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# A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may

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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
priyanshu14 wrote:
russ9 wrote:
Can someone please explain why, in option C, "the result of this" is incorrect?

Dear Team,

even I have the same doubt and not convinced with explanation provided in the thread till now.
Kindly explain in detail.

bb generis GMATNinja EMPOWERgmatVerbal

Hello again priyanshu14!

I think that Businessconquerer covered the initial reason the phrase "the result of this" is incorrect - it's not idiomatically correct. That phrase needs a verb after it to make sense (the result of this is/was...). It also doesn't work as a parenthetical phrase (a phrase placed between two commas that's just there to add emphasis).

The other reason option C is incorrect has to do with parallelism:

(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make

This is INCORRECT because it doesn't use parallel structure to describe the two things that are hampered in the sentence. Because of this, we can rule this option out.

I hope this helps, and thanks to Businessconquerer for the extra explanation!
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one problem at a time, to narrow it down to the correct choice! First, here is the original question with any major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may be so brisk it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make sense of speech.

(A) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make
(B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make
(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make
(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making
(E) as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make

After a quick glance over the options, there are a few things we can focus on:

1. it hampers / that it hampers / as to hamper
2. for distinguishing / to distinguish
3. Their endings

Let's start with #1 on our list, which is an issue of idiom structure. The idiom we are trying to use here is this:

so X that Y

Here is how each option uses (or misuses) this idiom:

(A) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make --> so X Y --> WRONG
(B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make --> so X that Y --> GOOD
(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make --> so X that Y --> GOOD
(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making --> so X that Y --> GOOD
(E) as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make --> so X as to Y --> WRONG

We can eliminate options A & E because they don't adhere to the idiom structure "so X that Y."

(It turns out we could also eliminate options A & E because they also incorrectly use the "for verb+ing" structure instead of the correct "to verb" in this sentence.)

Now that we've narrowed it down to 3 options, let's take a closer look at how each option ends, and look for any glaring issues. I'll give you a hint: it has something to do with parallelism!

(B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make

This is our CORRECT option! It uses parallel structure with "to distinguish" and "to make!" It also uses the correct idiom structure "so X that Y."

(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make

This is INCORRECT because it doesn't use parallel structure to describe the two things that are hampered in the sentence. Because of this, we can rule this option out.

(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making

This is also INCORRECT because it doesn't use parallel structure to describe the two things being hampered in the sentence!

There you have it - option B is the correct choice because it follows the "so X that Y" idiom structure and uses parallelism correctly!

Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.

Hi EMPOWERgmatVerbal
Thanks for the detailed explanation to an OG question.

My question is about the idiom used in option E: so X as to Y. You have marked it incorrect. I have come across a couple of question where this idiom has been used and the answer choice was correct. Link to one such question is below:

https://gmatclub.com/forum/immanuel-kan ... 62621.html

Now, when is it ok to use so X as to Y and when so X that Y?

Thanks.
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
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Doer01 wrote:
EMPOWERgmatVerbal wrote:
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one problem at a time, to narrow it down to the correct choice! First, here is the original question with any major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may be so brisk it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make sense of speech.

(A) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make
(B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make
(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make
(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making
(E) as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make

After a quick glance over the options, there are a few things we can focus on:

1. it hampers / that it hampers / as to hamper
2. for distinguishing / to distinguish
3. Their endings

Let's start with #1 on our list, which is an issue of idiom structure. The idiom we are trying to use here is this:

so X that Y

Here is how each option uses (or misuses) this idiom:

(A) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make --> so X Y --> WRONG
(B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make --> so X that Y --> GOOD
(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make --> so X that Y --> GOOD
(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making --> so X that Y --> GOOD
(E) as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make --> so X as to Y --> WRONG

We can eliminate options A & E because they don't adhere to the idiom structure "so X that Y."

(It turns out we could also eliminate options A & E because they also incorrectly use the "for verb+ing" structure instead of the correct "to verb" in this sentence.)

Now that we've narrowed it down to 3 options, let's take a closer look at how each option ends, and look for any glaring issues. I'll give you a hint: it has something to do with parallelism!

(B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make

This is our CORRECT option! It uses parallel structure with "to distinguish" and "to make!" It also uses the correct idiom structure "so X that Y."

(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make

This is INCORRECT because it doesn't use parallel structure to describe the two things that are hampered in the sentence. Because of this, we can rule this option out.

(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making

This is also INCORRECT because it doesn't use parallel structure to describe the two things being hampered in the sentence!

There you have it - option B is the correct choice because it follows the "so X that Y" idiom structure and uses parallelism correctly!

Don't study for the GMAT. Train for it.

Hi EMPOWERgmatVerbal
Thanks for the detailed explanation to an OG question.

My question is about the idiom used in option E: so X as to Y. You have marked it incorrect. I have come across a couple of question where this idiom has been used and the answer choice was correct. Link to one such question is below:

https://gmatclub.com/forum/immanuel-kan ... 62621.html

Now, when is it ok to use so X as to Y and when so X that Y?

Thanks.

Hello Doer01!

Thanks for your question! In general, the idiom "so X that Y" is preferred over "so X as to Y" in English, which is why I chose to go that route when answering this question.

After doing some more research, though - you have a point. Neither of these constructions is better/worse. You can absolutely use them interchangeably. In fact, it seems that the GMAT exam likes to toss this idiom construction into questions to throw off students. Heck, it even got me!

As you can see from my explanation, you can also eliminate those same options because they use the for + verbing combination that is actually incorrect. Once you've eliminated those two options, the rest of the explanation still works.

I appreciate the question because, as you can see, sometimes the GMAT test writers trick even the best of us! In the future, if you see a question that has the "so X that Y" and "so X as to Y" debate, start looking for a more obvious problem instead!

I hope this helps!
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
Sarjaria84 wrote:
A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may be so brisk it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make sense of speech.

A. it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make
B. that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make
C. that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make
D. that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making
E. as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make

Hi sayantanc2k daagh

The usage of 'so brisk as to hamper the ability' is incorrect in option 'E' in my opinion because this usage gives an indication that 'the conversational pace of everyday life' is brisk with the intention of hampering the ability of children, altering slightly the intended meaning of the original sentence.

I do understand that there is another error in option 'E', but can you please throw some light on my above reasoning?

Thanks
Saurabh

sayantanc2k daagh AjiteshArun

Thanks
Saurabh
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
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Sarjaria84 wrote:
sayantanc2k daagh AjiteshArun

Thanks
Saurabh
Hi Sarjaria84,

When it comes to the so... as to construction, we need to watch out for the {~with the result that} meaning. Take the OA for this official question, for example:

... the features of which are so unrealistic as to constitute what one scholar calls an "artificial face."

Here is another example in which we're not looking at the {~intention} meaning.

You may also be interested in this usage of so that.
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
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Let's look at the options individually:

(A) Eliminate. 'ability for' is unidiomatic. 'For distinguishing' and 'to make' are not parallel. Also the correct form of the idiom is "so + adjective + that" - the "that" is missing here. The sentence reads - "AND, the result is, it hampers the ability to make sense of speech" - result of what?

(B) Correct choice. 'To distinguish' and 'to make' are parallel. "as a result" = "therefore/thus".

(C) Eliminate. "this" cannot refer to a clause. Also, note that we cannot use demonstrative pronouns/adjectives independently.

(D) Eliminate. We do not use a comma before the "and" to join two verb phrases. Also, the second part - "results in not making sense of speech" - seems to imply that this happens for ALL the population, not to a specific group of children.

(E) Eliminate. "ability for" is unidiomatic. 'For distinguishing' and 'to make' are not parallel. "resulting in ?" refers to "the conversational pace ?" whereas it should have logically referred to "some children".

Hope this helps!
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
D is not parallel is what everyone is saying.

But can we not say these two elements are parallel?

(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making

Experts, help.
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may be so brisk it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make sense of speech.

(A) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make

(B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make

(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make

(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making

(E) as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make

I was evaluating choices B,C and D (eliminated A and E for unidiomatic usage) and was confused by the comma after "and" in options B and C. Should the comma not have been before "and" (distinguish discrete sounds and words, and as a result, to make)? Is it trivial compared to the parallelism that B maintains, which makes it the correct choice? Thanks for your help !

Originally posted by aritrar4 on 30 Aug 2020, 04:28.
Last edited by aritrar4 on 30 Aug 2020, 22:52, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
gmatlbs
"As a result" is just a parenthetical aside, and we can ignore it for parallelism purposes. We often see these quick add-ins set off with commas: "similarly," "at the same time," "accordingly," etc. The author is just adding a clarifying adverbial modifier to the second parallel term. As long as the underlying structure is fine, this doesn't matter.
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
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AnirudhaS wrote:
D is not parallel is what everyone is saying.

But can we not say these two elements are parallel?

(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making

Experts, help.

Hi AnirudhaS,

I think you're right. D is supposed to be read that way (hampers and results). That does lead to a meaning error though:

... the conversational pace may be so brisk that it... results in not making sense of speech. ← This sentence doesn't connect the "not making sense of speech" to "some children".

I wouldn't say that it's impossible, but D is also not how we'd normally express that idea. "It results in not making" just sounds really bad.
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
aritrar4 wrote:
A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may be so brisk it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make sense of speech.

(A) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make

(B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make

(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make

(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making

(E) as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make

I was evaluating choices B,C and D (eliminated A and E for unidiomatic usage) and was confused by the comma after "and" in options B and C. Should the comma not have been before "and" (distinguish discrete sounds and words, and as a result, to make)? Is it trivial compared to the parallelism that B maintains, which makes it the correct choice? Thanks for your help !

Hello, aritrar4. You pose a fair question, one that DmitryFarber has touched on indirectly in his post above. In choice (B), the phrase as a result is simply acting as an interrupter or, if you prefer, a parenthetical aside. Whenever you encounter such interrupters, you can remove them from the sentence to see whether the grammar and meaning would still check out. Examining (B), we would get,

A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may be so brisk that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make sense of speech.

This makes sense. The noun ability presents parallel elements in the infinitives that follow, [ability] to distinguish and [ability] to make. A comma before and would be inappropriate.

Meanwhile, choice (C) should include a comma before the conjunction, since what follows the interrupter (nonsensical as it may be) is an independent clause. The correctly punctuated version would read,

that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and, the result of this, they are unable to make

It is really the result of this that derails the answer choice, but (C) also adds nothing in the way of clarity by introducing they and a second independent clause. Choice (B) is a clear winner.

I hope that helps. Thank you for calling my attention to the question.

- Andrew
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
https://gmatclub.com/forum/with-governm ... 24695.html

In the official question referenced above, optin C, D , and E have been rejected as unidiomatic "ability of" and in this Official question all options have ability of.

Can someone please point out the correct idiomatic usage of ability ???
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
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ShankSouljaBoi wrote:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/with-government-funds-no-longer-increasing-and-private-philanthropy-no-324695.html

In the official question referenced above, optin C, D , and E have been rejected as unidiomatic "ability of" and in this Official question all options have ability of.

Can someone please point out the correct idiomatic usage of ability ???

Hi ShankSouljaBoi,

[Of + -ing] is typically not used when we're looking to specify the type of ability (~"which ability").

1. ... the ability to distinguish X and Y... ← This is fine.
2. ... the ability of distinguishing X and Y... ← This is incorrect.

However, that's not the way the correct option uses of. Instead, [of + noun/pronoun] is used here to specify ~"whose ability".
3. the ability of some children to distinguish X

Effectively, we're still looking at ability to here (ability to distinguish).
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
I ended up in choosing D after POE of B&D because:

Conversational pace does 2 things.
- hampers the ability of Children
- results in not making sense of Speech.

I assumed these 2 are Parallel instead because ''not making sense'' is the result of preceding sentence ''it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words''.

Or Probably 'that' missing in front of 'results in not making' is an indicator that it is not parallel to 'hampers'?
If we need to make these sentences parallel, Is 'that' mandatory before 'results in not making' (Although meaningfully doesnt make sense)

Did I Misunderstood the sentence ? Can someone help?
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
I ended up in choosing D after POE of B&D because:

Conversational pace does 2 things.
- hampers the ability of Children
- results in not making sense of Speech.

I assumed these 2 are Parallel instead because ''not making sense'' is the result of preceding sentence ''it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words''.

Or Probably 'that' missing in front of 'results in not making' is an indicator that it is not parallel to 'hampers'?
If we need to make these sentences parallel, Is 'that' mandatory before 'results in not making' (Although meaningfully doesnt make sense)

Did I Misunderstood the sentence ? Can someone help?

Hi Bharadwaj176, following doesn't make much sense, does it?

"conversational pace results in not making sense of speech".

At the very least it should be:

"conversational pace results in some children not making sense of speech".
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may be so brisk it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make sense of speech.

(A) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make "that" is required. sentence is also not parallel

(B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make meaning makes sense, sentence is parallel "to distinguish...and...to make"

(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make not parallel

(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making sentence is not parallel

(E) as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make"brisk as to hamper" is not idiomatic
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Re: A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may [#permalink]
ritjn2003 wrote:
A new study suggests that the conversational pace of everyday life may be so brisk it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make sense of speech.

(A) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make

(B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make

(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make

(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making

(E) as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make

Simplified version: A new study suggests that XYZ may be so brisk that it hampers ABC and, as a result, PQR.

(A) it hampers the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words and, the result is, to make

(B) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, as a result, to make -

(C) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words and, the result of this, they are unable to make

(D) that it hampers the ability of some children to distinguish discrete sounds and words, and results in not making

(E) as to hamper the ability of some children for distinguishing discrete sounds and words, resulting in being unable to make
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