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# For most people, the left half of the brain controls

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For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 28 Feb 2018, 17:29
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For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half. When a language center of the brain is damaged, for example by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way. Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the reasoning in the argument above depends?

A. No part of a person's brain that is damaged by a stroke ever recovers.
B. Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.
C. Strokes tend to impair linguistic capabilities more severely than does any other cause of damage to language centers in the brain.
D. If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.
E. It is impossible to determine which side of the brain contains a personâ€™s language centers if the person has not suffered damage to either side of the brain.

Originally posted by jerrywu on 26 Aug 2006, 20:57.
Last edited by GMATNinjaTwo on 28 Feb 2018, 17:29, edited 1 time in total.
corrected typos in passage
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2016, 18:38
6
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AmritaSarkar89 wrote:
Can anyone please provide a detailed solution for this.
I am kind of totally lost and confused between A B and D

The explanation for B and D is given above by Keats.

The problem with A is the word "no part". If instead it were "the part responsible for linguistic capabilities" then, it could be an assumption.
Negate A:
Some part of a person's brain that is damaged by a stroke recovers.

The part responsible for linguistic capabilities MAY OR MAY NOT be included in this "some part". Hence the argument does not break down by negating option A.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2016, 22:42
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1988achilles

Conclusion: People who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.

Option B:
Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.
Negated B:
Impairment of linguistic capabilities does occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.
This does not affect our argument because it says that people who have NOT suffered any damage to any language center of brain are liable to getting their linguistic capabilities impaired. However, the question doesn't differentiate between people who have suffered any damage to language center and people who haven't. Additionally, this does not come close to explaining that people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering such impairment must have their language centers in the right half!

Option D:
If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.
Negated D:
If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages NONE of them. So, if it damages NONE in the left side of the brain, you cannot assuredly say that the linguistic capabilities are in the right half of the brain. This breaks the conclusion and is our required assumption.

Hope this helps.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2006, 22:55
3
jerrywu wrote:
For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half. When a language center of the brain is damaged, for example by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way. Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the reasoning in the argument above depends?

A. No part of a personâ€™s brain that is damaged by a stroke ever recovers. ---> Extreme assumption NOPE
B. Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain. ---> Another Extreme assumption NOPE
C. Strokes tend to impair linguistic capabilities more severely than does any other cause of damage to language centers in the brain. ---> Off topic NOPE
D. If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them. Sounds like a correct assumption. Links the premise to the conclusion.
E. It is impossible to determine which side of the brain contains a personâ€™s language centers if the person has not suffered damage to either side of the brain. Very Extreme. NOPE

My guess is (D)

2:14
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2006, 22:59
1
Agreed with D
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2013, 04:49
2:58 D seems to be the only only assumption that fits the bill.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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16 May 2014, 06:40
Hi Chiranjeev,

As all the options except D,can be eliminated easily. i just want to test my negation skill here.

The negation of D would be "If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that
side of the brain damages NONE OF them.

Is it right ?

Thanks

Nitin
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2015, 19:30
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi Chiranjeev,

As all the options except D,can be eliminated easily. i just want to test my negation skill here.

The negation of D would be "If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that
side of the brain damages NONE OF them.

Is it right ?

Thanks

Nitin

if none is damaged then having a stroke without such impairment and still not having language centers on right side is not possible acc. to question.

One more must be assumption is they cannot have language centers on both sides of the brain.

+1 kudos if this helps.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2016, 06:17
YES IT does help No other option fits the bill..

crackgmat15 wrote:
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi Chiranjeev,

As all the options except D,can be eliminated easily. i just want to test my negation skill here.

The negation of D would be "If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that
side of the brain damages NONE OF them.

Is it right ?

Thanks

Nitin

if none is damaged then having a stroke without such impairment and still not having language centers on right side is not possible acc. to question.

One more must be assumption is they cannot have language centers on both sides of the brain.

+1 kudos if this helps.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2016, 23:38
Can anyone please provide a detailed solution for this.
I am kind of totally lost and confused between A B and D
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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17 Nov 2016, 18:15
jerrywu wrote:
For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half. When a language center of the brain is damaged, for example by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way. Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the reasoning in the argument above depends?

A. No part of a personâ€™s brain that is damaged by a stroke ever recovers.
B. Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.
C. Strokes tend to impair linguistic capabilities more severely than does any other cause of damage to language centers in the brain.
D. If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.
E. It is impossible to determine which side of the brain contains a personâ€™s language centers if the person has not suffered damage to either side of the brain.

Hi Experts (sayantanc2k , Daagh , e-GMAT , Magoosh)

Regards
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2017, 20:06
Nitinaka19 wrote:
Hi Chiranjeev,

As all the options except D,can be eliminated easily. i just want to test my negation skill here.

The negation of D would be "If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that
side of the brain damages NONE OF them.

Is it right ?

Thanks

Nitin

If none are damaged then this completely nullifies the argument.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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22 May 2017, 07:36
sayantanc2k wrote:
AmritaSarkar89 wrote:
Can anyone please provide a detailed solution for this.
I am kind of totally lost and confused between A B and D

The explanation for B and D is given above by Keats.

The problem with A is the word "no part". If instead it were "the part responsible for linguistic capabilities" then, it could be an assumption.
Negate A:
Some part of a person's brain that is damaged by a stroke recovers.

The part responsible for linguistic capabilities MAY OR MAY NOT be included in this "some part". Hence the argument does not break down by negating option A.

Thanks for the amazing explanation sir.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2017, 03:17
sayantanc2k wrote:
If instead it were "the part responsible for linguistic capabilities" then, it could be an assumption.

Hi sayantanc2k,

I believe that even if A read "the part responsible for linguistic capabilities" it could not have been an assumption as the part should not have suffered any such impairment. In the case where it recovers, it would have still suffered an impairment once.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2017, 14:14
jerrywu wrote:
For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half. When a language center of the brain is damaged, for example by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way. Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the reasoning in the argument above depends?

A. No part of a personâ€™s brain that is damaged by a stroke ever recovers.
B. Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.
C. Strokes tend to impair linguistic capabilities more severely than does any other cause of damage to language centers in the brain.
D. If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.
E. It is impossible to determine which side of the brain contains a personâ€™s language centers if the person has not suffered damage to either side of the brain.

Premises:
Left Half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half.
When a language center of the brain is damaged, for example by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way.

Conclusion: Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.
Implication: "such" impairment refers to the linguistic capabilities. Thus, it states that if there is a stroke on the left side of the brain and it results in no impairment on linguistic capabilities, it will imply that the language center of the brain is in the right side because had it been on the left side, it would have been damaged and would have resulted in an impairment of linguistic capabilities.
Now, we need to find an assumption on which this argument rests.

B vs D.

B
Quote:
Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.

Negation states that impairment of linguistic capabilities occurs in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain. This may tell that impairment can occur but does not falsify the conclusion that the language center lies in the right side of the brain. Further, impairments did not occur is something that is stated clearly in the argument and conclusion is derived out of that, so we can't really assume that.

D
Quote:
If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.

Had the language centers been on the left side, the serious stroke would have damaged the language center and complications might have occurred but they didn't , and this means the language center is on the right.
Negation will also do the job: If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain does [b]not damage at least one of them.[/b]

If the language center is not damaged in the left side as well, then it can very much rest in the left side and result in no impairments despite the stroke.

D!
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2017, 08:53
RonPurewal, GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo,

Just want to confirm my understanding for this question.

I could observe a SCOPE SHIFT in the Premise -> conclusion.

Premise talks about "DAMAGE to language center impacting Lingusitic capabilities" whereas Conclusion talks about "Stroke in Left side of brain w/o Impairment must have LANGUAGE CENTERS in right"

Assumption MUST Connect " stroke in left side of brain " to "DAMAGE in language center".

IS this understanding correct ?

Also, Why is option A incorrect.

Had option A stated " part of the brain responsible for linguistic capabilities never recovers" . Would it then be correct ?

Thankyou
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2017, 14:26
KGump wrote:
RonPurewal, GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo,

Just want to confirm my understanding for this question.

I could observe a SCOPE SHIFT in the Premise -> conclusion.

Premise talks about "DAMAGE to language center impacting Lingusitic capabilities" whereas Conclusion talks about "Stroke in Left side of brain w/o Impairment must have LANGUAGE CENTERS in right"

Assumption MUST Connect " stroke in left side of brain " to "DAMAGE in language center".

IS this understanding correct ?

Also, Why is option A incorrect.

Had option A stated " part of the brain responsible for linguistic capabilities never recovers" . Would it then be correct ?

Thankyou

KGump, your analysis seems logical and supports the correct choice (D).

As for option (A), we don't care whether the patient has recovered from the damage. The conclusion says, "...without suffering any such impairment". This implies that those people NEVER suffered such impairment. People who suffered from the damage and then recovered would not be included in this group.

I hope that helps!
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2017, 01:57
My analysis:

P1: language centres control linguistic capabilities

P2: language centres can be in Left side or Right side of brain

P3: language centres damaged by stroke impairs linguistics

C: Left brain damaged without linguistic impairment => language centres exist in Right brain

Here, the initial mistake I made was internally translating in my head "Left brain damage" as "Left language centre damage" and was wondering why D is correct option since it is already a premise.
But this automatic internal translation is indeed what is an assumption!
So, left brain damage MUST cause left language centre damage which will in turn cause impairment, and only when this equation system holds can we say that if one condition is not met (impairment didn't occur) it must mean other conditions are not satisfied as well (language centre was not in left side of brain when brain damage occurred). This alone leads to conclusion that centre was in the Right side of brain.
Option: D provides that missing link in the equation.

[ left brain damage => left centre damage => linguistic impairment]
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2018, 22:28
GMATNinjaTwo wrote:
KGump wrote:
RonPurewal, GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo,

Just want to confirm my understanding for this question.

I could observe a SCOPE SHIFT in the Premise -> conclusion.

Premise talks about "DAMAGE to language center impacting Lingusitic capabilities" whereas Conclusion talks about "Stroke in Left side of brain w/o Impairment must have LANGUAGE CENTERS in right"

Assumption MUST Connect " stroke in left side of brain " to "DAMAGE in language center".

IS this understanding correct ?

Also, Why is option A incorrect.

Had option A stated " part of the brain responsible for linguistic capabilities never recovers" . Would it then be correct ?

Thankyou

KGump, your analysis seems logical and supports the correct choice (D).

As for option (A), we don't care whether the patient has recovered from the damage. The conclusion says, "...without suffering any such impairment". This implies that those people NEVER suffered such impairment. People who suffered from the damage and then recovered would not be included in this group.

I hope that helps!

GMATNinjaTwo

i have a doubt with regard to option B,although option D is correct

the assumptions i could think of are:
1.if there is a damage to left part of brain,then the linguistic center must be affected. otherwise in-spite of the damage to left side of the brain,there will be no language impairment(linked to option D)
2.only brain and no other part of the body controls the linguistic capabilities .if not true ,then inspite of the damage to left part of brain will not ensure that the language centers are in right side of the brain(linked to option B)
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2018, 17:53
JAIN09 wrote:
GMATNinjaTwo wrote:
KGump wrote:
RonPurewal, GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo,

Just want to confirm my understanding for this question.

I could observe a SCOPE SHIFT in the Premise -> conclusion.

Premise talks about "DAMAGE to language center impacting Lingusitic capabilities" whereas Conclusion talks about "Stroke in Left side of brain w/o Impairment must have LANGUAGE CENTERS in right"

Assumption MUST Connect " stroke in left side of brain " to "DAMAGE in language center".

IS this understanding correct ?

Also, Why is option A incorrect.

Had option A stated " part of the brain responsible for linguistic capabilities never recovers" . Would it then be correct ?

Thankyou

KGump, your analysis seems logical and supports the correct choice (D).

As for option (A), we don't care whether the patient has recovered from the damage. The conclusion says, "...without suffering any such impairment". This implies that those people NEVER suffered such impairment. People who suffered from the damage and then recovered would not be included in this group.

I hope that helps!

GMATNinjaTwo

i have a doubt with regard to option B,although option D is correct

the assumptions i could think of are:
1.if there is a damage to left part of brain,then the linguistic center must be affected. otherwise in-spite of the damage to left side of the brain,there will be no language impairment(linked to option D)
2.only brain and no other part of the body controls the linguistic capabilities .if not true ,then inspite of the damage to left part of brain will not ensure that the language centers are in right side of the brain(linked to option B)

jerrywu wrote:
For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half. When a language center of the brain is damaged, for example by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way. Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the reasoning in the argument above depends?

A. No part of a person's brain that is damaged by a stroke ever recovers.
B. Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.
C. Strokes tend to impair linguistic capabilities more severely than does any other cause of damage to language centers in the brain.
D. If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.
E. It is impossible to determine which side of the brain contains a personâ€™s language centers if the person has not suffered damage to either side of the brain.

Yes, if some people's language centers are NOT in the brain, then the argument would not hold. While the passage does not specifically rule out this possibility, it certainly seems unlikely given the information in the passage: most people's language centers are in the left half of their brains and SOME people's language centers are in the right half of their brains. This seems to suggest that the language centers are always in the brain, on one side or the other.

Regardless, choice (B) does not tell us whether language centers can exist outside of the brain and thus doesn't address your second assumption.

Quote:
B. Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.

Choice (B) implies that the ONLY cause of impairment of linguistic capabilities is damage to a language center of the brain. But surely there are other ways to impair a person's linguistic capabilities (i.e. damage to the mouth, voice box, spinal cord, etc.).

Whether there are other ways to impair a person's linguistic capabilities has no bearing on the argument. We are only concerned with what happens when people suffer a stroke.

I hope that helps clear up your doubt!
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