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As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2

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As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.


(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide

(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing

(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide

(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide

(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing


The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2018

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 798

https://www.seattlepi.com/business/article/Upsurge-in-demand-for-wind-turbine-power-1065099.php

Windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts of generating capacity nationwide, but production is expected almost to double by the end of 2001 to provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households. The industry anticipates that in two decades wind power will grow to 100,000 megawatts and account for 6 percent of the country's electricity.

Megawatt Windmills

(A) Meaning / Modifier (almost); Modifier (which)

(B) Meaning / Modifier (almost); Meaning / Idiom (expected that)

(C) Meaning / Idiom (expected that)

(D) CORRECT

(E) Modifier (which)


First glance

Two choices begin with almost expected and two others begin with expected almost. Check the meaning of the sentence to see where the modifier almost should be placed.

Issues

(1) Meaning / Modifier: almost

Meaning / Idiom: expected that


The original sentence says that production is almost expected to double. In this construction, almost modifies the word expected. This meaning is illogical—there either is an expectation or there is not an expectation.

Choices (D) and (E) offer a more clear meaning: production is expected almost to double. In this case, almost modifies to double, and this meaning is logical. Production will almost double but not quite. Eliminate choices (A) and (B) for faulty meaning based on the placement of almost.

While dealing with the almost issue, you might spot another meaning issue.

(A), (D), (E) production is … expected to double

(B), (C) production is … expected that it will double

It is possible to use both of these constructions, but they have different meanings. For example, it is acceptable to say It is expected that she will work hard. It is also acceptable to say Her hard work is expected to result in a promotion. In the latter case, the sentence is conveying a cause-effect relationship: Her hard work will lead to a promotion. When this is the intended meaning, use the structure X is expected to (lead to Y). Answers (A), (D), and (E) properly use this structure to convey a cause-effect relationship. Eliminate choices (B) and (C).

(2) Modifier: which

The original sentence has a comma-which modifier. These modifiers should refer to the main noun before the comma.

In this case, that noun is year or end of the year, but neither one makes sense. Logically, the entire action (the fact that production is expected to double) will result in enough electricity for the 1.3 million households—but a comma-which modifier is supposed to refer to a noun, not an entire clause. Eliminate (A) and (E).

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (D) conveys correct meaning (expected almost to double) and avoids the which error by changing that portion of the sentence entirely.

Rhetorical construction; Idiom

The intended meaning of the sentence seems to be that the electricity production of windmills is expected to approximately double by year's end. But instead of saying almost double, we have almost expected, which is an unclear idea. Also unclear is what the relative pronoun which refers to.

(A) The placement of almost makes it nonsensically modify is expected. What the relative pronoun which refers to is ambiguous: for example, does it refer to the expectation, the possible doubling, or the year?

(B) The resulting sentence misplaces the adverb almost.

(C) The phrase production is expected that it will . . . makes no sense—as opposed to, for example, it is expected that production will. . . .

(D) Correct. This sentence clearly conveys the expectations of production: almost to double and thus to provide. There is no ambiguity as to what will be providing enough electricity.

(E) The referent of the relative pronoun which is ambiguous, and the conditional verb form would thus be providing is unnecessarily wordy.

Originally posted by fanatico on 18 Apr 2011, 20:53.
Last edited by Bunuel on 04 Dec 2018, 03:24, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2016, 06:02
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RAHKARP27071989 wrote:
Hi chetan2u / daagh,

Can you please explain why C is wrong...??



Hi,
i'll just replace the underlined portion with C and lets test the choice then

As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households

The usage of that after expected requires a subject and production cannot be the subject for it..
production is expected that it will almost double by the end of the year.. THIS DOES NOT MAKE SENSE

If I write :-
It is expected that production will almost double by the end of the year... would be ok if there is an antecedent for "it"..
but than "to provide" is to parallel with ''expected almost to double ", which requires a different construction ..

so two ways to speak is..
production is expected to double..
OR it is expected that the production will double
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2013, 09:31
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As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million household.

a)almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
Wrong. "which" is placed wrongly --> modifies "year".

b)almost expected that it would double by the end of the year,thus providing
Wrong. "it" is redundant because "it" refers to production --> the sentence becomes: "production is expected that production would double....." <-- we don't need the second "production".

c)expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
Wrong. Same as B. "it" is redundant.

d)expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
Correct. Parallel and concise --> Production is expected almost to double ....and to provide......

e)expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing
Wrong. Same as in A. "which" is placed wrongly.

Hope it helps.
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2014, 07:16
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As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double
by the end of the year, which would provide
enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

ALMOST EXPECTED is wrong modifier.Author intend to say almost double and which is used incorrectly
This also clear out B and E
We are left with C and D

The problem with C is the THAT clause.
THAT begin a new clause and sentence is now incomplete. Production is expected THAT.... household .. Production is expected what and THAT is modifying expected
Hence D is the correct answer


A. almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
B. almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing
C. expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
D. expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
E. expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Apr 2011, 23:27
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A and B
-almost is incorrectly modifying expected implying it may or may not happen
-modifying double implies it may or may not double.
C - unidiomatic
E - wordy
D - parallel and concise
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2015, 07:09
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sauravleo123 wrote:
As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million household.


a)almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide - Incorrect

b)almost expected that it would double by the end of the year,thus providing

c)expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide- Incorrect

d)expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide - Correct

As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide enough electricity for 1.3 million household.

e)expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing - Incorrect

D correctly maintains parallelism Hence IMO (D)..
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Oct 2017, 01:33
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pikolo2510 wrote:
Hello GMATNinja, daagh and other experts,

In option D, when we are considering parallelism, do we ignore "almost" and "thus" in the list? I eliminated D because I thought parallelism cannot fit here. The two things is the list are

1. Production is expected almost to double by the end of the year
2. Production is expected almost thus to provide enough electricity.....

I repeated "almost" because the first list started after "almost"

the #2 in the list doesn't make any sense at all. But upon reading other replies on this thread I found that others have ignored "almost" and "thus" . So do we need to exclude "adverbs" (I am assuming they are adverbs, i can't think of anything else:-( ) when we check for parallelism?

Please throw some light on this



Hello pikolo2510,

I will be glad to help you out with this one. :-)

First of all, it is imperative to identify the correct parallel list.

Following is the sentence with the correct answer choice D:

As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected
    almost to double by the end of the year and
    thus to provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.


The thing to understand here is that the words almost and thus are adverbs = action modifiers.

Hence, their presence before the core parallel entities to double and to provide does not affect the intended parallelism because the modifiers attached to the core parallel entities have no bearing on parallelism.

Hence, Choice D is perfectly parallel.

We do cover this point about modifiers of core parallel entities not affecting the parallel list in our concept named Parallelism: Helpful Tips.


Hope this helps. :-)
Thanks.
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2011, 00:47
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what is to happen 'almost'? doubling of production, or the expectation of doubling of production. Since expectation being almost is awckward, while a figure getting almost double is alright, all answer choice with almost expecte are rejected rightaway. This gets rid of A and B

C. says that ' production is expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide' This is clearly wrong usage of pronoun it- either it should be 'it is expected that production will almost double', or 'it is expected about production that it will almost double' (wordy but gramatically sensical)
Therefore, C is rejected.

Between 'thus to provie' and 'which would thus be providing' I choose D. Thus to provide.
production is the subject f this clause- it is expected to double and thus to provide for blah blah..
use of 'which would thus be providing' makes this more wordy, changes the tatructure of the sentence, and also use of which is confusing.
hence D is the correct option.
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2015, 08:41
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As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which
would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.


Split 1 : Almost expected Vs Expected almost
both are correct but in this context, Almost expected creates illogical meaning . Expected almost is correct

Option A, B, C are wrong on this basis.

Lets do POE, to eliminate rest.

A. almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
split 1 discussed above and Which - refers to year, year will not provide anything - incorrect

B. almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing
Split 1

C. expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
It will almost double - Production wont double anything - Incorrect.

D. expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
expected
to double and
to provide
no error in parallelism - correct

E. expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing
Which refers to year - incorrect
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Mar 2016, 16:12
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PrakharGMAT wrote:
Hi chetan2u / daagh,

Can you please explain why C is wrong...??


Its the meaning..

"... expected..... it will...."

How can you expect an event and be sure that it will happen too? This is an oxymoron.

I expect that I will score 700 in GMAT. -- Incorrect.
I expect to score 700 in GMAT. -- Correct.
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New post 19 Jan 2019, 01:20
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Quote:
As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

A. almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
B. almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing
C. expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
D. expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
E. expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing



Actual D

Quote:
As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

This is the re-phrase of your point.

Quote:
As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is
expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.


If we introduce the subjunctive 'would', then the sentence would suffer bad parallelism. One thing is that we cannot get away from the idiomatic 'expected almost to double' in the first arm and therefore if we introduce the word 'would' in the second arm only, then parallelism would get warped.

Or else, the entire sentence should be changed as --- production is expected that it would almost double by the end of the year and thus would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households ---.
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2019, 15:52
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mykrasovski wrote:
generis GMATNinja

Maybe I am too picky, but while I totally agree that (D) is the best option, I have some concerns about the meaning... Let me explain why.

The production is expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide. The parallelism is correct, my concern is about the placement of almost

Would it be logical to say the production is expected almost to provide? This makes little sense to me... The production either provides or not. IMO, the sentence would have been much clearer if it said

The production is expected to almost double by the end of the year and thus to provide.

What are your thoughts?

The problem is the word "thus". If we apply "almost" to both parts of the parallel list, we get:

"Production is expected almost to double and [almost] thus to provide." That clearly doesn't make any sense, so we can't apply "almost" to both parts.

More importantly, if you know why the other four are wrong, you don't need to worry about this minor point. :)
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Sep 2013, 09:10
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Ralphcuisak wrote:
Q.As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million household.
a)almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
b)almost expected that it would double by the end of the year,thus providing
c)expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
d)expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
e)expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing


A and B are ruled out due to the the almost expected construction, cant figure out exactly why its D and not E..
:?


Choice D keep the phrases parallel. Production expected to double by the ........... and (expected) to provide enough electricity.......

While in Choice E, The usage of which creates ambiguity. which/that refers to the closest noun i.e. year in this case.

For other Choices

A) Incorrect Placement of ALMOST. Misplaced Modifier WHICH

B) Incorrect Placement of ALMOST. Unidiomatic Usage Production is expected that it would double CORRECT USAGE IS Production is expected to double OR It is expected that Production will double

C) Same Unidiomatic Usage here too.

Hope That Helps!
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2015, 07:00
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sauravleo123 wrote:
As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million household.
a)almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
b)almost expected that it would double by the end of the year,thus providing
c)expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
d)expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
e)expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing

Spoiler: :: OA
D


which: cannot modify a whole clause

almost expected: almost is misplaced.
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2015, 07:10
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You cannot "almost expect". You either expect or you dont. There is no middle ground. Therefore, "almost" is placed incorrectly in A and B. Both out.

"production is expected that" is incorrect. "production is expected to" or "it is expected that production" is correct. C out.

"which" is incorrect in E.

D it is.

A more comprehensive POE:

A. 1. "almost" placed incorrectly.
2. "which" is incorrect.
3. "would" the past future tense is incorrect. We need a future tense since the sentence is written in the present tense ("production is")

B. 1. "almost" placed incorrectly.
2. The verb of intention "to" is preferable. This is not very crisp in meaning.

C. 1. "production is expected to" is correct not "production is expected that"
2. Meaning error. The production is expected to double with an intention to provide electricity?

D. 1. "almost" placed properly
2. "to double" correct.
3. Parallelism good. expected...to double || to provide.

E. 1. "which" is wrong.
2. Who is providing?

Answer: D
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 05 May 2016, 06:16
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What are we expecting?- Production to double by the end of the year
What will be the result?- This doubled production will provide enough electricity to 1.3 M households.

"D" states the proper meaning.
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2019, 14:13
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Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the right choice quickly! First, let's take a look at the original question and highlight any major differences in orange:

As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing
(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing

After a quick glance over the options, a couple key differences jump out that we can focus on:

1. almost expected vs. expected almost (Adverbs & Meaning)
2. which would provide / thus providing / to provide / and thus to provide / which would thus be providing (Modifiers)


Let's start with #1 on our list because it will eliminate 2-3 options rather quickly. What we're dealing with here is adverb placement. We need to figure out what the adverb "almost" SHOULD be paired up with to determine which one we need:

almost expected to double = refers to the likelihood that production will double at all
expected almost to double = refers to the amount by which production will change

It makes more sense to say that the amount of production might double, and not that production might be expected. So let's rule out any options that don't clearly place the adverb "almost" with "double/s":

(A) almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
(B) almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing
(C) expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
(D) expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
(E) expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing

We can eliminate options A & B because they don't have the adverb "almost" in the proper place to convey the meaning we're after. Now that we have things narrowed down, let's take a closer look at each remaining option with the non-underlined parts plugged in and determine which is the best one:

(C) As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

This option is INCORRECT because it contains a vague pronoun! It's not clear at all what the pronoun "it" is referring to here - windmills, production, megawatts? If we read this sentence through, the phrase "production is expected that it will almost double" sounds incredibly clunky and awkward as well.

(D) As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

This is CORRECT! The adverb "almost" is in the right place, there are no issues with parallelism (to double/to provide), and there are no modifier issues.

(E) As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

This option is INCORRECT for a couple reasons. First, it has a ", which"modifier that's being used incorrectly. "Which" modifiers are NOUN modifiers, and they can only modify the noun closest to them. In this case, the modifier is trying to modify the noun "year," which isn't right. The modifier should refer back to "production." It's also incorrect because the two things that production accomplishes aren't written using parallel format (to double / be providing).


There you have it - option D is the correct choice! By focusing on the obvious differences between the options, we can easily weed out wrong choices to get to the right one quickly!


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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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Tracy95 wrote:
Dear EMPOWERgmatVerbal
As for option (B): "almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing," may I ask whether the word "thus" is redundant? As the V-ing "providing..." modifies the preceding clause and implies consequence, there is no need to have "thus" before "providing".


Hello Tracy95!

Thanks for your question! I don't think the word "thus" is redundant here because it's showing the reader the order of events. If we leave out the word "thus," it implies that the doubling of windmill production and powering more homes happens at the same time, rather than the production doubling then homes getting power.

I hope that clears it up! If you have any other questions, feel free to tag me at EMPOWERgmatVerbal!
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Feb 2016, 05:49
Hi chetan2u / daagh,

Can you please explain why C is wrong...??
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2016, 00:06
fanatico wrote:
OG16 SC133
As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2,500 megawatts nationwide, but production is almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide enough electricity for 1.3 million households.

A. almost expected to double by the end of the year, which would provide
B. almost expected that it will double by the end of the year, thus providing
C. expected that it will almost double by the end of the year to provide
D. expected almost to double by the end of the year and thus to provide
E. expected almost to double by the end of the year, which would thus be providing


ANSWER IS D


Explanation:-
1) Parallelism :- ACCOUNT and PROVIDE are parallel
so the correct option should use PROVIDE
B and C have wrong parallelism - to provide and providing

2) Wrong modifier :- A & E have wrong modifiers. In A and E it appears that "Year" will provide electricity

D has correct parallelism by using PROVIDE and removes the modifier problem by using the conjunction "and" thus creating two clauses with clear and concise meaning.
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Re: As sources of electrical power, windmills now account for only about 2   [#permalink] 09 Jul 2016, 00:06

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