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# A study conducted last year has indicated that striped bass

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A study conducted last year has indicated that striped bass [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2012, 09:38
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A study conducted last year has indicated that striped bass in the Hudson River have more tumors than striped bass in rivers without industrial or agricultural development along their banks. In the previous two decades, significant progress had been made in clearing the Hudson of industrial pollution thought to promote tumorous growth, yet tumor levels in Hudson River striped bass are virtually unchanged from before this reduction.

Which of the following, if true, best helps to explain the situation explained above?

A. There is a causal link between pollution from industrial and agricultural sources and the tumors on striped bass.

B. A change in the levels of industrial pollution has had little effect on most species of fish in the Hudson.

C. Efforts to clear the Hudson of industrial pollution have not removed all such pollution.

D. No other fish but striped bass are susceptible to the effects of industrial pollution.

E. The level of actual tumor-promoting agricultural pollution in the Hudson has remained relatively steady in the last 30 years.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2012, 21:32
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Firstly, I chose C. However, I found this choice is a trap, and my detailed explanation is below:

A study conducted last year has indicated that striped bass in the Hudson River have more tumors than striped bass in rivers without industrial or agricultural development along their banks. In the previous two decades, significant progress had been made in clearing the Hudson of industrial pollution thought to promote tumorous growth, yet tumor levels in Hudson River striped bass are virtually unchanged from before this reduction.

Which of the following, if true, best helps to explain the situation explained above?

A. There is a causal link between pollution from industrial and agricultural sources and the tumors on striped bass. => this is the fact of the argument, and if this true, the tumor level should be changed, not unchanged as the argument said

B. A change in the levels of industrial pollution has had little effect on most species of fish in the Hudson. => talk about fish, so irrelevant

C. Efforts to clear the Hudson of industrial pollution have not removed all such pollution. => this is a trap, even if it did not remove all pollution, partly reducing pollution still cause reducing in tumor levels

D. No other fish but striped bass are susceptible to the effects of industrial pollution. => this is irrelevant, other fish is not in scope

E. The level of actual tumor-promoting agricultural pollution in the Hudson has remained relatively steady in the last 30 years.=> this choice explains why the clearing progress does not affect anymore to the pollution of the Hudson river, so stripped bass does not decline.
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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2012, 01:50
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tuanquang269 wrote:
Chembeti wrote:
Although I agree that C is incorrect, I have a reason different from that of yours.

Even if the authorities have cleared the pollution completely, the problem would have persisted, because, authorities were mistaken with the material that was causing the problem and they did not remove the 'actual' material.

This is explanation type question. So, you should not assume another bridge, making more than one assumption that enable you go further.

Agreed. But my analysis is not based on any assumption but following info provided in question and answer choices:

Question part: "....pollution thought to promote tumorous growth...."
Answer choice (E): "The level of actual tumor-promoting agricultural pollution in the Hudson has remained relatively steady in the last 30 years."
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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2012, 22:22
Was caught in the same trap , selected C immediately, then realized my mistake.
Nice explanation tuanquang269.
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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2012, 22:40
tuanquang269 wrote:
C. Efforts to clear the Hudson of industrial pollution have not removed all such pollution. => this is a trap, even if it did not remove all pollution, partly reducing pollution still cause reducing in tumor levels

Although I agree that C is incorrect, I have a reason different from that of yours.

Even if the authorities have cleared the pollution completely, the problem would have persisted, because, authorities were mistaken with the material that was causing the problem and they did not remove the 'actual' material.
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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2012, 23:33
Chembeti wrote:
Although I agree that C is incorrect, I have a reason different from that of yours.

Even if the authorities have cleared the pollution completely, the problem would have persisted, because, authorities were mistaken with the material that was causing the problem and they did not remove the 'actual' material.

This is explanation type question. So, you should not assume another bridge, making more than one assumption that enable you go further.
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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2012, 10:17
Chembeti wrote:
A study conducted last year has indicated that striped bass in the Hudson River have more tumors than striped bass in rivers without industrial or agricultural development along their banks. In the previous two decades, significant progress had been made in clearing the Hudson of industrial pollution thought to promote tumorous growth, yet tumor levels in Hudson River striped bass are virtually unchanged from before this reduction.

Which of the following, if true, best helps to explain the situation explained above?

fact 1 : striped bass in hudson river have more tumors than striped bass in other rivers w/o argi dev.
fact 2 : significant progress have been made in cleaning the hudson river yet tumor levels are virtually unchanged.

it was supposed that industrial pollution caused tumor but that was not the case. Thus possible answer could be that something else might be causing tumor rather than industrial pollution or pollutant are not removed during cleaning. Lets check options to find the answer

A. There is a causal link between pollution from industrial and agricultural sources and the tumors on striped bass. if this is the case then tumors should have reduced on cleaning hudson river

B. A change in the levels of industrial pollution has had little effect on most species of fish in the Hudson. what if striped bass does not belong in fishes counted under most speices. Could be a probable contender if we coudl not find a better option

C. Efforts to clear the Hudson of industrial pollution have not removed all such pollution. even if they have 'nt removed all the pollutant then also there should be slight decrease in tumor cases number, which remained unchanged

D. No other fish but striped bass are susceptible to the effects of industrial pollution. if this was true then tumors cases in striped brass shoudl have dropped on cleaning Hudson river

E. The level of actual tumor-promoting agricultural pollution in the Hudson has remained relatively steady in the last 30 years. this explain that despite the cleaning of river tumor causing pollutants are still existant. IMO correct answer
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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2012, 12:40
I have two comments based on this argument

1. In the argument it mentions industrial or agricultural. In the conclusion it mentions only industrial and the choice E that you are referring to as correct, it mentions only agricultural .

2. Choice C only mentions industrial pollution as does the conclusion. Is this the difference between C and E and leading to discrepancy in the conclusion.

Thanks
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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated [#permalink]

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29 Feb 2012, 01:24
raviram80 wrote:
I have two comments based on this argument

1. In the argument it mentions industrial or agricultural. In the conclusion it mentions only industrial and the choice E that you are referring to as correct, it mentions only agricultural .

2. Choice C only mentions industrial pollution as does the conclusion. Is this the difference between C and E and leading to discrepancy in the conclusion.

Thanks

a very valid point, ravi. good catch
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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated [#permalink]

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29 Feb 2012, 16:40
Its an easy E.

As per answer choice C, efforts are made to reduce the pollution over the Hudson river. The statement mentions the efforts are not adequate to clear the pollution. However, with the pollution reduction the result would have been reduced tumor on the bass which is not the case as per the original sentence stem.
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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2012, 21:28
Chembeti wrote:
Agreed. But my analysis is not based on any assumption but following info provided in question and answer choices:

Question part: "....pollution thought to promote tumorous growth...."
Answer choice (E): "The level of actual tumor-promoting agricultural pollution in the Hudson has remained relatively steady in the last 30 years."

Haha, I agree with you. That's my fault. Thank for correcting me :D
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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated that striped bass [#permalink]

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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated that striped bass [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2016, 08:28
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated that striped bass [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2016, 23:37
As per the argument, tumors in striped bass is because of two factors, which are Agricultural and Industrial pollution. Although significant steps have been taken to reduce the levels of Industrial pollution in Hudson river, the incidences of tumor have not decreased. Thus it is possible that Industrial pollution is not the reason for the tumor in stripped bass.
Also, it is clear that the argument nowhere mentions that steps have been taken to reduce agricultural pollution.
Now evaluating the options:
A. There is a causal link between pollution from industrial and agricultural sources and the tumors on striped bass.
This weakens the argument as it implies that Industrial pollution leads to tumors on striped bass

B. A change in the levels of industrial pollution has had little effect on most species of fish in the Hudson.
Notice the word 'MOST' and it not necessarily includes the species of Fish in question, i.e Striped bass. Hence out.

C. Efforts to clear the Hudson of industrial pollution have not removed all such pollution.
Notice the word 'ALL'. The argument mentions that significant industrial pollution has been reduced and it's possible that most of it is reduced if not all

D. No other fish but striped bass are susceptible to the effects of industrial pollution.
This weakens the argument as it implies that Industrial pollution is the cause.

E. The level of actual tumor-promoting agricultural pollution in the Hudson has remained relatively steady in the last 30 years.
This presents the alternative cause of the failure of reduced Industrial pollution and is the correct answer
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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated that striped bass [#permalink]

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07 Sep 2016, 04:56
The struggle may be between E and C.

C states that the efforts have not removed all the pollution. They might have removed 99% of them.

E makes it clear that the efforts have not worked on the root cause.

Hence E
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Re: A study conducted last year has indicated that striped bass   [#permalink] 07 Sep 2016, 04:56
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