation of class structure in the United States

There are a couple of problems with this answer choice -- first, the author does not "propose" a feminist interpretation -- he/she describes two different feminist interpretations of class structure. More importantly, the primary purpose of the passage is not just to propose a certain feminist interpretation, but rather to contrast several different perspectives on class structure. (D) is too narrow in scope, so it is not the correct answer.

Take a look at answer choice (C):
Quote:
C. consider differing views held by social scientists concerning women's class status in the United States

This accurately captures the primary purpose of the passage. The author first introduces the traditional model of class groups, then provides two differing views from a feminist perspective on the issue. From this, we can gather that the primary purpose of the passage is to "consider differing views held by social scientists concerning women's class status in the United States." (C) is the correct answer to question #1.

Now let's look at question #3:
Quote:
Which of the following statements best characterizes the relationship between traditional social science models of class and Ryan's model, as described in the passage?

Here is what the passage says about "traditional social science models of class":
Quote:
Traditional social science models of class groups in the United States are based on economic status and assume that women's economic status derives from association with men, typically fathers or husbands, and that women therefore have more compelling common interest with men of their own economic class than with women outside it.

The conclusion reached by social scientists applying "traditional models of class" is that "women... have more compelling common interest with men of their own economic class than with women outside it."

The reason behind this conclusion is that "women's economic status derives from association with men, typically fathers or husbands."

Here is what the passage says about Mary Ryan's findings:
Quote:
Social historian Mary Ryan, for example, has argued that in early-nineteenth-century America the identical legal status of working-class and middle-class free women outweighed the differences between women of these two classes: married women, regardless of their family's wealth, did essentially the same unpaid domestic work, and none could own property or vote.

Ryan's conclusion is that "the identical legal status of working-class and middle-class free women outweighed the differences between women of these two classes."

The main contrast between these two viewpoints is as follows:
  • Traditional models: show that economic status is more important than gender when examining divisions in society
  • Mary Ryan: believes that gender is more important than economic status when examining divisions in society

Now look at (B):
Quote:
(B) The traditional social science model of class differs from Ryan's in its assumption that women are financially dependent on men.

The traditional models described in the passage do make the assumption that "women's economic status derives from association with men." But, is this a difference between the traditional models and Ryan's argument?

Ryan does not specifically disagree with the notion that women are financially dependent on men. She just believes that gender is a more important factor than economic status when examining class in society.

Because the two models do not differ on this point, (B) is not the correct answer.

I hope that helps!
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Re: Traditional social science models of class groups in the United States   [#permalink] 14 Apr 2019, 04:41
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