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The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out

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The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2019, 06:06
1
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A
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E

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Question Stats:

43% (01:03) correct 57% (01:12) wrong based on 178 sessions

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The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out discrepancies in her testimony that effectively contradicted her earlier statements.

A. that effectively contradicted her earlier statements
B. that, in effect, contradicted her earlier statements
C. that contradicted her earlier statements effectively
D. that was an effective contradiction of her earlier statements
E. that was, in effect, contradiction of her earlier statements

Source: Experts Global

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Re: The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2019, 06:09
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Option B.

D&E use the wrong time and A&C change the meaning
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Re: The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2019, 11:10
pushpitkc wrote:
The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out discrepancies in her testimony that effectively contradicted her earlier statements.

A. that effectively contradicted her earlier statements
B. that, in effect, contradicted her earlier statements
C. that contradicted her earlier statements effectively
D. that was an effective contradiction of her earlier statements
E. tha was, in effect, contradiction of her earlier statements

Source: Experts Global


+1 for (B)

The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out discrepancies in her testimony that, in effect, contradicted her earlier statements.
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Re: The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Mar 2019, 21:16
Please elaborate why rest answer choices are wrong ?

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Re: The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2019, 08:51
is a comma can come either after or before ' that'
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The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2019, 00:05
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pushpitkc wrote:
The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out discrepancies in her testimony that effectively contradicted her earlier statements.

A. that effectively contradicted her earlier statements
B. that, in effect, contradicted her earlier statements
C. that contradicted her earlier statements effectively
D. that was an effective contradiction of her earlier statements
E. that was, in effect, [a] contradiction of her earlier statements

Source: Experts Global

Split #1: subject-pronoun-verb agreement
Discrepancies are plural.

Options D and E incorrectly use a singular verb:

...discrepancies [in her testimony] that WAS . . .

Eliminate D and E

Split #2: ambiguity

Options A and C use identical words. They move the adverb around, but that move does not help. Option B is different.

Why?

A and C suffer from ambiguity. Each could be correct in two ways. Both could be correct in different ways. We have no way to choose.

A) probably implies that the discrepancies contradict earlier testimony "effectively" in the sense of efficiently:

Did the discrepancies capably or competently contradict the earlier statements?

OR

C) probably implies that the discrepancies contradict earlier testimony "effectively" in the sense of essentially[u] or in [u]actuality:

Did the discrepancies basically or essentially contradict the earlier statements?

Further, I could argue that A and C have two ambiguous meanings apiece.
(Put C's probable meaning in A and vice versa.)
I selected "probably" because
unless an author uses a different structure that changes emphasis,
most English sentences have emphasis at the end.
The issue of weighting is much too subtle; it is not tested directly on the GMAT.)

We don't know what to do with A and C.

Eliminate A and C.

Answer B is correct.
"in effect" is an idiomatic phrase.

It has one general meaning: essentially, basically, or (another idiom) "for all practical purposes."

But in effect does not mean capably or efficiently. The phrase is not ambiguous:
The discrepancies, in effect,contradicted the earlier statements.

Similar: By endorsing candidate X who espoused white supremacist beliefs, leader Y, in effect, announced that at the least he had no problem with very public hateful beliefs and speech.

Similar: When the NFL banned peaceful protest and did so despite support for the protest from patriotic armed service members and veterans, the NFL agreed, in effect, with a political leader who criticized the peaceful protest and whose record on civil rights is abysmal.

Eliminate A and C

Experts Global writes incredibly subtle questions -- probably too subtle here.

But you can guess this one by figuring out that there's no way to choose between (A) and (C).

Possible Split #3

Alternatively, although I don't think this argument is as strong, I could argue that...

...discrepancies don't have any human agency. Discrepancies cannot themselves be efficient and capable on the one hand,
or have the effect of rendering earlier testimony useless, on the other.

That argument is strengthened by the passive and impersonal phrase "in effect" in option B.
The phrase "in effect" downplays the doer (the casual agent) and highlights the result or outcome.

By convention, in English, often when we want to stress results and to indicate that the "doer" is an inanimate thing whose result or effect requires human action in the background, we use some kind of passive voice or construction.

*******

Option B decides the issue for us. Its one phrase means one thing.
The sentence makes sense.

Option B is the correct answer.
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The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2019, 00:14
Amromohsen wrote:
is a comma can come either after or before ' that'

Amromohsen , yes, a short phrase can intervene between a that-modifer and its noun. The phrase can't go anywhere else.
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Re: The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2019, 06:48
pushpitkc wrote:
The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out discrepancies in her testimony that effectively contradicted her earlier statements.

A. that effectively contradicted her earlier statements
B. that, in effect, contradicted her earlier statements
C. that contradicted her earlier statements effectively
D. that was an effective contradiction of her earlier statements
E. that was, in effect, contradiction of her earlier statements

Source: Experts Global



Please share OA . For me option B changes the meaning altogether.
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The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2019, 09:43
Amromohsen wrote:
is a comma can come either after or before ' that'

Amromohsen , I remembered an official question in which that as a relative pronoun
was separated from the rest of the that-clause.

In the official question, as is the case in this question, that is separated by a short phrase
from the rest of the that-clause.
Stylistically, the short phrase cannot effectively be placed anywhere else in the sentence.

In addition, as a matter of convention, some short phrases are placed after that for emphasis.

No one needs to memorize which short phrases can intervene.
No one could do so. There are too many phrases.
Just know that if there are no other errors and the sentence makes sense,
the short interruption is okay.

You are correct. Usually that and its clause are not separated.
As noted, the best way to handle confusion is to focus on meaning.
Ask: "Does this sentence make sense?"

HERE is the official question in which the that-clause is interrupted by the short phrase "in turn."

Hope that helps.
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The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2019, 22:05
Mohammad Ali Khan wrote:
pushpitkc wrote:
The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out discrepancies in her testimony that effectively contradicted her earlier statements.

A. that effectively contradicted her earlier statements
B. that, in effect, contradicted her earlier statements
C. that contradicted her earlier statements effectively
D. that was an effective contradiction of her earlier statements
E. that was, in effect, contradiction of her earlier statements

Source: Experts Global



Please share OA . For me option B changes the meaning altogether.

Mohammad Ali Khan , you can find the OA under the spoiler in the question.
Attachment:
where to find the OA screenshot.JPG
where to find the OA screenshot.JPG [ 79.07 KiB | Viewed 380 times ]


"Changes the meaning entirely"?

I don't understand what you mean.
Are you suggesting that option A determines the intended meaning?

I can understand why you might believe that to be the case.
Some prep companies teach that option A determines the intended meaning.

Option A does not determine the intended meaning.

The most logical, grammatical, and rhetorically effective sentence presents the intended meaning.
If that answer changes the meaning of A, that fact is fine.

Please see this post, here in which I give three official examples (of many) to demonstrate that option A does not determine intended meaning.

For other posts about how Option A does not determine meaning,
see
GMATNinja , here
and
Ron Purewal, here

Hope that helps.
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The defense attorney cross-examined the witness and pointed out   [#permalink] 25 Mar 2019, 22:05
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