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In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources

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New post 14 Jun 2017, 11:49
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In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.


A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward

B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern

C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and also from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward

D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern

E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern


The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 270

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New post 14 Jun 2017, 18:45
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In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward ----- 1. 'Both' has no locus-standi here. There are neither two lists nor just two factors. 2. Use of from for the factor in the list mars //ism.

B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern -- 1. Same reason as in A2, both … or is unidiomatic

C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward--- 1. 'and from' is and unparallel 2.' Future supply' and 'going forward' is unparallel.

D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern ----correct choice.


E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern -- 'and from' is unparallel.

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New post 14 Jun 2017, 16:02
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On a tricky sentence correction such as this one, begin by identifying the main subject, in this case "increasing pressure on water resources" and use it as a reference for all other subjects and verbs in the underlined portion. As written, the sentence states that "the future supply... is a concern". This singular subject is not parallel with the plural noun "water resources", so eliminate choice A as well as choice C that repeats this error. Choice E moves the modifying adjective "future" from before "supplies" to before "concern", thus changing the meaning of the sentence, so eliminate choice E. Lastly, choice B incorrectly uses the pairing modifier "both" with "and" as well as "or", which makes it unclear as to what the list of phenomena "increasing pressure on water resources" includes. The correct answer is D.
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New post 09 Oct 2017, 12:48
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A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward should be both from X and from Y. But here it says Both from X, Y and From Z which is wrong. Also future supply and going forward is redundant
B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concernSame as error A
C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and also from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forwardAnd also is redundant here
D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern
E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concernThe parallelism is not followed here
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2017, 00:26
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AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 270

In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward
B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern
C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and also from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward
D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern
E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern


The question can be best approached with parallelism.
The sentence is talking about the consequences and the causes for “increasing pressure on water resources”.
The causes for increasing pressure are cited in a list that needs to be parallel - expanding development, changes in environment and pollution. The correct way to express this would be “ increasing pressure on water resources from X,Y & Z. Only choice D uses the structure without destroying parallelism.
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New post 07 Nov 2017, 17:46
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In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

A) both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward
B) both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern
C) from expanding development, changes in climate, and also from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward
D) from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern
E) from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern

SC# 270 Verbal Review 2018
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2017, 18:55
In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

The parallel structure in this sentence should be "increasing pressure on water resources has resulted from X, Y and Z, ...". Only D followed the structure.

D correct

A) both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward
B) both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern
C) from expanding development, changes in climate, and also from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward
D) from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern - Correct
E) from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2018, 23:37
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daagh wrote:
In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward ----- 1. 'Both' has no locus-standi here. There are neither two lists nor just two factors. 2. Use of from for the factor in the list mars //ism.

B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern -- 1. Same reason as in A2, both … or is unidiomatic

C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward--- 1. 'and from' is and unparallel 2.' Future supply' and 'going forward' is unparallel.

D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern ----correct choice.


E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern -- 'and from' is unparallel.



How does the "so that" fit into this sentence? I do not understand the meaning of this phrase.
Doesn't so that mean "intention" ?
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New post 02 Jun 2018, 12:15
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AbdurRakib wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 270

In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward
B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern
C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and also from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward
D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern
E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern



both X and Y;
both from X and Y;
both from ( x1 or x2 ) and from Y.
Hence following the above rules we can eliminate all options but D.
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New post 03 Dec 2018, 21:58
daagh wrote:
In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward ----- 1. 'Both' has no locus-standi here. There are neither two lists nor just two factors. 2. Use of from for the factor in the list mars //ism.

B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern -- 1. Same reason as in A2, both … or is unidiomatic

C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward--- 1. 'and from' is and unparallel 2.' Future supply' and 'going forward' is unparallel.

D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern ----correct choice.

E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern -- 'and from' is unparallel.




Hi Daagh,

From X to Y is a correct idiom. Doesn't option D violate this idiom ?
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Yes; From X to Y is a correct idiom. But are we required to use the idiom every time we use either 'from' or 'to'? Can't we use from or to independently?
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New post 04 Dec 2018, 06:00
daagh wrote:
kanthaliya

Yes; From X to Y is a correct idiom. But are we required to use the idiom every time we use either 'from' or 'to'? Can't we use from or to independently?


Thank you very much for the reply Daagh. I was under the impression that it has to be used only as From X to Y form.
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New post 05 Dec 2018, 09:58
Parallelism of "...expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution...."

Ensure that "from" is kept before the list or in every item of the list.
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New post 22 Feb 2019, 10:16
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daagh

Hello, I have one question.
option D), in A, B, and C structure, simple gerund cannot parallel to noun?
expanding development (simple gerund), changes , and pollution.
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New post 22 Feb 2019, 19:48
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Jane

The 'expanding' in D is not a gerund. It is an adjective in the form of a present participle modifying the following noun "development".

See a pamphlet below on this

Quote:
Gerunds, Present participles, and progressive tenses


We have seen three forms of verb +ing forms.
They are1. Gerunds, 2. Present participles, and 3. Present or past progressive tenses. Of the three, we shall now deal with gerunds.

Gerunds


A Gerund is a verb taking the ‘ing’ form and functioning essentially as a
Noun. A gerund may be accompanied by more descriptive words such as adjectives, prepositions, or objects of prepositions and in such cases, they are called gerund phrases

Example

"Feeling gratitude and not expressing it is like wrapping a present and not giving it." ---- An old saying.

Here the words 'feeling, 'expressing', 'wrapping' and 'giving' are examples of gerunds.

Gerunds and Present Participles

Present participles also take the ‘ing’ form. However, a present participle functions as a non-finite form of a verb. In contrast, gerunds behave like nouns.

How to differentiate a gerund from a present participle or progressive tense.

Let us take a simple verb sing; its ‘ing’ form is singing. It can be either a present participle or a gerund or can be part of a past or present progressive tense.

1. Progressive tense

When a verb+ing word is preceded by an auxiliary verb, then it becomes a verb, indicating the progressive tense.

Am singing
Are singing
Is singing
Was singing
Were singing
Have been singing
Has been singing
Had been singing
Will be singing

2. Present participle

a) When the verb+ing form or its phrase acts an adjective, modifying a noun, then it is a present participle. (When it is in the beginning of the sentence)

Singing a song, Tom walked along the river.
Shouting abuses, Dick tried to browbeat Harry
By sending a bouquet, the students expressed their love for their teacher.

Here, the ‘ing’ forms modify a noun that is placed next to the comma. These are all participles.

b,. In some cases, the verb+ing form with a comma before or without the comma before may be placed in the middle of a sentence or at the end of the sentence.

3. Gerund

On the contrary, when the ‘ing’ form is followed by a verb or verb phrase then it will be a gerund.

Going by his words will lead to wrong conclusions
Shopping on weekends is cumbersome because of heavy crowds.

A gerund is a noun that could be used as a subject, direct object, object of the preposition, or a predicate noun.
Subject: Swimming is a healthy exercise
Direct object: I enjoy drinking tea.
An object of the preposition: Empty roads are good for driving practice

1. Find the simple subject and predicate

if the ing word is not part of a progressive tense (in other words a verb), then determine whether it is a noun representing a subject or the object or object of the verb or object of the prepositions. All such ing words are gerunds.

On the contrary, if it is an adjective, then it is not a gerund but a present participle.


Present participle: Climbing the mountain, Jack and Jill enjoyed much -- climbing modifies the subject Jack and Jill and hence is an adjective as well as a present participle

To repeat:

4. A gerund is essentially a noun trying to do an action. We can apply some of the attributes of a noun and see whether the ing form fits with the parameters of the noun.

4A. The first such test is whether the ing form acts as a subject or object. --
Singing is a pleasant entertainment

Here, singing is the subject of a simple sentence; only a noun or a noun phrase can act as the subject of a clause. Hence, in the given context, ‘singing’ is a gerund

4B. See whether the ing form is an object of the verb

Tom likes singing
Singing is the object of the verb ‘likes’; it is a gerund

4C. see whether it has any adjective preceding it, especially in the form of a possessive pronoun

Tom feels that his singing is better than that of many others

Here the verb+ing form singing is modified by the possessive pronoun ‘his’. Hence, singing is a gerund.

4D. Sometimes an article is a gerund-marker. See whether the verb+ing is preceded by an article such as ‘the’
‘The shopping’ at Spencer’s is a delight.


4E. (important)
See whether the ing word can be replaced by the word ‘it’ and the sentence still completes the meaning. The pronoun ‘it’ can complete the meaning while a participle cannot.

Singing is a good past time
It is a good past time.
Here we can replace singing with the pronoun it

He went into the class, dancing like Michel Jackson
He went into the class, it like Michel Jackson -- This makes no sense and hence is not a gerund.

4F...(important)
see whether the verb+ing word or the entire ing phrase can be replaced by the word ‘something’

Singing along the riverbank, Tom jogged for nearly four miles in one hour
(Singing) Something along the riverbank, Tom jogged for nearly four miles in one hour

(Singing along the river bank) Something, Tom jogged for nearly four miles in one hour

When you replace the ‘ing’ word or phrase with something, nothing meaningful turns out. Therefore, the phrase starting with singing cannot be a gerund.

Now try this.

Singing along the riverbank is a refreshing pastime

After replacing the ‘ing’ word with something, the sentence reads as
Something (Singing )along the river bank is a refreshing pastime

Now you can see there is meaning in the clause. Therefore, the ‘ing’ phrase is a gerund in the context.

Jack and Jill are climbing the hill -- are climbing is the verb in this sentence.

Jack and Jill enjoy climbing the hill
Climbing is a gerund, an object of the verb enjoy.
Jack and Jill are mad about climbing the hill
Here climbing is the object of the preposition about. Hence a gerund



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New post 26 Mar 2019, 23:57
Dear GMATNinja,

Could please help me with this one. My reasoning is as follows:

We can eliminate A and B based on incorrect usage of "Both + and". In C parallelism is violated i.e after "and" there is "also". To maintain parallelism there should be "from X, Y and From Z", so "also" is redundant. Generally, in GMAT I've seen that most answer choices with "and also" are wrong. So, I've developed a habit that when I see "and also", I cross it. Is it correct?

I'm confused between D and E. I think D violates the parallelism: "from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution". Shouldn't it be "from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution"?

In E, the word "expansion" triggers me that "expanding" is better. "Expansion of development" is not parallel to "changes in climate" and "pollution", since "Expansion of" is in different format. Is that correct? Also, "future concern" is redundant. But it maintains parallel structure: "From X, Y and from Y". How can I confidently eliminate E over D?

Last but no least, I can't quite understand the use of "so that" in the sentence. As far as I know, "so that" implies intention. For example: "Yesterday, I went to bed early, so that I can get up early in the morning". Here "so that" shows my intention of sleeping early. Am I correct?
But I can't catch the overall meaning of the sentence.

I would love to have your thoughts.
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2019, 01:08
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Mehemmed wrote:
I'm confused between D and E. I think D violates the parallelism: "from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution". Shouldn't it be "from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution"?
We have a list of nouns in the correct option (D):
... from (a) expanding development, (b) changes in climate, and (c) pollution...

Remember to ignore expanding (participle) and in climate (prepositional phrase). Both are just adjectives for their respective nouns.

Option E gives us:
... from (a) expansion of development, (b) changes in climate, and (b) from pollution...

We're fine with expansion (noun) and changes (noun) in option E, at least as far as parallelism is concerned, but then we hit from pollution (prepositional phrase). This is unexpected, because we already have a from outside the list. So this option in like saying:
... from expansion of development, from changes in climate, and from from pollution...

Those two froms at the end of the list are a problem.

Mehemmed wrote:
Last but no least, I can't quite understand the use of "so that" in the sentence. As far as I know, "so that" implies intention. For example: "Yesterday, I went to bed early, so that I can get up early in the morning". Here "so that" shows my intention of sleeping early. Am I correct?
You are right. So that can be used to convey intention. However, it can also be used to discuss the outcome of something. Take the following sentence, for example:
He didn't show up for the movie so that we decided to watch it alone.

This example may sound a little (very?) weird, but it is correct. :)
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2019, 00:47
AjiteshArun wrote:
Mehemmed wrote:
I'm confused between D and E. I think D violates the parallelism: "from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution". Shouldn't it be "from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution"?
We have a list of nouns in the correct option (D):
... from (a) expanding development, (b) changes in climate, and (c) pollution...

Remember to ignore expanding (participle) and in climate (prepositional phrase). Both are just adjectives for their respective nouns.

Option E gives us:
... from (a) expansion of development, (b) changes in climate, and (b) from pollution...

We're fine with expansion (noun) and changes (noun) in option E, at least as far as parallelism is concerned, but then we hit from pollution (prepositional phrase). This is unexpected, because we already have a from outside the list. So this option in like saying:
... from expansion of development, from changes in climate, and from from pollution...

Those two froms at the end of the list are a problem.

Mehemmed wrote:
Last but no least, I can't quite understand the use of "so that" in the sentence. As far as I know, "so that" implies intention. For example: "Yesterday, I went to bed early, so that I can get up early in the morning". Here "so that" shows my intention of sleeping early. Am I correct?
You are right. So that can be used to convey intention. However, it can also be used to discuss the outcome of something. Take the following sentence, for example:
He didn't show up for the movie so that we decided to watch it alone.

This example may sound a little (very?) weird, but it is correct. :)

Awesome explanation, AjiteshArun!

One quick thing: since "so that" appears in all 5 choices, we don't actually have to worry about it. :)

Mehemmed, let us know if you have any other concerns.
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2019, 19:35
Can someone help me understand why " future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern" is a correct phase. Shouldn't it be "are concerns" instead ? I still got the right answer through parallelism but I want to understand the basic grammatical concept for application on different questions as well.
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2019, 19:44
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Darselle wrote:
Can someone help me understand why " future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern" is a correct phase. Shouldn't it be "are concerns" instead ? I still got the right answer through parallelism but I want to understand the basic grammatical concept for application on different questions as well.
Hi Darselle,

All of them together are just one "concern", not a bunch of separate "concerns". That is, we are not interested in each individual instance of "future supply". For example:

1. The protests are a major concern for the government.
2. The protests are major concerns for the government.

Here it is unlikely that the government is looking to deal with each protest individually.
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources   [#permalink] 09 Sep 2019, 19:44

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