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Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

35% (02:54) correct 65% (02:56) wrong based on 379

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Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

59% (00:55) correct 41% (01:06) wrong based on 358

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Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

48% (00:37) correct 52% (01:00) wrong based on 365

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Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

Question Stats:

49% (01:22) correct 51% (01:29) wrong based on 358

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In current historiography, the picture of a consistent, unequivocal decline in women’s status with the advent of capitalism and industrialization is giving way to an analysis that not only emphasizes both change (whether improvement or decline) and continuity but also accounts for geographical and occupational variation. The history of women’s work in English farmhouse cheese making between 1800 and 1930 is a case in point. In her influential Women Workers and the Industrial Revolution (1930), Pinchbeck argued that the agricultural revolution of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, with its attendant specialization and enlarged scale of operation, curtailed women’s participation in the business of cheese production. Earlier, she maintained, women had concerned themselves with feeding cows, rearing calves, and even selling the cheese in local markets and fairs. Pinchbeck thought that the advent of specialization meant that women’s work in cheese dairying was reduced simply to processing the milk. “Dairymen” (a new social category) raised and fed cows and sold the cheese through factors, who were also men. With this narrowing of the scope of work, Pinchbeck believed, women lost business ability, independence, and initiative.

Though Pinchbeck portrayed precapitalist, preindustrial conditions as superior to what followed, recent scholarship has seriously questioned the notion of a golden age for women in precapitalist society. For example, scholars note that women’s control seldom extended to the disposal of the proceeds of their work. In the case of cheese, the rise of factors may have compromised women’s ability to market cheese at fairs. But merely selling the cheese did not necessarily imply access to the money: Davidoff cites the case of an Essex man who appropriated all but a fraction of the money from his wife’s cheese sales.

By focusing on somewhat peripheral operations, moreover, Pinchbeck missed a substantial element of continuity in women’s participation: throughout the period women did the central work of actually making cheese. Their persistence in English cheese dairying contrasts with women’s early disappearance from arable agriculture in southeast England and from American cheese dairying. Comparing these three divergent developments yields some reasons for the differences among them. English cheese-making women worked in a setting in which cultural values, agricultural conditions, and the nature of their work combined to support their continued participation. In the other cases, one or more of these elements was lacking.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present recently discovered evidence that supports a conventional interpretation of a historical period
(B) describe how reinterpretations of available evidence have reinvigorated a once-discredited scholarly position
(C) explain why some historians have tended to emphasize change rather than continuity in discussing a particular period
(D) explore how changes in a particular occupation serve to counter the prevailing view of a historical period
(E) examine a particular area of historical research in order to exemplify a general scholarly trend


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

2. Regarding English local markets and fairs, which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) Both before and after the agricultural revolution, the sellers of agricultural products at these venues were men.
(B) Knowing who the active sellers were at these venues may not give a reliable indication of who controlled the revenue from the sales.
(C) There were no parallel institutions at which American cheese makers could sell their own products.
(D) Prior to the agricultural revolution, the sellers of agricultural products at these venues were generally the producers themselves.
(E) Prior to the agricultural revolution, women sold not only cheese but also products of arable agriculture at these venues.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

3. The passage describes the work of Pinchbeck primarily in order to

(A) demonstrate that some of the conclusions reached by recent historians were anticipated in earlier scholarship
(B) provide an instance of the viewpoint that, according to the passage’s author, is being superseded
(C) illustrate the ways in which recent historians have built on the work of their predecessors
(D) provide a point of reference for subsequent scholarship on women’s work during the agricultural revolution
(E) show the effect that the specialization introduced in the agricultural and industrial revolutions had on women’s work


[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

4. It can be inferred from the passage that women did work in

(A) American cheesemaking at some point prior to industrialization
(B) arable agriculture in northern England both before and after the agricultural revolution
(C) arable agriculture in southeast England after the agricultural revolution, in those locales in which cultural values supported their participation
(D) the sale of cheese at local markets in England even after the agricultural revolution
(E) some areas of American cheese dairying after industrialization

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA

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Re: In current historiography, the picture of a consistent, unequivocal de [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2015, 01:54
This is one horrible passage where I have scored only one out of four questions. The explanation in OG16 is not at all clear.
I would be really thankful if someone explains the problem.

1. I chose B because I understood that available evidence has been re interpreted and hence new ideas have arisen.
A was clearly out. evidence to support..no
B. My answer.
C. explain why historians want change rather than continuity. out
D. explore how changes in occupation serve to counter the existing view of past period, no coz it wall already existing view that women were facing trouble/decline.
E. I simply couldn't understand what this meant. examine an area in research in order to exemplify general trend! how the hell is it signifying general trend?

2. Very hard one, but got correct.
A. Before and after revolution, sellers were men,,,,nope
B. Who were the sellers wont tell u who were the house masters....sounds good.
C. no other selling venues.....didn't say anything like that...nope.
D. prior to revolution, sellers were producers, ...nope coz after revolt also there may have been such ppl
E. women not only sold cheese but also veggies. didn't say anything like dat ...nope

3. Very hard one. Got wrong
A. conclusions were already expected, no
B. provide an instance of viewpoint that is being supesceded...didn't even understand the meaning
C. way in which historians built work on their predecessors...nope
D. provide point of reference on women work during revolution...maybe
E. effects of revolution on women...nope....sort of....

4. Again wrong.
A. women did work in American cheese making, no idea.
B. no idea
C. sort of...no idea but selected this.
D and E also no idea.


Please help
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Re: In current historiography, the picture of a consistent, unequivocal de [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2015, 06:23
1E,2B,3B,4A
time Taken =5 minutes.
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New post 29 Sep 2015, 06:32
Hi,
I know the official answers. But I need explanation of how you managed to get the answer.
I took 15 min and scored 1/4

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New post 29 Sep 2015, 06:35
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Hi mkarthik1,

Explanations:

This is the purpose of the passage :
"In current historiography, the picture of a consistent, unequivocal decline in women’s status with the advent of capitalism and industrialization is giving way to an analysis that not only emphasizes both change (whether improvement or decline) and continuity but also accounts for geographical and occupational variation."

what follows after these lines is an example from 18th century .

So Answer (E) is the correct choice.

Q2:

Look at the Paragraph 2:
" scholars note that women’s control seldom extended to the disposal of the proceeds of their work. In the case of cheese, the rise of factors may have compromised women’s ability to market cheese at fairs. But merely selling the cheese did not necessarily imply access to the money: Davidoff cites the case of an Essex man who appropriated all but a fraction of the money from his wife’s cheese sales."

So even though women used to produce and sell cheese ,they did not had the control on the earnings.

(B) is the correct choice.

Q3:

Paragraph 2:
" Though Pinchbeck portrayed precapitalist, preindustrial conditions as superior to what followed, recent scholarship has seriously questioned the notion of a golden age for women in precapitalist society."

Paragraph 3:
"By focusing on somewhat peripheral operations, moreover, Pinchbeck missed a substantial element of continuity in women’s participation:"

Author does not agree with Pinchbeck studies and points out the flaws .

Only Option (B) talks about it.

Q4:

"Their persistence in English cheese dairying contrasts with women’s early disappearance from arable agriculture in southeast England and from American cheese dairying"

We can infer that women did work in American cheese dairying for some time.

Option A is the right choice.

Let me know if you have doubts .
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New post 29 Sep 2015, 22:44
Hi,

I do agree, the summary of the individual paragraph would really gives understanding about the entire passage.

I'm bit lacking to understand the complete content of the passage.
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New post 29 Sep 2015, 22:58
Sapient,
Can you let me know where are you getting struck ?
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Hi Manishkare,

I'm ok with Para 1 and 3 but I'm having query in structure of Paragraph2 as mentioned below:


Para 1
------
I could understand that it explains about the inconvenience of womens work during the timeline between 18th and 19th century.

Para 2
------
I'm not sure about the first four lines:

"Though Pinchbeck portrayed precapitalist, preindustrial conditions as superior to what followed, recent scholarship has seriously questioned the notion of a golden age for women in precapitalist society.
For example, scholars note that women’s control seldom extended to the disposal of the proceeds of their work. "

Para 3:
---------

I could understand that author counters scholar: pinchbeck's argument that womens work continuity in the english cheese dairying during the timeline between 18th and 19th century.
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Re: In current historiography, the picture of a consistent, unequivocal de [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2016, 00:12
Hi
Regarding question 4
I now understand why A is correct
But what about B and D?

Their persistence in England cheese......from arable agriculture in southeast England and from American cheese dairying....

So I can't assume that option B:arable agriculture in "northern"England both before and after the agricultural revolution is correct? I just thought that as long as it's not southeast England, the rest could be counted as the ones that did persist in English cheese dairying.

And what about option D: the sale of cheese at local markets in England even after the agricultural revolution
Do they not count as the ones that persisted in English cheese dairying?

Please help
I'm so confused
Thanks!

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10 mins all correct. Was tricked by Q1 in rush.
Para reading ~4 mins.
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Re: In current historiography, the picture of a consistent, unequivocal de [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2016, 10:21
Lengthy passage. Took 9 mins total. 4/4 correct. Passage reading 3:30 mins. Got stuck on 2nd Question.
Took some time finding fairs in the passage. 2nd Question took 2:37

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Re: In current historiography, the picture of a consistent, unequivocal de [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2017, 09:33
JarvisR wrote:
In current historiography, the picture of a consistent, unequivocal decline in women’s status with the advent of capitalism and industrialization is giving way to an analysis that not only emphasizes both change (whether improvement or decline) and continuity but also accounts for geographical and occupational variation. The history of women’s work in English farmhouse cheese making between 1800 and 1930 is a case in point. In her influential Women Workers and the Industrial Revolution (1930), Pinchbeck argued that the agricultural revolution of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, with its attendant specialization and enlarged scale of operation, curtailed women’s participation in the business of cheese production. Earlier, she maintained, women had concerned themselves with feeding cows, rearing calves, and even selling the cheese in local markets and fairs. Pinchbeck thought that the advent of specialization meant that women’s work in cheese dairying was reduced simply to processing the milk. “Dairymen” (a new social category) raised and fed cows and sold the cheese through factors, who were also men. With this narrowing of the scope of work, Pinchbeck believed, women lost business ability, independence, and initiative.

Though Pinchbeck portrayed precapitalist, preindustrial conditions as superior to what followed, recent scholarship has seriously questioned the notion of a golden age for women in precapitalist society. For example, scholars note that women’s control seldom extended to the disposal of the proceeds of their work. In the case of cheese, the rise of factors may have compromised women’s ability to market cheese at fairs. But merely selling the cheese did not necessarily imply access to the money: Davidoff cites the case of an Essex man who appropriated all but a fraction of the money from his wife’s cheese sales.

By focusing on somewhat peripheral operations, moreover, Pinchbeck missed a substantial element of continuity in women’s participation: throughout the period women did the central work of actually making cheese. Their persistence in English cheese dairying contrasts with women’s early disappearance from arable agriculture in southeast England and from American cheese dairying. Comparing these three divergent developments yields some reasons for the differences among them. English cheese-making women worked in a setting in which cultural values, agricultural conditions, and the nature of their work combined to support their continued participation. In the other cases, one or more of these elements was lacking.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present recently discovered evidence that supports a conventional interpretation of a historical period
(B) describe how reinterpretations of available evidence have reinvigorated a once-discredited scholarly position
(C) explain why some historians have tended to emphasize change rather than continuity in discussing a particular period
(D) explore how changes in a particular occupation serve to counter the prevailing view of a historical period
(E) examine a particular area of historical research in order to exemplify a general scholarly trend


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

2. Regarding English local markets and fairs, which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) Both before and after the agricultural revolution, the sellers of agricultural products at these venues were men.
(B) Knowing who the active sellers were at these venues may not give a reliable indication of who controlled the revenue from the sales.
(C) There were no parallel institutions at which American cheese makers could sell their own products.
(D) Prior to the agricultural revolution, the sellers of agricultural products at these venues were generally the producers themselves.
(E) Prior to the agricultural revolution, women sold not only cheese but also products of arable agriculture at these venues.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

3. The passage describes the work of Pinchbeck primarily in order to

(A) demonstrate that some of the conclusions reached by recent historians were anticipated in earlier scholarship
(B) provide an instance of the viewpoint that, according to the passage’s author, is being superseded
(C) illustrate the ways in which recent historians have built on the work of their predecessors
(D) provide a point of reference for subsequent scholarship on women’s work during the agricultural revolution
(E) show the effect that the specialization introduced in the agricultural and industrial revolutions had on women’s work


[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

4. It can be inferred from the passage that women did work in

(A) American cheesemaking at some point prior to industrialization
(B) arable agriculture in northern England both before and after the agricultural revolution
(C) arable agriculture in southeast England after the agricultural revolution, in those locales in which cultural values supported their participation
(D) the sale of cheese at local markets in England even after the agricultural revolution
(E) some areas of American cheese dairying after industrialization




Please explain ques1. I chose C. :(
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New post 25 Sep 2017, 03:50
Hey GMATNinja and GMATNinjaTwo

Can you help to explain Q1 and Q4? below are my thoughts for Q1 and Q4 respectively

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present recently discovered evidence that supports a conventional interpretation of a historical period
(B) describe how reinterpretations of available evidence have reinvigorated a once-discredited scholarly position
(C) explain why some historians have tended to emphasize change rather than continuity in discussing a particular period
(D) explore how changes in a particular occupation serve to counter the prevailing view of a historical period
(E) examine a particular area of historical research in order to exemplify a general scholarly trend

I was torn between D and E and selected D. Because the passage illustrates an example of woman working in the cheese industry and concludes that they paid a vital role and didn't lose power. This counters the prevailing view that they lost power due to industrialization and capitalism

Please correct me if I am wrong

============================================================================

It can be inferred from the passage that women did work in

(A) American cheesemaking at some point prior to industrialization
(B) arable agriculture in northern England both before and after the agricultural revolution
(C) arable agriculture in southeast England after the agricultural revolution, in those locales in which cultural values supported their participation
(D) the sale of cheese at local markets in England even after the agricultural revolution
(E) some areas of American cheese dairying after industrialization

Quote:
Their persistence in English cheese dairying contrasts with women’s early disappearance from arable agriculture in southeast England and from American cheese dairying


The above line does say that women worked in American Cheese dairying at some point in time. But Option A at the end mentions "prior to industrialization". The passage doesn't explicitly say this. What if some woman did work after industrialization? I couldn't infer about this from anywhere in the passage. Hence I ruled out Option A

I selected Option C even though I didn't agree with Option C completely. How to select when we have such close options. Please help and correct me if I am wrong

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JarvisR wrote:
In current historiography, the picture of a consistent, unequivocal decline in women’s status with the advent of capitalism and industrialization is giving way to an analysis that not only emphasizes both change (whether improvement or decline) and continuity but also accounts for geographical and occupational variation. The history of women’s work in English farmhouse cheese making between 1800 and 1930 is a case in point. In her influential Women Workers and the Industrial Revolution (1930), Pinchbeck argued that the agricultural revolution of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, with its attendant specialization and enlarged scale of operation, curtailed women’s participation in the business of cheese production. Earlier, she maintained, women had concerned themselves with feeding cows, rearing calves, and even selling the cheese in local markets and fairs. Pinchbeck thought that the advent of specialization meant that women’s work in cheese dairying was reduced simply to processing the milk. “Dairymen” (a new social category) raised and fed cows and sold the cheese through factors, who were also men. With this narrowing of the scope of work, Pinchbeck believed, women lost business ability, independence, and initiative.

Though Pinchbeck portrayed precapitalist, preindustrial conditions as superior to what followed, recent scholarship has seriously questioned the notion of a golden age for women in precapitalist society. For example, scholars note that women’s control seldom extended to the disposal of the proceeds of their work. In the case of cheese, the rise of factors may have compromised women’s ability to market cheese at fairs. But merely selling the cheese did not necessarily imply access to the money: Davidoff cites the case of an Essex man who appropriated all but a fraction of the money from his wife’s cheese sales.

By focusing on somewhat peripheral operations, moreover, Pinchbeck missed a substantial element of continuity in women’s participation: throughout the period women did the central work of actually making cheese. Their persistence in English cheese dairying contrasts with women’s early disappearance from arable agriculture in southeast England and from American cheese dairying. Comparing these three divergent developments yields some reasons for the differences among them. English cheese-making women worked in a setting in which cultural values, agricultural conditions, and the nature of their work combined to support their continued participation. In the other cases, one or more of these elements was lacking.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present recently discovered evidence that supports a conventional interpretation of a historical period
(B) describe how reinterpretations of available evidence have reinvigorated a once-discredited scholarly position
(C) explain why some historians have tended to emphasize change rather than continuity in discussing a particular period
(D) explore how changes in a particular occupation serve to counter the prevailing view of a historical period
(E) examine a particular area of historical research in order to exemplify a general scholarly trend


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

2. Regarding English local markets and fairs, which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) Both before and after the agricultural revolution, the sellers of agricultural products at these venues were men.
(B) Knowing who the active sellers were at these venues may not give a reliable indication of who controlled the revenue from the sales.
(C) There were no parallel institutions at which American cheese makers could sell their own products.
(D) Prior to the agricultural revolution, the sellers of agricultural products at these venues were generally the producers themselves.
(E) Prior to the agricultural revolution, women sold not only cheese but also products of arable agriculture at these venues.


[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

3. The passage describes the work of Pinchbeck primarily in order to

(A) demonstrate that some of the conclusions reached by recent historians were anticipated in earlier scholarship
(B) provide an instance of the viewpoint that, according to the passage’s author, is being superseded
(C) illustrate the ways in which recent historians have built on the work of their predecessors
(D) provide a point of reference for subsequent scholarship on women’s work during the agricultural revolution
(E) show the effect that the specialization introduced in the agricultural and industrial revolutions had on women’s work


[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

4. It can be inferred from the passage that women did work in

(A) American cheesemaking at some point prior to industrialization
(B) arable agriculture in northern England both before and after the agricultural revolution
(C) arable agriculture in southeast England after the agricultural revolution, in those locales in which cultural values supported their participation
(D) the sale of cheese at local markets in England even after the agricultural revolution
(E) some areas of American cheese dairying after industrialization



This passage is taken from this journal.

https://www.jstor.org/stable/178946
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New post 09 Oct 2017, 22:18
I am really stuck at Question-4, It is a complete trouble.

Also Question-2 bothers me a little

Please help me on these. Thank you.
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In current historiography, the picture of a consistent, unequivocal de

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