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For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi

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For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 14 Feb 2019, 00:55
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For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half. When a language center of the brain is damaged, for example by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way. Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the reasoning in the argument above depends?


(A) No part of a person's brain that is damaged by a stroke ever recovers.

(B) Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.

(C) Strokes tend to impair linguistic capabilities more severely than does any other cause of damage to language centers in the brain.

(D) If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.

(E) It is impossible to determine which side of the brain contains a person's language centers if the person has not suffered damage to either side of the brain.

Originally posted by jerrywu on 26 Aug 2006, 20:57.
Last edited by Bunuel on 14 Feb 2019, 00:55, edited 5 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Nov 2016, 18:38
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AmritaSarkar89 wrote:
Can anyone please provide a detailed solution for this.
I am kind of totally lost and confused between A B and D


The explanation for B and D is given above by Keats.

The problem with A is the word "no part". If instead it were "the part responsible for linguistic capabilities" then, it could be an assumption.
Negate A:
Some part of a person's brain that is damaged by a stroke recovers.

The part responsible for linguistic capabilities MAY OR MAY NOT be included in this "some part". Hence the argument does not break down by negating option A.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Nov 2016, 22:42
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Conclusion: People who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.

Option B:
Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.
Negated B:
Impairment of linguistic capabilities does occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.
This does not affect our argument because it says that people who have NOT suffered any damage to any language center of brain are liable to getting their linguistic capabilities impaired. However, the question doesn't differentiate between people who have suffered any damage to language center and people who haven't. Additionally, this does not come close to explaining that people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering such impairment must have their language centers in the right half!

Option D:
If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.
Negated D:
If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages NONE of them. So, if it damages NONE in the left side of the brain, you cannot assuredly say that the linguistic capabilities are in the right half of the brain. This breaks the conclusion and is our required assumption.

Hope this helps.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Aug 2006, 22:55
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jerrywu wrote:
For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half. When a language center of the brain is damaged, for example by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way. Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the reasoning in the argument above depends?

A. No part of a person’s brain that is damaged by a stroke ever recovers. ---> Extreme assumption NOPE
B. Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain. ---> Another Extreme assumption NOPE
C. Strokes tend to impair linguistic capabilities more severely than does any other cause of damage to language centers in the brain. ---> Off topic NOPE
D. If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them. Sounds like a correct assumption. Links the premise to the conclusion.
E. It is impossible to determine which side of the brain contains a person’s language centers if the person has not suffered damage to either side of the brain. Very Extreme. NOPE


My guess is (D)

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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2016, 23:38
Can anyone please provide a detailed solution for this.
I am kind of totally lost and confused between A B and D
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Nov 2017, 14:14
jerrywu wrote:
For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half. When a language center of the brain is damaged, for example by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way. Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the reasoning in the argument above depends?

A. No part of a person’s brain that is damaged by a stroke ever recovers.
B. Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.
C. Strokes tend to impair linguistic capabilities more severely than does any other cause of damage to language centers in the brain.
D. If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.
E. It is impossible to determine which side of the brain contains a person’s language centers if the person has not suffered damage to either side of the brain.


Premises:
Left Half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half.
When a language center of the brain is damaged, for example by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way.

Conclusion: Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.
Implication: "such" impairment refers to the linguistic capabilities. Thus, it states that if there is a stroke on the left side of the brain and it results in no impairment on linguistic capabilities, it will imply that the language center of the brain is in the right side because had it been on the left side, it would have been damaged and would have resulted in an impairment of linguistic capabilities.
Now, we need to find an assumption on which this argument rests.

B vs D.

B
Quote:
Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.

Negation states that impairment of linguistic capabilities occurs in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain. This may tell that impairment can occur but does not falsify the conclusion that the language center lies in the right side of the brain. Further, impairments did not occur is something that is stated clearly in the argument and conclusion is derived out of that, so we can't really assume that.

D
Quote:
If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.

Had the language centers been on the left side, the serious stroke would have damaged the language center and complications might have occurred but they didn't , and this means the language center is on the right.
Negation will also do the job: If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain does [b]not damage at least one of them.[/b]

If the language center is not damaged in the left side as well, then it can very much rest in the left side and result in no impairments despite the stroke.

D!
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Nov 2017, 08:53
RonPurewal, GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo,

Just want to confirm my understanding for this question.

I could observe a SCOPE SHIFT in the Premise -> conclusion.

Premise talks about "DAMAGE to language center impacting Lingusitic capabilities" whereas Conclusion talks about "Stroke in Left side of brain w/o Impairment must have LANGUAGE CENTERS in right"

Assumption MUST Connect " stroke in left side of brain " to "DAMAGE in language center".

IS this understanding correct ?

Also, Why is option A incorrect.

Had option A stated " part of the brain responsible for linguistic capabilities never recovers" . Would it then be correct ?

Thankyou
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2017, 14:26
KGump wrote:
RonPurewal, GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo,

Just want to confirm my understanding for this question.

I could observe a SCOPE SHIFT in the Premise -> conclusion.

Premise talks about "DAMAGE to language center impacting Lingusitic capabilities" whereas Conclusion talks about "Stroke in Left side of brain w/o Impairment must have LANGUAGE CENTERS in right"

Assumption MUST Connect " stroke in left side of brain " to "DAMAGE in language center".

IS this understanding correct ?

Also, Why is option A incorrect.

Had option A stated " part of the brain responsible for linguistic capabilities never recovers" . Would it then be correct ?

Thankyou

KGump, your analysis seems logical and supports the correct choice (D).

As for option (A), we don't care whether the patient has recovered from the damage. The conclusion says, "...without suffering any such impairment". This implies that those people NEVER suffered such impairment. People who suffered from the damage and then recovered would not be included in this group.

I hope that helps!
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2018, 22:28
GMATNinjaTwo wrote:
KGump wrote:
RonPurewal, GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo,

Just want to confirm my understanding for this question.

I could observe a SCOPE SHIFT in the Premise -> conclusion.

Premise talks about "DAMAGE to language center impacting Lingusitic capabilities" whereas Conclusion talks about "Stroke in Left side of brain w/o Impairment must have LANGUAGE CENTERS in right"

Assumption MUST Connect " stroke in left side of brain " to "DAMAGE in language center".

IS this understanding correct ?

Also, Why is option A incorrect.

Had option A stated " part of the brain responsible for linguistic capabilities never recovers" . Would it then be correct ?

Thankyou

KGump, your analysis seems logical and supports the correct choice (D).

As for option (A), we don't care whether the patient has recovered from the damage. The conclusion says, "...without suffering any such impairment". This implies that those people NEVER suffered such impairment. People who suffered from the damage and then recovered would not be included in this group.

I hope that helps!





GMATNinjaTwo

i have a doubt with regard to option B,although option D is correct

the assumptions i could think of are:
1.if there is a damage to left part of brain,then the linguistic center must be affected. otherwise in-spite of the damage to left side of the brain,there will be no language impairment(linked to option D)
2.only brain and no other part of the body controls the linguistic capabilities .if not true ,then inspite of the damage to left part of brain will not ensure that the language centers are in right side of the brain(linked to option B)
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2018, 17:53
JAIN09 wrote:
GMATNinjaTwo wrote:
KGump wrote:
RonPurewal, GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo,

Just want to confirm my understanding for this question.

I could observe a SCOPE SHIFT in the Premise -> conclusion.

Premise talks about "DAMAGE to language center impacting Lingusitic capabilities" whereas Conclusion talks about "Stroke in Left side of brain w/o Impairment must have LANGUAGE CENTERS in right"

Assumption MUST Connect " stroke in left side of brain " to "DAMAGE in language center".

IS this understanding correct ?

Also, Why is option A incorrect.

Had option A stated " part of the brain responsible for linguistic capabilities never recovers" . Would it then be correct ?

Thankyou

KGump, your analysis seems logical and supports the correct choice (D).

As for option (A), we don't care whether the patient has recovered from the damage. The conclusion says, "...without suffering any such impairment". This implies that those people NEVER suffered such impairment. People who suffered from the damage and then recovered would not be included in this group.

I hope that helps!





GMATNinjaTwo

i have a doubt with regard to option B,although option D is correct

the assumptions i could think of are:
1.if there is a damage to left part of brain,then the linguistic center must be affected. otherwise in-spite of the damage to left side of the brain,there will be no language impairment(linked to option D)
2.only brain and no other part of the body controls the linguistic capabilities .if not true ,then inspite of the damage to left part of brain will not ensure that the language centers are in right side of the brain(linked to option B)

jerrywu wrote:
For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half. When a language center of the brain is damaged, for example by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way. Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the reasoning in the argument above depends?

A. No part of a person's brain that is damaged by a stroke ever recovers.
B. Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.
C. Strokes tend to impair linguistic capabilities more severely than does any other cause of damage to language centers in the brain.
D. If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.
E. It is impossible to determine which side of the brain contains a person’s language centers if the person has not suffered damage to either side of the brain.

Yes, if some people's language centers are NOT in the brain, then the argument would not hold. While the passage does not specifically rule out this possibility, it certainly seems unlikely given the information in the passage: most people's language centers are in the left half of their brains and SOME people's language centers are in the right half of their brains. This seems to suggest that the language centers are always in the brain, on one side or the other.

Regardless, choice (B) does not tell us whether language centers can exist outside of the brain and thus doesn't address your second assumption.

Quote:
B. Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.

Choice (B) implies that the ONLY cause of impairment of linguistic capabilities is damage to a language center of the brain. But surely there are other ways to impair a person's linguistic capabilities (i.e. damage to the mouth, voice box, spinal cord, etc.).

Whether there are other ways to impair a person's linguistic capabilities has no bearing on the argument. We are only concerned with what happens when people suffer a stroke.

I hope that helps clear up your doubt!
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Sep 2018, 19:12
For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabilities, but some people have their language centers in the right half. When a language center of the brain is damaged, for example by a stroke, linguistic capabilities are impaired in some way. Therefore, people who have suffered a serious stroke on the left side of the brain without suffering any such impairment must have their language centers in the right half.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the reasoning in the argument above depends?
------------
A. No part of a person's brain that is damaged by a stroke ever recovers.
B. Impairment of linguistic capabilities does not occur in people who have not suffered any damage to any language center of the brain.
C. Strokes tend to impair linguistic capabilities more severely than does any other cause of damage to language centers in the brain.
D. If there are language centers on the left side of the brain, any serious stroke affecting that side of the brain damages at least one of them.
E. It is impossible to determine which side of the brain contains a person’s language centers if the person has not suffered damage to either side of the brain.
-------------

Maybe the first or one of a few questions that I saw, where all options except from the right one (D) are simply irrelevant.
Only D gives us a link.
No need to do any negations.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2018, 05:25
D. This is the assumption made in the argument. If we negate this statement and say that a serious stroke affecting the side of brain which consists the linguistic centre doesn’t damage it then the whole conclusion would be wrong. So, it must be assumed that stroke would damage the part of brain. Hence, D is the answer.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Dec 2018, 17:20
Got this question wrong on my practice test. Tricky prompt. Always find the conclusion. Stroke on LS yet no impairments means LC on right side. Why? LC have linguistic capabilties and are on one side of the brain. Choice D says if there are LC's on left side and stroke affecting that side of brain happens, then LC will be damaged. Same side = effect. If not effect, LC on other side of brain. I was running out of time and had to guess unfortunately. Good question.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jan 2019, 22:56
A. This statement holds no relevance to the conclusion made in the argument.
B. Here we are talking about the impairment caused by damage to language centers of the brain and we have derived a conclusion base on that only. Linguistic impairment caused by other reasons than damage to linguistic centers is not the concern.
C. We are not supposed to compare impairment caused by strokes or any other damage.
D. This is the assumption made in the argument. If we negate this statement and say that a serious stroke affecting the side of brain which consists the linguistic centre doesn’t damage it then the whole conclusion would be wrong. So, it must be assumed that stroke would damage the part of brain. Hence, D is the answer.
E. The conclusion is about determining whether the linguistic centre is on left side or right side and not about whether only damages can determine the centre or not.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2019, 02:05
The answer is D. The conclusion suffers from a generalization error, the passage states that if someone suffers a serious left side stroke and does not suffer language impairment, they must have the language centers on the right side of their brain. It does not, however, account for the possibility that the stroke might simply have not caused any damage to the language centers. The assumption in option D closes that gap by stating if someone has a serious stroke in the left side of the brain and if there are language centers there, they will be damaged.
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Re: For most people, the left half of the brain controls linguistic capabi  [#permalink]

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New post 11 May 2019, 11:43
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Please explain this question.
I was confused between B and D . Ended up choosing B.
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Re: Q40: For most people, the left half of the brain controls  [#permalink]

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Re: Q40: For most people, the left half of the brain controls   [#permalink] 11 Sep 2019, 04:13
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