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# In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources

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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
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AbdurRakib wrote:
In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward

B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern

C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and also from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward

D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern

E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern

The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 270

There are three things in the list:
- expanding development,
- changes in climate,
- pollution

All three should be in parallel.

Also, if you use 'both', it needs to come after 'from', right before listing two elements. e.g. ... from both A and B ...
So the use of 'both from' in (A) and (B) is incorrect.

Only (D) has the three elements in parallel:
... from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution...

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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
Hi experts,

Isn't 'future supply.... going forward' redundant in the same sentence and hence we should ignore (A) and (C) for this reason as well ?
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
Parallelism

From xxxx,yyy to zzzz?

Thanks
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
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PS, An Obvious thing : To improve yourself in SC, REVIEW every mistake in every answer choice after you attempt a problem.

In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.
Another example of parallelism here, the idiom is Both X and Y

A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward
Both from X,Y and from Z is incorrect.

B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern
Incorrect Y in the Idiom – Both X and Y. Y should start with a preposition.
Both X or Y is unidiomatic.

C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and also from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward
Incorrect Idiom – X and also Y.

D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern
Best of All.

E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern
From X and from Y is unparallel.
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In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
sarphant123 wrote:

D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern
Best of All.

Hi Sir, so you are saying the idiom - "from.....to.." the "to" is not necessary? (i.e. We have products ranging from birthday cards to handcrafted jewellery.

OR

the "from expanding development" is a noun phrase?
If Yes, can we form a noun phrase with the word "from"? if i'm not wrong "from" is a preposition, only adjective can modify noun and only adverb/adjective can modify adjective
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
[quote="AbdurRakib"]In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward (both refers only two verbs or noun or phrase eg both A and B)

B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern (both refers only two verbs or noun or phrase eg both A and B)

C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and also from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward ( for the sake of parallelism you either use preposition common for all or use separately for each)

D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern

E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern (same as C)

Errors
both A and B
Parallelism while using A, B, and C
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
waihoe520 wrote:
Parallelism

From xxxx,yyy to zzzz?

Thanks

There are certainly cases when "from... to" make sense. For example:

• "I drove from New York to Boston."
• "The store sells everything from doughnuts to deep-fried candy bars."

But in other cases "from" is used by itself to indicate the source of something. For example:

• "A strong odor emanated from the deep-fried candy bar." - What was the source of the odor? The deep-fried candy bar.
• "Her success resulted from years of hard work." - What was the source of her success? Years of hard work.

That's basically what we have in choice (D): X resulted from Y, where Y is a list of 3 things: 1) expanding development, 2) changes in climate, and 3) pollution.

I hope that helps!
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

Expanding development ,changes in climate, pollution - these three are part of the list - hence usage of Both ....and is incorrect.

A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward - incorrect

B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern - same error as above

C. from expanding development, changes in climate, [color=#ff0000]and also from[/color] pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward

D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern - looks good in every aspect

E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern - future needs to modify supplies not concern - hence wrong
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In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
AbdurRakib wrote:
In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward

B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern

C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and also from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward

D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern

E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern

The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 270

Isn't the question statement and the correct answer choice little awkward in construction?

It seems like there was an deliberate increase in pressure on water resources in order to generate concern regarding water supply in arid areas in future. Actually the three factors, let say X, Y and Z increased pressure on water resources and therefore future supply is now a concern in some areas. I am confused about the use of so that. IMO it would make sense to use therefore / hence / thus in place of so that.

Please correct me if I am wrong and help me crossing 700
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
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Patilsv28 wrote:
AbdurRakib wrote:
In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward

B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern

C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and also from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward

D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern

E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern

The Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review 2018
Practice Question
Sentence Correction
Question no. 270

Isn't the question statement and the correct answer choice little awkward in construction?

It seems like there was an deliberate increase in pressure on water resources in order to generate concern regarding water supply in arid areas in future. Actually the three factors, let say X, Y and Z increased pressure on water resources and therefore future supply is now a concern in some areas. I am confused about the use of so that. IMO it would make sense to use therefore / hence / thus in place of so that.

Please correct me if I am wrong and help me crossing 700

Yes, 'so that' shows purpose but it also shows cause and effect relation. What follows 'so that' gives the effect statement.
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
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AbdurRakib wrote:
In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources has resulted both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward.

A. both from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a concern going forward

B. both from expanding development or changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern

C. from expanding development, changes in climate, and also from pollution, so that the future supply in some of the more arid areas is a matter of concern going forward

D. from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution, so that future supplies in some of the more arid areas are a concern

E. from expansion of development, changes in climate, and from pollution, so that supplies in some of the more arid areas are a future concern

Both x and y is correct. But Both x and y for giving several reasons is not correct. A and B are eliminated.

and also from and from are not correct C and E are eliminated.

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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
Hey AjiteshArun

I have a small confusion. While solving this question, I was thinking along the same lines.
Quote:
We have a list of nouns in the correct option (D):
... from (a) expanding development, (b) changes in climate, and (c) pollution...

Remember to ignore expanding (participle) and in climate (prepositional phrase). Both are just adjectives for their respective nouns.

Option E gives us:
... from (a) expansion of development, (b) changes in climate, and (b) from pollution...

We're fine with expansion (noun) and changes (noun) in option E, at least as far as parallelism is concerned, but then we hit from pollution (prepositional phrase). This is unexpected, because we already have a from outside the list. So this option in like saying:
... from expansion of development, from changes in climate, and from from pollution...

expansion of what?= development
changes in what? = climate
= pollution
This is how I was thinking when I saw the options.

So is it that the phrase 'of development' is a prepositional phrase that modifies the preceding entity 'expansion' and the phrase 'in climate' is a prepositional phrase that modifies the preceding entity 'climate'?
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
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I approached this question differently. The 'future supply' and 'going forward' seemed like a redundancy. If it is about the future supply, obviously the concern will be only for going forward, not today. Based on this split, I eliminated A and C.

E changes the meaning in a subtle way by saying 'future concern' - It means that this issue may or may not become a concern. It is not a concern that we have to think about today. This is not the original intention of the sentence.

B has unidiomatic combination of both-or-and.

Hence, the answer should be D,
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
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Vegita wrote:
So is it that the phrase 'of development' is a prepositional phrase that modifies the preceding entity 'expansion' and the phrase 'in climate' is a prepositional phrase that modifies the preceding entity 'climate'?

Hi Vegita,

That is absolutely correct (I think you meant to say "the preceding entity 'changes'"). In expansion of development, of development is a prepositional phrase modifying expansion, and in changes in climate, in climate is a prepositional phrase modifying changes.

... resulted from (a) expansion of development, (b) changes in climate, and (c) from pollution...
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
Can it be correct to use the construction[ BOTH X or Y AND Z ], meaning two things?
thank you !
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
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katesizon wrote:
Can it be correct to use the construction[ BOTH X or Y AND Z ], meaning two things?
thank you !

In theory, that construction would make sense in a sentence like this one:

"An Old Fashioned cocktail contains both lemon or orange rind and rye whiskey."

• The cocktail contains two things: rind and whiskey.
• The "or" part tells us that we could have either of two different kinds of rind (lemon or orange).

Is this always wrong? Maybe not. But I think we can all agree that it's awfully confusing. You have to read the sentence a few times to be clear about what's happening.

I can't imagine seeing "BOTH X or Y AND Z" in a correct answer choice. Does that mean it's always wrong? Maybe not -- you always want to carefully consider the five unique options in front of you and think about what makes the most sense given the context of the specific question. It's not a great idea to try to boil GMAT SC down to a list of mechanical rules that can be applied blindly.

In this case, the "both X or Y and Z" construction in (B) is very confusing, and (D) is a much better option.

I hope that helps a bit!
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Re: In many of the world’s regions, increasing pressure on water resources [#permalink]
Q1) Why are we allowed to ignore adjective "expanding" but not preposition "from" ?

Q2) if we put preposition "from" before "changes in climate" in choice D would parallelism be correct?
because in D, since "changes in climate" lack a preposition, whereas, preceding and anteceding nouns have a preposition (from) it bugs the parallelism but if we add preposition to "changes in climate" it would fix the parallelism

Q3) in answer D, "expanding development" is a simple gerund (ı guess) however "changes in climate" and "pollution" are action noun. How is it possible that action noun be parallel with an simple gerund?
AjiteshArun wrote:
Mehemmed wrote:
I'm confused between D and E. I think D violates the parallelism: "from expanding development, changes in climate, and pollution". Shouldn't it be "from expanding development, changes in climate, and from pollution"?
We have a list of nouns in the correct option (D):
... from (a) expanding development, (b) changes in climate, and (c) pollution...

Remember to ignore expanding (participle) and in climate (prepositional phrase). Both are just adjectives for their respective nouns.

Option E gives us:
... from (a) expansion of development, (b) changes in climate, and (b) from pollution...

We're fine with expansion (noun) and changes (noun) in option E, at least as far as parallelism is concerned, but then we hit from pollution (prepositional phrase). This is unexpected, because we already have a from outside the list. So this option in like saying:
... from expansion of development, from changes in climate, and from from pollution...

Those two froms at the end of the list are a problem.

Mehemmed wrote:
Last but no least, I can't quite understand the use of "so that" in the sentence. As far as I know, "so that" implies intention. For example: "Yesterday, I went to bed early, so that I can get up early in the morning". Here "so that" shows my intention of sleeping early. Am I correct?
You are right. So that can be used to convey intention. However, it can also be used to discuss the outcome of something. Take the following sentence, for example:
He didn't show up for the movie so that we decided to watch it alone.

This example may sound a little (very?) weird, but it is correct.
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