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# A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average

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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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24 May 2016, 03:20
Could an expert explain this question please?
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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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24 May 2016, 04:45
A recent review of pay scales indicates <<that CEOâ€™s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times>> in 1980.

A. that CEOâ€™s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times
B. that, on average, CEOâ€™s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times
C. that, on average, CEOâ€™s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
D. CEOâ€™s who now earn on average 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
E. CEOâ€™s now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times
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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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25 May 2016, 03:55
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marine wrote:
A recent review of pay scales indicates <<that CEOâ€™s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times>> in 1980.

A. that CEOâ€™s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times
B. that, on average, CEOâ€™s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times
C. that, on average, CEOâ€™s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
D. CEOâ€™s who now earn on average 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
E. CEOâ€™s now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times

Ankit73 wrote:
Could an expert explain this question please?

A. Wrong - 2 errors.
error 1. The past participle modifier "compared to a ratio ....." wrongly refers to "workers".
error 2. When using multiples such as "x times", "double" etc. using comparative such as "more","less" etc is wrong. The comparatives are used for mathematical operators sum and difference.
Correct: I am 5 meters taller than he is. (difference is 5 meters, comparative "taller" is OK)
Correct: My height is double / 3 times his height. (multiplier is 2 / 3, no comparative)
Wrong: My height is 3 times more than his height. (for multiplier, cannot use comparative "more")

B. Wrong.
The active voice usage "the ratio that compares to.." is wrong. The ratio does not compare - the ratio IS compared (passive).

C. Correct.
Correct usage of comparison"as compared to".
The modifier "that ratio" correctly refers to "42 times".

D. Wrong.
error 2 of option A above.

E. Wrong.
error 1 of option A above.

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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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25 May 2016, 04:59
sayantanc2k wrote:
marine wrote:
A recent review of pay scales indicates <<that CEOâ€™s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times>> in 1980.

A. that CEOâ€™s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times
B. that, on average, CEOâ€™s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times
C. that, on average, CEOâ€™s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
D. CEOâ€™s who now earn on average 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
E. CEOâ€™s now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times

Ankit73 wrote:
Could an expert explain this question please?

A. Wrong - 2 errors.
error 1. The past participle modifier "compared to a ratio ....." wrongly refers to "workers".
error 2. When using multiples such as "x times", "double" etc. using comparative such as "more","less" etc is wrong. The comparatives are used for mathematical operators sum and difference.
Correct: I am 5 meters taller than he is. (difference is 5 meters, comparative "taller" is OK)
Correct: My height is double / 3 times his height. (multiplier is 2 / 3, no comparative)
Wrong: My height is 3 times more than his height. (for multiplier, cannot use comparative "more")

B. Wrong.
The active voice usage "the ratio that compares to.." is wrong. The ratio does not compare - the ratio IS compared (passive).

C. Correct.
Correct usage of comparison"as compared to".
The modifier "that ratio" correctly refers to "42 times".

D. Wrong.
error 2 of option A above.

E. Wrong.
error 1 of option A above.

Thanks for the explanation. However, isn't 'compared to a ratio' a verb-ed modifier? Do verb-ed modifiers also need to be as close as possible to whatever they are modifying?
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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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25 May 2016, 05:08
Ankit73 wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:
marine wrote:
A recent review of pay scales indicates <<that CEOâ€™s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times>> in 1980.

A. that CEOâ€™s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times
B. that, on average, CEOâ€™s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times
C. that, on average, CEOâ€™s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
D. CEOâ€™s who now earn on average 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
E. CEOâ€™s now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times

Ankit73 wrote:
Could an expert explain this question please?

A. Wrong - 2 errors.
error 1. The past participle modifier "compared to a ratio ....." wrongly refers to "workers".
error 2. When using multiples such as "x times", "double" etc. using comparative such as "more","less" etc is wrong. The comparatives are used for mathematical operators sum and difference.
Correct: I am 5 meters taller than he is. (difference is 5 meters, comparative "taller" is OK)
Correct: My height is double / 3 times his height. (multiplier is 2 / 3, no comparative)
Wrong: My height is 3 times more than his height. (for multiplier, cannot use comparative "more")

B. Wrong.
The active voice usage "the ratio that compares to.." is wrong. The ratio does not compare - the ratio IS compared (passive).

C. Correct.
Correct usage of comparison"as compared to".
The modifier "that ratio" correctly refers to "42 times".

D. Wrong.
error 2 of option A above.

E. Wrong.
error 1 of option A above.

Thanks for the explanation. However, isn't 'compared to a ratio' a verb-ed modifier? Do verb-ed modifiers also need to be as close as possible to whatever they are modifying?

Yes, verb-ed modifiers, like other modifiers (except verb-ing modifiers), should generally touch the noun it modifies. This is precisely mentioned as error 1 for option a.

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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2016, 07:54
egmat wrote:
Hi,
I received a Pm to respond to this one.

A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEOs now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times in 1990.

According to a recent review, CEOs now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers. The ratio of the same was 42:1 in 1990.

Now let’s look at error of this sentence:
1. Usage of “a ratio of” is incorrect here. It’s ambiguous what does it refer to. Also, it breaks the parallelism between “419 times” and “42 times”. Only the expression “42 times” would have been enough to present the correct comparison.

PoE:

a. that CEOs now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

b. that, on average, CEOs now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times: Incorrect. This choice suggests the ratio compares to 42 times, that is in 42 different times in 1990. This is illogical comparison.

c. that, on average, CEOs now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio: Correct. The parallelism is correctly maintained. “a ratio” correctly modifies “ “42 times their pay”.

d. CEOs who now earn on average 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio: Incorrect. Per this choice, recent reviews indicate “CEOs”.

e. CEOs now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times: Incorrect.
1. Repeats the same error as in choice A.
2. Repeats the same error as in choice D.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Hi @e-gmat,

As per e-gmat verbal online. we must not use "As/when" with "compare/contrast"
But here OA is C - which uses "as compared to"
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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2016, 02:09
gagan0001 wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi,
I received a Pm to respond to this one.

A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEOs now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times in 1990.

According to a recent review, CEOs now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers. The ratio of the same was 42:1 in 1990.

Now let’s look at error of this sentence:
1. Usage of “a ratio of” is incorrect here. It’s ambiguous what does it refer to. Also, it breaks the parallelism between “419 times” and “42 times”. Only the expression “42 times” would have been enough to present the correct comparison.

PoE:

a. that CEOs now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

b. that, on average, CEOs now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times: Incorrect. This choice suggests the ratio compares to 42 times, that is in 42 different times in 1990. This is illogical comparison.

c. that, on average, CEOs now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio: Correct. The parallelism is correctly maintained. “a ratio” correctly modifies “ “42 times their pay”.

d. CEOs who now earn on average 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio: Incorrect. Per this choice, recent reviews indicate “CEOs”.

e. CEOs now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times: Incorrect.
1. Repeats the same error as in choice A.
2. Repeats the same error as in choice D.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

In option C, can't we say 'their' is ambiguous, as it can refer to CEOs or blue-collar workers?

There are 2 reasons that the pronoun "their" is not ambiguous.

1. If the pronoun were to refer to "CEO", a reflexive form (e.g. "of themselves", or atleast a form such as "their own") would be required. The very fact that a reflexive form is not used makes it clear that the pronoun does not refer to CEO's.

2. By virtue of paralellism the pronoun clearly refers to "blue-collar workers" ....... X = "pay of blue-collar workers", Y= "their pay". Hence the use of the pronoun "their" is alright.

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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2016, 22:23
I am not convinced by the official solution.
"as compared to" is an unidiomatic expression. "in contrast to..." or "Contrasted to/with" is in my opinion idiomatic.

Thank you.
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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2016, 10:36
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manhasnoname wrote:
I have a very basic question - Doesn' t CEO's signal possessiveness? Is that a typo in the question?

It is alright to use apostrophe when certain awkward abbreviations are made plural - the apostrophe indicates missing letter(s).
Ideally a noun ending with "o" should take "-es" to be converted to be plural. But for abbreviations addition of "-es" is not a practice. Hence to indicate the missing "e", the apostrophe is used. However it is recommended to avoid apostrophe for ordinary abbreviations - PM: PMs.

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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2016, 23:51
C is correct. They first compare the numbers and then arrive at a ratio. Not the other way round.

that, on average, CEO's now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio.

My salary is 10K more when compared to my friends. I earn 20K. Now what is the ratio? 1:2. Hope this clarifies.

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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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21 Aug 2016, 12:58
22gmat wrote:
I am not convinced by the official solution.
"as compared to" is an unidiomatic expression. "in contrast to..." or "Contrasted to/with" is in my opinion idiomatic.

Thank you.
Kind regards.

The usage "as compared to" is valid. Here since a comparison is made, it is alright to use "as compared to". Nonetheless, the expression "compared to" ( without "as") is also valid.

Moreover contrasting may not be appropriate here since a comparison is made to show that one is greater than the other - not one is the opposite of the other.

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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2016, 07:15
Okay, thank you very much for your support. Now it is clear for me.

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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2016, 21:20
eybrj2 wrote:
31. A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO’s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times in 1980.

A. that CEO’s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times
B. that, on average, CEO’s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times
C. that, on average, CEO’s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
D. CEO’s who now earn on average 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
E. CEO’s now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times

Anybody can explain?

"that" is required to add clarity. So D and E is out.

A gives a sense that all CEO's earnings > average (419 * pay of blue-collar workers) - which seems non-sensical.

Between B and C I chose B because it is more clear to me - CEO's pay (x) = 419 * blue-collar workers pay (y). => x/y = 419. And this ratio is 42 in 1980.

Could someone please clarify why C is correct? Thanks!

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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2016, 01:49
C says the exact same thing as B about the relationship between current CEO and employee pay, so there's no reason to pick one over the other on that basis. However, B goes on to say that this ratio "compares to 42 times in 1980." This isn't clear at all. What does it mean that the ratio compares to something? What are the 42 times?

C clears this up by making a comparison between the current ratio (419:1) and the 1980 ratio (42:1). There's no pronoun ambiguity, since CEO's could never have earned 42 times their own pay!
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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2016, 02:14
manhasnoname wrote:
eybrj2 wrote:
31. A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO’s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times in 1980.

A. that CEO’s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times
B. that, on average, CEO’s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times
C. that, on average, CEO’s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
D. CEO’s who now earn on average 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
E. CEO’s now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times

Anybody can explain?

"that" is required to add clarity. So D and E is out.

A gives a sense that all CEO's earnings > average (419 * pay of blue-collar workers) - which seems non-sensical.

Between B and C I chose B because it is more clear to me - CEO's pay (x) = 419 * blue-collar workers pay (y). => x/y = 419. And this ratio is 42 in 1980.

Could someone please clarify why C is correct? Thanks!

Could you highlight what issue you see in option C? It is already clarified in the above post, why the pronoun "their" is not ambiguous:
a-recent-review-of-pay-scales-indicates-that-ceo-s-now-earn-124149.html#p1683185

The problems in B are as follows:

1. The usage "a ratio that compares to" is problematic:

It is alright to use "compare to" (as a verb), when two entities / features are compared. However using "compare to" (as a verb) for two measurements (or values) of two entities / features compared is awkward - it is better to use "compared to" (as a participle):

My salary of INR 1000 compares to INR 2000 of yours.... awkward.
Do not compare my salary to your salary... correct.
As compared to my salary of INR 1000, your salary is INR 2000 .... correct.

2. There is a slight lack of clarity about 42 times - what 42 times refers to is not clear in B.

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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2016, 03:03
Top Contributor
eybrj2 wrote:
31. A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO’s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times in 1980.

A. that CEO’s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times
B. that, on average, CEO’s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times
C. that, on average, CEO’s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
D. CEO’s who now earn on average 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
E. CEO’s now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times

Anybody can explain?

A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO’s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times in 1980.

A. that CEO’s now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times ----------->>>here "compared to" comparing pay with ratio illogically
B. that, on average, CEO’s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times --------->>> here "ratio" illogically referring "pay"
C. that, on average, CEO’s now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio ---------->>>Correct
D. CEO’s who now earn on average 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio ----------->>> Modifier error,No verb here
E. CEO’s now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times ---------->>> Modifier error,No verb here
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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2016, 22:40
Comparison between "ratio nowadays" and "ratio in 1980"
a. that CEO's now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times --> Wrong comparison
b. that, on average, CEO's now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times --> Wrong comparison
c. that, on average, CEO's now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio --> Correct Comparison (Best among 5 answer choices)
d. CEO's who now earn on average 419 time more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio --> "Indicates" need that followed (Review indicates CEO's = illogical meaning)
e. CEO’s now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times --> "Indicates" need that followed (Review indicates CEO's = illogical meaning)

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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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25 Dec 2016, 09:30
Isn't as compared to wrong?
the correct use should be
In Comparison/contrast with/to
Compared/contrasted with/to

A is out for wrong comarison
D & E dont have verb for the subject CEO
Now between B & C, I didn't spend anytime & selected B, thinking "as Compared to" is wrong.

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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2017, 04:40
A, B, and E: 42 times in 1980
“42 times WHAT VALUE in 1980”?
Eliminate A, B and E.
D: “A recent review indicates CEO's”
Not the intended meaning: the review doesn't indicate the CEO'S THEMSELVES.
Rather, the review indicates an ACTION, as conveyed by the OA:
“that, on average, CEO’s now EARN 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers”.
Eliminate D.

“as compared to” conveys essentially the same meaning as “in contrast to”.
The meaning conveyed by the OA is as follows:
“419 times the pay of blue-collar workers is IN CONTRAST TO 42 times their pay, the ratio in 1980.”
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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average [#permalink]

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14 Aug 2017, 07:58
hbs2012 wrote:
A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times in 1990.

A. that CEO's now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times

B. that, on average, CEO's now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times.

C. that, on average, CEO's now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio

D. CEo's who now earn on average 419 time more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio

E. CEO's now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times

A. that CEO's now earn an average of 419 times more pay than blue-collar workers, compared to a ratio of 42 times
The highlighted phrase is constructed wrongly here. 42 times what ?

B. that, on average, CEO's now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, a ratio that compares to 42 times.
Same as in A

C. that, on average, CEO's now earn 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
modifier used here is correct.

D. CEo's who now earn on average 419 time more pay than blue-collar workers, as compared to 42 times their pay, the ratio
'that' is required

E. CEO's now earning an average of 419 times the pay of blue-collar workers, compared to the ratio of 42 times
'that' is required. Modifier is wrong.
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Re: A recent review of pay scales indicates that CEO's now earn an average   [#permalink] 14 Aug 2017, 07:58

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