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Re: Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
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Selected D
A: "they"
B: define A "AS" B
C: subject shall be "the anthropologist"
E: define A "AS" B
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Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
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D is best of the lot.

In A, influenced by is not parallel to the clause (beginning with they).

For B&E, prefer define X as Y over define X to be Y.

C can be eliminated as it can be inferred that a peculiar form is influenced by Western xyz. Rather anthropologists are influenced by it.

D wins, although I don't like the verb define. "Anthropologists define" may convey that the action of defining occurs frequently. Rather it's a one time deal. I will prefer defined over define.

Had the opening modifier not been there, define would have made absolute sense.

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Re: Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
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Question:
Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit.

30 ft level:
On the face, the question tests Modifiers. Rule - Whenever the sentence starts with a modifier, the subject come immediately after the comma.


(A) individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit - To many errors, incorrect use of pronoun, not parallel

(B) individualism, anthropologists have defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit, studying European women of the Renaissance - last phrase of the sentence "studying European women...." is misplaced and ambiguous. Who is studying? Further, correct idiom is "define X.... as.... Y".

(C) individualism, a peculiar form of personhood is defined as an innately bounded unit by the anthropologist, studying European women of the Renaissance - "a peculiar" can not be the subject (refer 30 ft level para above)

(D) individualism and studying European women of the Renaissance, anthropologists define a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit - looks good!

(E) individualism, the anthropologist who has studied European women of the Renaissance has defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit - Incorrect idiom. Correct idiom is "define X.... as.... Y".

Answer = D
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Re: Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
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Option B is incorrect because of the erroneous use of have defined, which is present perfect tense. This is incorrect. A simple past tense form defined is appropriate in the context.

Option C wrongly uses the verb is defined for an action that occurred in the past. The use of is defined is not appropriate because of the wrong tense sequence. Simple past tense was defined is appropriate.

Option E is incorrect because has defined is in the wrong tense. I'm not too sure if the use has studied is correct though in the context.

Option A is incorrect because of pronoun error. they logically refers to a singular noun the anthropologist. The correct form should be he or she, or the noun could be changed to the anthropologists in order to correct the sentence.

The correct answer is D. Influenced by Western individualism and studying European women of the Renaissance, anthropologists define a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit. The noun phrase Influenced by Western Individualism is parallel to the noun phrase studying European women of the Renaissance. The verb tense is also appropriate in the simple present tense.

PS. I liked option A, and I was silently rooting for it, but alas, the pronoun error came in ruined it for me. I was hoping to test the scenario where a noun phrase can be made parallel to a noun clause as per option A, but then and again, that is not meant to be. generis I would appreciate it very much if you can touch on the parallelism between a noun phrase and a noun clause.
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Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
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Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit.

(A) individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit

- Incorrect. "They" is missing an antecedent.

(B) individualism, anthropologists have defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit, studying European women of the Renaissance

- Incorrect. The sentence is okay until the very last comma, "..., studying European women of the Renaissance" - what does it modify? Unit? Anthropologists? Entire clause?

(C) individualism, a peculiar form of personhood is defined as an innately bounded unit by the anthropologist, studying European women of the Renaissance

- Incorrect. There is a modifier error, i.e. "a peculiar form of personhood" cannot be influenced by Western individualism... Nasty meaning problem.

(D) individualism and studying European women of the Renaissance, anthropologists define a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit

- Correct. While "Influenced and studying" can theoretically be parallel, there is a subtle problem with the tense in the main clause, which uses present tense. Think of an example: "Scared by a big dog and crying on the way home, a boy wants to be a soccer player". Does it make sense? Maybe, but the meaning is a bit weird...

Usually, the parallel structure can be broken down into pieces and each piece must make sense. Let's simplify option D:

Studying European women of the Renaissance, anthropologists define a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit. - This sentence is fine.

(E) individualism, the anthropologist who has studied European women of the Renaissance has defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit

- Maybe correct. There is no modification error in the beginning of the sentence. The remainder of the sentence has clear meaning, but one can question the tenses. The anthropologist probably did the following (in order): (1) studied European women, and (2) defined smth. Can 1 and 2 be parallel? Perhaps...

Option E is questionable, while D is correct.

generis, I look forward to your explanation.
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Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
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generis wrote:
Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit.

(A) individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit
(B) individualism, anthropologists have defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit, studying European women of the Renaissance
(C) individualism, a peculiar form of personhood is defined as an innately bounded unit by the anthropologist, studying European women of the Renaissance
(D) individualism and studying European women of the Renaissance, anthropologists define a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit
(E) individualism, the anthropologist who has studied European women of the Renaissance has defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit


MEANING
what was/were influenced? anthropologist(s), not a form;
who was/were studying the Renaissance? anthropologist(s), not a form;

IDIOM: defined…as

(A) "influenced… and they" not parallel and unintended; "and they [plural]… the anthro [singular]" sva error;
(B) "defined… to be" unidiomatic; "have [present perfect]" is used to express a past event that might change in the present, however, the event in which they defined the form was final (or completed), thus this is unnecessary and unintended;
(C) "influenced… a form" unintended; "bounded unit by the anthro" imps the form is an unit by the anthro, so an "anthro unit" nonsensical;
(E) "defined… to be" unidiomatic; "has [present perfect]" unintended;

Answer (D): "influenced [past part]… and studying [pres part]… anthros define…as" parallel and intended meaning.
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Re: Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
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IMO the correct answer is D

Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit.

(A) individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit - the marked portion after the parallelism marker "and" is incorrect, entities before & after "and" are not parallel - "Influenced by Western individualism" - Past participle modifying "the anthropologist" correctly whereas "they studied European women of the Renaissance" is a complete cluase, not parallel & not modifying the subject of the sentence. - INCORRECT

(B) individualism, anthropologists have defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit, studying European women of the Renaissance - The last part of the sentence has employed a VerbING modifier after "," - As per GMAT rule, this should modify the preceding clause & indicate a result of it; also usage of present perfect tense implies something started in past, still has its intended effect in present - Here this is awkward in terms of meaning; - INCORRECT

(C) individualism, a peculiar form of personhood is defined as an innately bounded unit by the anthropologist, studying European women of the Renaissance - "Influenced by Western individualism " - has to modify the nearby noun, it is modifying "a peculiar form of personhood" - purely non-sensical; also, unnecessary usage of passive form, generally not the case in GMAT - iNCORRECT

(D) individualism and studying European women of the Renaissance, anthropologists define a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit - "Influenced by Western individualism" & "studying European women of the Renaissance" are parallel to each other, past & present participle usage, modifying the subject; Fact statement correctly depicted in simple present tense - CORRECT

(E) individualism, the anthropologist who has studied European women of the Renaissance has defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit - Same error as of B; also the usage of relative pronoun "who" without "," indicating a restrictive usage of modification for the subject, not going with the intended meaning - INCORRECT
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Re: Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
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Quote:
Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit.

(A) individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit - "They" is used incorrectly to refer to the anthropologist. Also Parallelism Error.

(B) individualism, anthropologists have defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit, studying European women of the Renaissance - I am really not sure of the tense "have defined" and Also the phrase "studying European" is used incorrectly.

(C) individualism, a peculiar form of personhood is defined as an innately bounded unit by the anthropologist, studying European women of the Renaissance - Anthropologist were inspired not the peculiar form of personhood. Also the phrase "studying European" is used incorrectly.

(D) individualism and studying European women of the Renaissance, anthropologists define a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit - Parallelism is Ok. Both modify anthropologists.

(E) individualism, the anthropologist who has studied European women of the Renaissance has defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit
- Singular anthropologist is fine but not really when we are talking about a finding may be? Also "who has studied" ?
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Re: Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
Use of V+ed and V+ing, Subject +Verb (simple present)..

Should I always go for simple present tense?
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Re: Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
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I pick (D) after spending 2 minutes 49 seconds deliberating mainly between D and E.

The issue with original sentence is rather evident: "Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance" is incorrect. As a modifier, it cannot contain a complete sentence structure "they studied European women of the Renaissance". To make it grammatically correct, it has to be "individualism and studying European women of the Renaissance". Well, this is exactly what D does. But, we need to be careful and check other options.

(B) There is no good reason to move "studying European women of the Renaissance" to the very end of sentence. It also introduces ambiguity regarding who is "studying ..:

(C) The subject "a peculiar form of personhood" is not compatible with the modifier. So C is definitely out.

(D) Looking good. Keep.

(E) Now, this one is not clearly wrong, though we can ultimately rule it out.
(e.1) the use of two "has" (In "has studies" and "has defined") just does not feel right. Too redundant?
(e.2) "define something as" is preferred. ("Define something to be" may not be idiomatic.)
(e.3) Just one "anthropologist"? Which one? "who has studied European women of the Renaissance"? This restrictive clause indicates that is just one "anthropologist who has studied European women of the Renaissance". How likely is that?

So I decided against E and picked D.
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Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
IMO E

Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit.

(A) individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit
Incorrect parallelism

(B) individualism, anthropologists have defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit, studying European women of the Renaissance
Incorrect modifier at the end

(C) individualism, a peculiar form of personhood is defined as an innately bounded unit by the anthropologist, studying European women of the Renaissance
Incorrect modifier at the end

(D) individualism and studying European women of the Renaissance, anthropologists define a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit
Not sure if the two modifers can be connected by "and"

(E) individualism, the anthropologist who has studied European women of the Renaissance has defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit
Looks ok
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Re: Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
Expert Reply
I have posted the official explanation HERE
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Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
Expert Reply
gvij2017 wrote:
Use of V+ed and V+ing, Subject +Verb (simple present)..

Should I always go for simple present tense?

gvij2017 , no. It depends on the sentence.

Here is one in which the main clause is in past tense. It's close to a sentence in MGMAT.

Fatigued by the sun and dreaming of mice, the cat napped lazily on the porch.

Also, see the official question linked in my OE (present tense).

Hope that helps.
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Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
Hi generis, thanks much for a great explanation of the problem. I would like to reply to your comments

Quote:
On what basis do both of you make these assertions?


I meant the fact which you highlighted with a MGMAT quote in an excellent way, and I just did not find proper words to describe what I wanted to say... Also, for some reason I could not make sense of three tenses "influenced, studying, and define", but you did a really great job describing why a correct sentence can have all these tenses altogether. Thank you.

Quote:
MGMAT, Sentence Correction Guide, 6th edition: "Though not common on the GMAT , you can also pair present and past participles." p.88


I was not 100% happy with my example, but I actually hoped that you will help to analyze and compare it with the original sentence. It is much more clear now


Overall, I think this is a pretty difficult problem and I spent at least one hour thinking about it and edited my post at least 4-5 times... And since then I have been eagerly waiting for your explanation :) So, many thanks for helping all of us! :please

Originally posted by mykrasovski on 25 Sep 2019, 06:19.
Last edited by mykrasovski on 25 Sep 2019, 07:25, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
Hi generis - Applaud to your work and gmatclub for such series. It actually brings consistency in our routine.

Also, would like to make a suggestion, if we can have questions at much frequent intervals (like, daily or 5 times a week). I know that's actually too much to ask for! :P

- k
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Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
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(A) individualism and they studied European women of the Renaissance, the anthropologist defined a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit - Incorrect - use of they is incorrect. How can anyone get influenced by individualism and they studied.

(B) individualism, anthropologists have defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit, studying European women of the Renaissance - Incorrect - ing modifier incorrectly modifies the entire clause.

(C) individualism, a peculiar form of personhood is defined as an innately bounded unit by the anthropologist, studying European women of the Renaissance - Same as B

(D) individualism and studying European women of the Renaissance, anthropologists define a peculiar form of personhood as an innately bounded unit - Looks Correct - Inspired by two things, anthropologist define (verb usage is also right)

(E) individualism, the anthropologist who has studied European women of the Renaissance has defined a peculiar form of personhood to be an innately bounded unit - INCORRECT - The word "Who" incorrectly narrows down the world of anthropologist. This means, the sentence is only talking about the anthropologists who define, no other!

Hope this helps!

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Re: Influenced by Western individualism and they studied European women [#permalink]
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thinkvision wrote:
Hi generis - Applaud to your work and gmatclub for such series. It actually brings consistency in our routine.

Also, would like to make a suggestion, if we can have questions at much frequent intervals (like, daily or 5 times a week). I know that's actually too much to ask for! :P

- k

thinkvision , your suggestion is good and understandable.

I am glad that you asked, but sad to report I do not have enough good questions to post more frequently than 3 times a week.

In this post, here I explained to someone else that finding questions for Butler is very hard. Doing so takes a long time.

In that linked post I issued this invitation, which I'll reissue here:

Forum members: If you would like to do so, please provide me, via PM, with questions to post in SC Butler.
For every question you provide that is 650 level or higher and that is publishable, I will happily credit you in the OP as the provider and give you a kudos for any good post of yours that you choose.


Let's see whether a call for questions works.
If it does, I'll post five times a week.

If the invitation does not work, I will think of something else that could happen daily. :)
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