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# GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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10 Apr 2017, 04:03
question 3 is hard. we do not know where to find the relevant lines. we have to reread all the passage to find. luckily, the passage is short. at the begining of the paragraph 2, we find "TQM shares with such systems the objective...". this line give us the answer, choice A.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2017, 02:27
I took too much time in reading the passage, as I missed keeping track of the connection between the ideas presented - In the second passage the main point is clearly expressed in second sentence. Though all the answers are correct but took time.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2017, 01:49
bb61 wrote:

According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM), which is designed to be adopted consistently throughout an organization and to improve customer service by using sampling theory to reduce the variability of a product's quality, can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. As Drucker notes, TQM's scientific approach is consistent with the statistical sampling techniques of the "rationalist" school of scientific management, and the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the "human relations" school of management.

However, TQM cannot simply be grafted onto these systems or onto certain other non-TQM management systems. Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies. While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent. For example, lower prices not only benefit consumers but also enhance an organization's competitive edge and ensure its continuance, thus benefiting employees and owners. TQM's emphasis on shared interests is reflected in the decentralized decision-making, integrated production activity, and lateral structure of organizations that achieve the benefits of TQM.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. point out contradictions in a new management system
B. compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems
C. identify the organizational features shared by various management systems
D. explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems
E. explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems

2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?
A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.
B. It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.
C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.
D. It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.
E. It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.

3.According to the passage, the rationalist and human relations schools of management are alike in that they
A. are primarily interested in increasing profits
B. place little emphasis on issues of organizational structure
C. use statistical sampling techniques to increase profitability
D. are unlikely to lower prices in order to increase profitability
E. focus chiefly on setting and attaining long-term objectives

In the primary purpose why not option E ?
could any one explain that ?
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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22 Jun 2017, 17:42
4
Quote:
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. point out contradictions in a new management system
B. compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems
C. identify the organizational features shared by various management systems
D. explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems
E. explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems

mkumar26 wrote:
In the primary purpose why not option E ?
could any one explain that ?

The first paragraph tells us that "Total Quality Management (TQM) {...} can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems" (the "rationalist" school of scientific management and the "human relations" school of management).

Paragraph two elaborates on this claim by telling us that TQM cannot work in conjunction with such systems if it is simply grafted onto the others. Simply grafting TQM onto those other systems will not work because "TQM requires fundamentally different strategies".

Although the passage certainly discusses differences between TQM strategies and those of other systems, the passage does not explain the advantages of one system over the other. The passage gives us no reason to conclude that TQM is better or worse than the other management systems described. Instead, the passage objectively explains TQM's relationship with certain other management systems, so choice (D) is the best answer.

I hope this helps!
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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27 Oct 2017, 08:09
4 mins 40 seconds
all correct.
The passage seemed crisp and clear when compared to other humanities passages.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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03 Nov 2017, 08:40
Time: 7mins:42 seconds . Got Question 2 wrong! Good one!
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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05 Nov 2017, 22:21
1
Thanks ShashankDave for the in-depth explanation! I added a few comments in red, but in general this looks great!

ShashankDave wrote:
Got all Correct. Here's my 2 cents regarding explanations..I request Experts to comment on my analysis.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. point out contradictions in a new management system

No. It's not indicated anywhere in the passage whether any of the discussed management methods is "new" - We can infer that TQM is newer than the two older management systems, but that doesn't tell us how new TQM is. More importantly, the passage does not explain contradictions within TQM.

B. compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems

No. In totality 3 methods have been discussed in the passage - rational school, human relations school, and TQM. In the second paragraph, it has been mentioned that the objective of all the three methods is to increase the profitability. Quoting from the passage - Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies.

C. identify the organizational features shared by various management systems

No. Although the first paragraph discuss primarily this only, but the complete passage is about something else as the author argues something entirely different in the second paragraph. - We are only told that "the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the 'human relations' school of management." However, the passage does not identify the specific organizational features shared by these systems, and identifying such shared features is certainly not the primary purpose.
D. explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems
Yes. In the first paragraph, the author discusses what someone else has said about the relation between TQM and the other two schools. In the second paragraph, the author sets out to explain that TQM cannot simply be used with the other two methods by pointing out the differences between TQM and the other schools. In all, the author is trying to convince that the relationship is not exactly as close as it may seem to be.

E. explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems

No. This can be tricky. Yes, the author has pointed out that TQM cares about employees, shareholders, and customers alike, while the other systems only worry about shareholders. But if you read closely, you would understand that the author has discussed WHAT THE STRATEGIES ARE RATHER THAN POINTING OUT ANY STRATEGY AS BEING ADVANTAGEOUS OVER THE OTHER. - Great! The author describes the different systems and their relationships to one another but does not focus on advantages and disadvantages of each.

2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?

A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.

No. What "phenomenon"? There is no such thing in the passage. What "contrasting explanations"? Only differences between strategies and why TQM cannot be used with the other systems has been discussed, not any "contrasting explanations". Out of Scope

B. It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.

No. What "general principle"? Out of Scope.

C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.

Yes. "qualifies" means to reduce in strength or value. The first paragraph makes a claim that TQM can be used with the other 2 systems. But the second paragraph says that TQM cannot be used with the other systems because of underlying fundamental differences. So the second paragraph weakens the claim made in the first paragraph. - I would say that, in this context, the meaning of "qualify" is "to limit or modify the meaning of". In other words, in the second paragraph, the author elaborates (provides more information) on the claim made in the first paragraph. The author makes the claim more specific.

For example, I might say, "I love pizza." But then I might qualify that statement by saying, "I only love pizza from New York."

D. It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.

No. The exact opposite has happened.

E. It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.

No. No alternative approach has been discussed, and no "problem" has been talked about. Moreover, no "solution" has been discussed.

3.According to the passage, the rationalist and human relations schools of management are alike in that they

A. are primarily interested in increasing profits

Yes. Read the lines in the second paragraph - "While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent."
A line before this points out that the "ultimate objective" is to increase profitability.

B. place little emphasis on issues of organizational structure

No. We can't say as it has not been explicitly stated

C. use statistical sampling techniques to increase profitability

No. Only "rational" school has this, not "human relations"

D. are unlikely to lower prices in order to increase profitability

No. Nothing in the passage points to this

E. focus chiefly on setting and attaining long-term objectives

No. It has been stated that both have "short term objectives"

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2017, 00:32
GMATNinja wrote:
Thanks ShashankDave for the in-depth explanation! I added a few comments in red, but in general this looks great!

ShashankDave wrote:
Got all Correct. Here's my 2 cents regarding explanations..I request Experts to comment on my analysis.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. point out contradictions in a new management system

No. It's not indicated anywhere in the passage whether any of the discussed management methods is "new" - We can infer that TQM is newer than the two older management systems, but that doesn't tell us how new TQM is. More importantly, the passage does not explain contradictions within TQM.

B. compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems

No. In totality 3 methods have been discussed in the passage - rational school, human relations school, and TQM. In the second paragraph, it has been mentioned that the objective of all the three methods is to increase the profitability. Quoting from the passage - Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies.

C. identify the organizational features shared by various management systems

No. Although the first paragraph discuss primarily this only, but the complete passage is about something else as the author argues something entirely different in the second paragraph. - We are only told that "the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the 'human relations' school of management." However, the passage does not identify the specific organizational features shared by these systems, and identifying such shared features is certainly not the primary purpose.
D. explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems
Yes. In the first paragraph, the author discusses what someone else has said about the relation between TQM and the other two schools. In the second paragraph, the author sets out to explain that TQM cannot simply be used with the other two methods by pointing out the differences between TQM and the other schools. In all, the author is trying to convince that the relationship is not exactly as close as it may seem to be.

E. explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems

No. This can be tricky. Yes, the author has pointed out that TQM cares about employees, shareholders, and customers alike, while the other systems only worry about shareholders. But if you read closely, you would understand that the author has discussed WHAT THE STRATEGIES ARE RATHER THAN POINTING OUT ANY STRATEGY AS BEING ADVANTAGEOUS OVER THE OTHER. - Great! The author describes the different systems and their relationships to one another but does not focus on advantages and disadvantages of each.

2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?

A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.

No. What "phenomenon"? There is no such thing in the passage. What "contrasting explanations"? Only differences between strategies and why TQM cannot be used with the other systems has been discussed, not any "contrasting explanations". Out of Scope

B. It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.

No. What "general principle"? Out of Scope.

C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.

Yes. "qualifies" means to reduce in strength or value. The first paragraph makes a claim that TQM can be used with the other 2 systems. But the second paragraph says that TQM cannot be used with the other systems because of underlying fundamental differences. So the second paragraph weakens the claim made in the first paragraph. - I would say that, in this context, the meaning of "qualify" is "to limit or modify the meaning of". In other words, in the second paragraph, the author elaborates (provides more information) on the claim made in the first paragraph. The author makes the claim more specific.

For example, I might say, "I love pizza." But then I might qualify that statement by saying, "I only love pizza from New York."

D. It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.

No. The exact opposite has happened.

E. It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.

No. No alternative approach has been discussed, and no "problem" has been talked about. Moreover, no "solution" has been discussed.

3.According to the passage, the rationalist and human relations schools of management are alike in that they

A. are primarily interested in increasing profits

Yes. Read the lines in the second paragraph - "While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent."
A line before this points out that the "ultimate objective" is to increase profitability.

B. place little emphasis on issues of organizational structure

No. We can't say as it has not been explicitly stated

C. use statistical sampling techniques to increase profitability

No. Only "rational" school has this, not "human relations"

D. are unlikely to lower prices in order to increase profitability

No. Nothing in the passage points to this

E. focus chiefly on setting and attaining long-term objectives

No. It has been stated that both have "short term objectives"

GMATNinja
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2017, 16:21
Can you explain why B is wrong? why is "exception to a general principle outlined" wrong here? I feel like "can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. As Drucker notes," notes is a key word that identifies principal.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2017, 14:00
sayantanc2k wrote:
Responding to a PM. Why option C is better than option B?

The fastest way to eliminate option B (without going into the details below) would be to mark the word "an" before "exception" and realize that there are more than one systems mentioned in paragraph B.

Now to details....

Option B: The first paragraph describes a general PRINCIPLE. The second discusses AN EXCEPTION.
The PRINCIPLE in the first paragraph is that TQM is consistent with rationalist school and HR school. In order for B to be correct, we require an example which is an EXCEPTION to this principle, i.e. an example (exception) that shows that TQM is NOT consistent with rationalist and HR schools. Such exception is not shown in paragraph 2.
Moreover the second paragraph does not discuss AN (one) exception (even if it were an exception), but many other systems that are not consistent with TQM:

Option C: First paragraph presents a CLAIM. The second provides information that QUALIFIES the claim.
The claim is that TQM CAN WORK SUCCESSFULLY in conjunction with 2 other principles. The PRINCIPLE mentioned above (TQM is consistent with rationalist school and HR school) is used to support this claim.

The second paragraph qualifies the claim providing the information that TQM cannot be grafted to other non-TQM systems ( i.e. TQM is not consistent with other systems) and thereby adds reservation to the above CLAIM. ( qualify = add reservation to)

Therefore C is better than B.

In my opinion the gist between A and C in this question is Qualify vs Contrast

A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.
C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.

So contrast is present pros and cons. Wich is done and according to the author, he validates the claim that TQM works BUT with a different strategy.
Wich means he is not contrasting, he is evaluating or qualifying
Got it wrong, but now I can see why

Hope it helps
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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18 Nov 2017, 14:07
PaterD wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
Responding to a PM. Why option C is better than option B?

The fastest way to eliminate option B (without going into the details below) would be to mark the word "an" before "exception" and realize that there are more than one systems mentioned in paragraph B.

Now to details....

Option B: The first paragraph describes a general PRINCIPLE. The second discusses AN EXCEPTION.
The PRINCIPLE in the first paragraph is that TQM is consistent with rationalist school and HR school. In order for B to be correct, we require an example which is an EXCEPTION to this principle, i.e. an example (exception) that shows that TQM is NOT consistent with rationalist and HR schools. Such exception is not shown in paragraph 2.
Moreover the second paragraph does not discuss AN (one) exception (even if it were an exception), but many other systems that are not consistent with TQM:

Option C: First paragraph presents a CLAIM. The second provides information that QUALIFIES the claim.
The claim is that TQM CAN WORK SUCCESSFULLY in conjunction with 2 other principles. The PRINCIPLE mentioned above (TQM is consistent with rationalist school and HR school) is used to support this claim.

The second paragraph qualifies the claim providing the information that TQM cannot be grafted to other non-TQM systems ( i.e. TQM is not consistent with other systems) and thereby adds reservation to the above CLAIM. ( qualify = add reservation to)

Therefore C is better than B.

In my opinion the gist between A and C in this question is Qualify vs Contrast

A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.
C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.

So contrast is present pros and cons, wich is not entirely done, the author just validates the claim that TQM works BUT with a different strategy or approach, as GMATNinja highlights on ShashankDave explanation, the author specify under what kind of conditions does the statement properly fits.
Wich means he is not contrasting, but evaluating or qualifying
Got it wrong, but the discus really helps the enlighten process.

Hope it helps
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2017, 18:40
spatel2 wrote:
Can you explain why B is wrong? why is "exception to a general principle outlined" wrong here? I feel like "can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. As Drucker notes," notes is a key word that identifies principal.

Quote:
2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?

A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.
B. It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.
C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.
D. It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.
E. It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.

If the "general principle" is that TQM "can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems", then an exception would be an example where TQM CANNOT work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. The second paragraph does not describe such an exception. Rather, the second paragraph elaborates on that principle. In other words, yes, TQM can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems, but to do so, you can't just graft it on. The second paragraph qualifies the claim by giving us information that limits/modifies the claim.

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2018, 22:41
PiyushK wrote:
NEW PROJECT!: Back to basic => Give your explanation- Get Kudos Point for best explanation

Passage-25 GMATPrep RCs-Collection(Main article)

According to P. F. Drucker, the management philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM), which is designed to be adopted consistently throughout an organization and to improve customer service by using sampling theory to reduce the variability of a product's quality, can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. As Drucker notes, TQM's scientific approach is consistent with the statistical sampling techniques of the "rationalist" school of scientific management, and the organizational structure associated with TQM is consistent with the social and psychological emphases of the "human relations" school of management.

However, TQM cannot simply be grafted onto these systems or onto certain other non-TQM management systems. Although, as Drucker contends, TQM shares with such systems the ultimate objective of increasing profitability, TQM requires fundamentally different strategies. While the other management systems referred to use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term, TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent. For example, lower prices not only benefit consumers but also enhance an organization's competitive edge and ensure its continuance, thus benefiting employees and owners. TQM's emphasis on shared interests is reflected in the decentralized decision-making, integrated production activity, and lateral structure of organizations that achieve the benefits of TQM.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. point out contradictions in a new management system

B. compare and contrast the objectives of various management systems

C. identify the organizational features shared by various management systems

D. explain the relationship of a particular management system to certain other management systems

E. explain the advantages of a particular management system over certain other management systems

2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?

A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.

B. It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.

C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph.

D. It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.

E. It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.

3.According to the passage, the rationalist and human relations schools of management are alike in that they

A. are primarily interested in increasing profits

B. place little emphasis on issues of organizational structure

C. use statistical sampling techniques to increase profitability

D. are unlikely to lower prices in order to increase profitability

E. focus chiefly on setting and attaining long-term objectives

WHY is option B " It provides information that qualifies a claim" wrong?
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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20 Jan 2018, 00:17
giuliab3 wrote:
WHY is option B " It provides information that qualifies a claim" wrong?
thank you!

I think "It provides information that qualifies a claim" is option C, which is correct answer.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2018, 20:07
question #2 of the RC.

I can't wrap head around this OA, must have missed something subtle.

Can someone please explain as to what does "qualifying a claim" actually mean.

Also, what is the claim that is being qualified in this RC.

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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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06 Feb 2018, 18:51
1
piyush1995 wrote:
question #2 of the RC.

I can't wrap head around this OA, must have missed something subtle.

Can someone please explain as to what does "qualifying a claim" actually mean.

Also, what is the claim that is being qualified in this RC.

Refering to the post below:

GMATNinja wrote:
I would say that, in this context, the meaning of "qualify" is "to limit or modify the meaning of". In other words, in the second paragraph, the author elaborates (provides more information) on the claim made in the first paragraph. The author makes the claim more specific.

For example, I might say, "I love pizza." But then I might qualify that statement by saying, "I only love pizza from New York."

The claim in the first paragraph is that, "TQM can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems."

Paragraph two elaborates on this claim by telling us that TQM cannot work in conjunction with these systems if it is simply grafted onto them; therefore, the second paragraph qualifies the claim by giving us information that limits/modifies the claim.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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10 May 2018, 02:33
For Question 3, Why not D?
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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11 May 2018, 12:27
Drshwetagupta wrote:
For Question 3, Why not D?

Quote:
3.According to the passage, the rationalist and human relations schools of management are alike in that they

A. are primarily interested in increasing profits

B. place little emphasis on issues of organizational structure

C. use statistical sampling techniques to increase profitability

D. are unlikely to lower prices in order to increase profitability

E. focus chiefly on setting and attaining long-term objectives

The only mention of lower prices is in this portion:

Quote:
TQM envisions the interests of employees, shareholders, and customers as convergent. For example, lower prices not only benefit consumers but also enhance an organization's competitive edge and ensure its continuance, thus benefiting employees and owners.

So we can infer that lowering prices IS probably consistent with TQM.

And we are also told that "the other management systems referred to (rationalist and human relations) use upper management decision-making and employee specialization to maximize shareholder profits over the short term." So this might at first glance lead you to think that those other systems are not interested in lowering prices.

But the point is that the other systems are more concerned with shareholder profits in the short term while TQM is more concerned with the shared interests of employees, shareholders, and customers. So a company adhering to TQM might lower prices because it's in the best interests of employees, shareholders, and customers.

A company adhering to the rationalist or human relations school of management also might lower prices but only in an effort to maximize short term profits. This company is still definitely interested in increasing profitability, and, if lowering prices will increase profitability, then the company would certainly want to do so. This company might have different MOTIVES than a company following TQM, but that does not mean that the company would be UNLIKELY to lower prices.

So (D) can be eliminated.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2018, 04:01
i took around 8 minutes and got 2 correct.
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Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem  [#permalink]

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22 Oct 2018, 20:57
Time : 3 mins 54 seconds (including reading) all correct

2. Which of the following best describes the relationship of the second paragraph to the first paragraph?
para 1: claim : according to drucker " TQM can work successfully in conjunction with two older management systems. " ... support is provided for the claim.... why is it a CLAIM? because it is someone's POV (someone being drucker) .. we cannot call it a fact or a GENERAL PRINCIPLE.
para 2: Though TQM can work in conjunctions with older systems , there ae still some LIMITATION ... limitations or better yet detailed differences between TQM and other systems.So this para MODIFIES OR GIVES US FURTHER INFO TO VIEW THE CLAIM IN TOTALITY with a much deeper undertstanding.

A. It presents contrasting explanations for a phenomenon presented in the first paragraph.
errors : Contrasting explanations : there are no contrasting explanations mentioned anywhere... the AUTHOR in second para merely gives us a more detailed picture in totality for the reader to evaluate the claim.
Phenomenon: phenomenons are usually events or facts which are substantiated with other factual premises. here druckers makes HIS CLAIM. THAT DOES NOT MEAN HE IS STATING A PHENOMENON. Well you could call the support given to the claim " operational features bla bla bla " in para 1 as a phenomenon because it is a fact and hence is substantiated .

B. It discusses an exception to a general principle outlined in the first paragraph.
errors: AN EXCEPTION : There is no exception . See the author is providing us more info to evaluate (view/judge) drucker's claim. He points out no exception ( that in this case , the claim does not work ). If there had been an exception , the author would have explicitly cited the exception (a scenario in which the claim does not hold true). But nowhere has h/she mentioned such an exception.
Even if we ignore being literal , there is still a problem ... AN exceptions. author points out more than 1 differences in the systems. so AN exception is inappropriate. BOTTOM LINE : THERE IS NO EXCEPTION
General principle: There is no GENERAL PRINCIPLE. Nowhere is it mentioned that the claim made by drucker is widely accepted . author JUST MENTIONS A CLAIM ...THAT'S IT.

C. It provides information that qualifies a claim presented in the first paragraph. CORRECT
Why right? -
provides info : yes the author provides us info wherein he mentions certain key differences and some common objectives.
qualifies: qualifies means modifying or giving more info on something through which we can evaluate something.
Note : a potential MISCONCEPTION among readers who think " to qualify : to limit" ... qualifying something means provide more info on which we can narrow in and get more info on something to make a sound judgement
for eg : I like ice cream ( this is my claim ... you are the reader) .... I like butterscotch icecream ( My qualification (modification of icecream )) .. Now you can make an even sound judgement about which icecream i like. THIS IS QUALIFICATION.
... SO in para 2 author provides us more info from which we can make a sound judgement on drucker's claim.

D. It presents an example that strengthens a claim presented in the first paragraph.
errors: example - no example is given....raw info is provided.
strengthens a claim : nowhere is author even trying to substantiate the claim : TQM can successfully work with other sys.... he is providing info

E. It presents an alternative approach to solving a problem discussed in the first paragraph.
errors: alternative approach - first of all there isnt any approach to which author is author is providing an alternative.
a problem - a claim is mentioned. author never says that the claim is problematic

GMATNinja please judge my reasoing .. thankyou...
Re: GMATPREP ChallengeQ -According to P. F. Drucker, the managem   [#permalink] 22 Oct 2018, 20:57

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