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The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture

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The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 17 Jun 2018, 21:02
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A
B
C
D
E

Difficulty:

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Question Stats:

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 10th Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 88

The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture portrait, the features of which are so unrealistic as to constitute what one scholar calls an "artificial face."

(A) so unrealistic as to constitute
(B) so unrealistic they constituted
(C) so unrealistic that they have constituted
(D) unrealistic enough so that they constitute
(E) unrealistic enough so as to constitute

The verbs are and calls indicate that the sculpture is being viewed and judged in the present.

Thus, neither the past tense verb constituted (in B) nor the present perfect verb have constituted (in C) is correct; both suggest that the statue’s features once constituted an artificial face but no longer do so.

Also, B would be better if that were inserted after so unrealistic, although the omission of that is not ungrammatical.

Choices D and E use unidiomatic constructions with enough: unrealistic enough to constitute would be idiomatic, but the use of enough is imprecise and awkward in this context.

Choice A, which uses the clear, concise, and idiomatic construction so unrealistic as to constitute, is best.

https://www.nytimes.com/1984/01/10/science/scholar-detectives-learn-how-augustus-idealized-his-image.html

THE Emperor Augustus, it seems, had trouble with his image - and he fixed it just as many a polititian would today: with good public relations.

An idealized vision might well have persisted today had it not been for the recent detective work of archeologists and scholars, especially in West Germany, about the way Rome's first Emperor is shown in the more than 200 ancient sculptural portraits of him that have survived.

The researchers have concluded that around 27 B.C. the Emperor commissioned a model portrait head whose features were far more serene and ideal than those he bore in life. The adopted son of Julius Caesar, Augustus was born in 63 B.C., became sole ruler in 31 B.C., at the age of 32, and reigned until his death at 77, in A.D. 14.

Copies of Idealized Face

Faithful copies of this idealized prototype, they say, were made available for further copying by sculptors in Rome and elsewhere, and copies of it, and copies of copies, make up the majority of the surviving portraits.

In the sculptures of this variety, often called the Prima Porta type after a statue discovered at Prima Porta, just outside Rome, the features are so unrealistic as to constitute an ''artificial face,'' according to Paul Zanker, director of the University of Munich's Institute of Classical Archeology. Professor Zanker's remarks, given in a lecture last summer, were published later last year in Forschung (Research), a journal published by the West German Institute for Research.

Originally posted by rohansherry on 24 Aug 2009, 13:00.
Last edited by hazelnut on 17 Jun 2018, 21:02, edited 7 times in total.
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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2009, 21:48
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sacmanitin wrote:
The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculptured portrait, the features of which are so unrealistic as to constitute what one scholar calls an “artificial face.”


I choose A.

(A) so unrealistic as to constitute
"So X as to Y" is idiomatic.
(B) so unrealistic they constituted
"So X they Y" is unidiomatic.
(C) so unrealistic that they have constituted
Same as B. Also "have constituted" is unnecessary and indicates a continued action or effect.
(D) unrealistic enough so that they constitute
Awkward and unidiomatic.
(E) unrealistic enough so as to constitute
Awkward and unidiomatic.
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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Dec 2010, 06:59
Im still confused with this one and I dont see whats wrong with C.
Please, could anybody clarify?
Thanks.
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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2015, 08:02
egmat
carcass

Can anyone explain what is the problem with choice C here. Why is Present Perfect incorrect ?
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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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Keats wrote:
egmat
carcass

Can anyone explain what is the problem with choice C here. Why is Present Perfect incorrect ?


OE

Quote:
The verbs are and calls indicate that the sculpture is being viewed and judged in the present. Thus, neither the
past tense verb constituted (in B) nor the present perfect verb have constituted (in C) is correct; both suggest
that the statue's features once constituted an artificial face but no longer do so. Also, B would be better if that
were inserted after so unrealistic, although the omission of that is not ungrammatical. Choices D and E use
unidiomatic constructions with enough: unrealistic enough to constitute would be idiomatic, but the use of
enough is imprecise and awkward in this context. Choice A, which uses the clear, concise, and idiomatic
construction so unrealistic as to constitute, is best
.

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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Feb 2017, 23:43
The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculptured portrait, the features of which are so unrealistic as to constitute what one scholar calls an “artificial face.”

Logical meaning: The features of the portrait are so unrealistic that they appear to constitute an "artificial face" as per one scholar.

(A) so unrealistic as to constitute

(B) so unrealistic they constituted If the verb used for the scholar is 'calls' then the appropriate verb form in the underlined portion should be 'constitute'. The parts also are disconnected without a 'that'

(C) so unrealistic that they have constituted The use of present perfect is unnecessary.

(D) unrealistic enough so that they constitute The option suggests a purpose. The features were intentionally made unrealistic so that they constitute an artificial face. The option instills a sense of purpose and that goes against the logical meaning.

(E) unrealistic enough so as to constitute This option brings in the idea that there's some criterion to be met for the features to be unrealistic and once they do they qualify to constitute an artificial face. This is not what the logical meaning of the sentence is.

Thus, option A.
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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2017, 23:16
rohansherry wrote:
The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture portrait, the features of which are so unrealistic as to constitute what one scholar calls an "artificial face."

(A) so unrealistic as to constitute
(B) so unrealistic they constituted
(C) so unrealistic that they have constituted
(D) unrealistic enough so that they constitute
(E) unrealistic enough so as to constitute


Nevernevergiveup You CAN use "so X as to Y" if X is an adjective or adverb. "X enough to Y" is also idiomatic. You should, however, avoid "so X as to Y" if X is NOT an adjective or adverb.

The perfectly correct sentences:
- Would you be so kind as to tell me the time? (Swan, "Practical English Usage," Oxford University Press 2005, p. 539)
- Its smell was so foul as to make a lady faint.
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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2018, 19:41
Someone already posted my Question of the Day for 6-18-2018
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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2018, 20:52
present perfect show an action which begin in the past and continue until present. we do not have that action here. constitution exist indefinitely so it can not be in present perfect. this point is basic of present perfect.

present perfect can show an action in the past without a specific point. constitution is not the case.
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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2018, 06:06
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A - hold
B,C,D - Incorrect "They" is referencing to the singular noun portrait --> Pronoun agreement error.
E - wordy, "unrealistic enough" is awkward.

Hence, Answer is A.
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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 00:29
aragonn GMATNinja Vyshak generis broall daagh AjiteshArun

I rejected B as idiom error
D and E has error enough so
Why C is wrong ?
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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 01:02
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In C, 'have constituted' is a shift of tense from ' were', and 'commissioned' which are past tense verbs.
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New post 31 Oct 2018, 01:06
daagh wrote:
In C, 'have constituted' is a shift of tense from ' were', and 'commissioned' which are past tense verbs.


daagh
The features of which are , there is present tense also
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New post 31 Oct 2018, 01:22
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sorry I mistook 'are' as 'were'. But even then, 'have constituted' will be wrong because, if it has to sync with 'are', then it must say ' constitute' rather the present perfect 'have constituted'. 'Have constituted' puts a cap on the features while are gives an inherentness and everness.
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The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Oct 2018, 15:18
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teaserbae wrote:
aragonn GMATNinja Vyshak generis broall daagh AjiteshArun

I rejected B as idiom error
D and E has error enough so
Why C is wrong ?

teaserbae , you correctly focused on the verb ARE in the non-underlined portion. CALLS gives another hint.
Try to focus on meaning, not just rules.

The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture portrait, the features of which are so unrealistic as to constitute what one scholar calls an "artificial face."

The first part of the sentence is meant to distract us, to make us think that the Emperor's action matters.
What part of this sentence is truly the issue?

Underlined portion? It's in a relative clause that begins with WHICH and describes features.
Now examine the verbs before and after the underlined part: are and calls. Both are present tense.*

The features of the statue ARE in the present. (The author is observing and describing those features in the present.)
A scholar in the present CALLS these features "___"

C) [the features] have constituted
The author is not in the past. The scholar is not in the past.
Why are the features (being observed and described in the present) suddenly jumping into the past?

(C) "have constituted" incorrectly propels the features into the past.
It incorrectly implies that features are no longer unrealistic.

If necessary, compare to (A). Why prefer (C) over (A)?

Hope that helps.

*We are no longer concerned with what Emperor A did.
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New post 02 Nov 2018, 18:23
GMATNinja generis VeritasKarishma

I usually split the sentences into its independent clauses (in my head)
to find errors in the original sentence and then move to PoE.
Let me know where I faltered this time:

The Emperor Augustus,
it appears,
commissioned an idealized sculpture portrait,
the features of which are so unrealistic as to constitute what one scholar calls an "artificial face." (noun + noun modifier ,
where features = noun , which = noun modifier)

The sentence intends to say that The Emperor Augustus commissioned an idealized sculpture portrait.
Author goes on to describe the features of the portrait:
The portrait is so unrealistic that it seems to be 'an artificial face'

My reasoning to select (C):
So .. that . . idiom:

Roy works hard at gym so that he remains fit.

Why does above idiom not fit neatly into (C)?
Also, why is usage of present perfect tense incorrect in (C)?
The effect of impressions of portrait are still felt in present.

Why I discarded (A):
AS TO CONSTITUTE: This phrase blew me off.
TO + verb is an infinitive.

E.g.
India must defeat Bangladesh to qualify to sem-finals.
Here: must = main verb.
to qualify = infinitive / shows purpose.

I could not understand how features can serve
as a purpose to CONSTITUTE to refer to
portrait as an artificial face.
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The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2018, 19:06
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adkikani - Nice compilation man, but in my opinion D has multiple issues.

1. use of that verb - As generis mentioned in his comment, notice the use of verbs before and after the underline portion. both are in present tense while a past tense is used in underline portion. Overall bad time line issue.

2. use of the word enough - usually if extra words used in an option then its wrong but that is not a rule. use of 'enough' changed the meaning of the sentence. It is limiting the meaning of 'unrealistic'. While use of 'so' before it , took the extant of meaning to one more step.

D cant be an answer. though C could have came close , if used better verbs. Grammatically A is only correct choice.Hope it is helpful. I would wait for Experts you have mentioned, to step in. GMATNinja generis VeritasKarishma
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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2018, 22:43
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rohansherry wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review 10th Edition

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 88

The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture portrait, the features of which are so unrealistic as to constitute what one scholar calls an "artificial face."

(A) so unrealistic as to constitute
(B) so unrealistic they constituted
(C) so unrealistic that they have constituted
(D) unrealistic enough so that they constitute
(E) unrealistic enough so as to constitute



The errors in this question deal with tenses and idioms.

so that shows purpose - I will go tomorrow so that she can join me.
Purpose of going tomorrow - she can join

so as to shows purpose too - I am planning to move so as to be closer to my parents' house.
Purpose of moving - to be closer to my parents' house.

so ... that ... - shows cause and effect - The bracelet was so expensive that I could not afford it.
Cause - very expensive, Effect - I cannot afford

so ... as to ... shows cause and effect too - The hurricane was so devastating as to leave nothing standing.
Cause - devastating hurricane, Effect - Nothing left standing

With enough, you should use "to" - The girl from Wisconsin was pretty enough to make it big in Hollywood.

As for the tenses, you should use present tense.
the features of which are so unrealistic as to constitute what one scholar calls an "artificial face."
We are evaluating the features at present.

(A) so unrealistic as to constitute
(B) so unrealistic they constituted - that missing and uses past tense
(C) so unrealistic that they have constituted - Wrong tense. Present is needed, not present perfect
(D) unrealistic enough so that they constitute - enough to is needed
(E) unrealistic enough so as to constitute - enough to is needed

Note that "unrealistic enough" is a bit illogical since it is not a defined concept. We want to talk about how the sculptor took the features so far that they became unrealistic.

Answer (A)
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Re: The Emperor Augustus, it appears, commissioned an idealized sculpture &nbs [#permalink] 02 Nov 2018, 22:43
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