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A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny

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A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 06:36
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  95% (hard)

Question Stats:

39% (01:22) correct 61% (01:31) wrong based on 322 sessions

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A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny bones in the inner ear with a single piece of ultra-thin fiberglass. The procedure has been found to greatly improve hearing in people who have experienced damage to these bones, though it is useless to people whose hearing loss stems from a neurological malfunction. This procedure will benefit a relatively small percentage of the hearing-impaired population.

Which of the following can be concluded from the argument above?

A It is possible to hear without the use of the three tiny bones in the inner ear.
B Most hearing loss is due to neurological malfunctioning.
C More people have impaired hearing because of neurological damage than because of damage to the tiny bones of the inner ear.
D Hearing loss due to neurological damage is more severe than hearing loss due to damage to the tiny bones in the inner ear.
E The use of fiberglass cannot help people who have lost hearing due to neurological damage.

Please xplain ur reasoning for each of the options.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2014, 07:27
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Good question and answer is indeed A!

A. Correct. The 2nd sentence clearly mentions that REPLACING THE 3 TINY BONES (in cases where they are damaged, of course..) WITH FIBRE GLASS IMPROVES HEARING!! That's it!!!...To be frank, I didn't feel like moving further with the remaining choices because I thought I have most likely got my bait!!...The remaining choices were actually very tricky and I started having doubts but finally selected A..Nwz going ahead with the remaining ones

B. Stimulus deceives us in thinking that the fibre glass shall be not be useful to those with neourological defect and SIMULTANEOUSLY (NOTE: not HENCE) shall be useful to a relatively small percentage of total victims....Imagine a situation: Out of every 100 patients, 20 get the benefit of fibre glass by replacing their tiny bones, 30 are neurologically defective and the remaining 60 have a defect that is neither neurological nor served well by fiber replacement. In a scenario like this, the given option fails.

C. Wrong. Consider a second scenario where 30 patients have defective bones and need fiber replacement and 20 have neurological defect. Note that this is a valid assumption (no. of patients with defective tiny bones > no. of patients with neurological defect) as the stimulus never mentions any numerical relationship between the 2 groups. The only statement made is that ON ONE HAND, fiber is of no use to neurologically defect patients and ON THE OTHER HAND, this technology will serve a relatively small percentage of patients. NO HENCE, THUS....

D. Irrelevant. No severity issues being discussed.

E. Argh!! Very very tricky...and mind you this got me thinking hard!!! :x Note "damage" in option and "malfunction" in stimulus. 2 different things, aren't they? To elaborate, those with damaged neurons MAY/MAY NOT still hope to get the benefit by fiberglass for which no data in stimulus exists, but those with partially functioning neurons are in no way benefitting at all...

This was a real mind-bender... :shock: Must say, most of the Veritas questions I have encountered are among the toughest on the forum!!!

Hope I explained myself well... :-D

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A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny [#permalink]

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Here is my explanation.

A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny bones in the inner ear with a single piece of ultra-thin fiberglass. The procedure has been found to greatly improve hearing in people who have experienced damage to these bones, though it is useless to people whose hearing loss stems from a neurological malfunction. This procedure will benefit a relatively small percentage of the hearing-impaired population.

Which of the following can be concluded from the argument above?

A It is possible to hear without the use of the three tiny bones in the inner ear.
Correct. See key word "improve". It means people have damaged tiny bones in the inner ear can still hear.

B Most hearing loss is due to neurological malfunctioning.
Wrong. The question does NOT assume there is only TWO types of hearing-impaired. Author mentioned two types of hearing-impaired does NOT mean there are only two types.

C More people have impaired hearing because of neurological damage than because of damage to the tiny bones of the inner ear.
Wrong. Author says the procedure will benefit a relatively small percentage of the hearing-impaired population. What if, in total hearing-impaired population, there is 5% damaged tiny inner ear (quite small), there is 3% of neurological malfunction, and there 92% of other types. Clearly, C is wrong. Again, the question does NOT compare, just mentions how the produce help/not help hearing-impaired people.

D Hearing loss due to neurological damage is more severe than hearing loss due to damage to the tiny bones in the inner ear.
Wrong. Out of scope. Nothing about "more severe".

E The use of fiberglass cannot help people who have lost hearing due to neurological damage.
Wrong. TEMPTING. The stimulus only mentions a procedure - using a single piece of ultra-thin fiberglass. The stimulus does not generalize "fiberglass". What if a procedure that uses TWO piece of ultra-thin fiberglass can help people having neurological damage?

Hope it helps.
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Re: A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2015, 07:40
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Re: A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2015, 20:49
nice question. :)

A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny bones in the inner ear with a single piece of ultra-thin fiberglass.
(Looks like we can replace bones with piece of fiberglass and so without them.)
The procedure has been found to greatly improve hearing in people who have experienced damage to these bones,
though it is useless to people whose hearing loss stems from a neurological malfunction.
This procedure will benefit a relativelysmall percentage of the hearing-impaired population.

Which of the following can be concluded from the argument above?

A It is possible to hear without the use of the three tiny bones in the inner ear.
(This can be inferred from our reasoning above. Possible is the key word for inference.)
B Most hearing loss is due to neurological malfunctioning.
(Most indicates that this is extreme version of what can be inferred. More % need not endure most hearing loss.)
C More people have impaired hearing because of neurological damage than because of damage to the tiny bones of the inner ear.
(same as B. More % need not endure more people with hearing loss.)
D Hearing loss due to neurological damage is more severe than hearing loss due to damage to the tiny bones in the inner ear.
(severity is nowhere mentioned in the Argument.)
E The use of fiberglass cannot help people who have lost hearing due to neurological damage.
(This is mentioned in the passage and cannot be inferred.)
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Re: A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny [#permalink]

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Notice that the question stem says "Which of the following can be concluded from the argument above?"

This is an inference question. Which means that you are looking for the answer choice that must be true.

If we look at choices B and C that you favored, you can see that these are not "must be true."

Choice B "Most hearing loss is due to neurological malfunctioning." There is no quantification of causes of hearing loss in the stimulus. It may be true that neurological malfunctioning is the top cause, but then it may also be that the biggest cause of hearing loss is damage from loud noise. The point is that this is not "must be true."

Choice C "More people have impaired hearing because of neurological damage than because of damage to the tiny bones of the inner ear." is wrong for exactly the same reason. There is no indication of the number of people suffering do to the various causes.

Choice A, on the other hand, MUST BE TRUE, "A)It is possible to hear without the use of the three tiny bones in the inner ear."

We know this because the stimulus says, "A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny bones in the inner ear with a single piece of ultra-thin fiberglass. The procedure has been found to greatly improve hearing in people who have experienced damage to these bones" If replacing the bones with fiberglass works and people can hear after the surgery it must mean that the 3 tiny bones are not 100% necessary for hearing.

So you see approaching this question as an inference really helps point directly to choice A as the correct answer.
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Re: A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2017, 08:04
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: A new medical procedure replaces all three of the tiny   [#permalink] 13 Oct 2017, 08:04
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