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# Purchasing a new computer, the average consumer often experi

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18 Jan 2014, 13:51
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Purchasing a new computer, the average consumer often experiences confusion due to not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products.

A. Purchasing a new computer, the average consumer often experiences confusion due to not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products
B. Purchasing a new computer, the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products is foreign to the average consumer who often experiences confusion because of this
C. Not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products, confusion is often experienced by the average consumer while purchasing a new computer
D. Purchasing a new computer, the average consumer often experiences confusion as a result of not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products
E. By purchasing a computer, the average consumer often experiences confusion because of not having the relevant technical knowledge to compare new products
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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18 Jan 2014, 18:05
Really good question

B is a mess. if you read the entire question does not comunicate any meaning

C puts as pivotal point the confusion and not the consumer

D the confusion is caused by the lack of something is not a result of something

E By purchasing a computer is wrong, changes the meaning. Here is important the purchasing of a NEW computer that leads to the confusion. moreover, becasue of is wrong. 90% of the time due to is wrong becasue you can not substitute it with caused by.........but here is perfectly fine.

So A wins

Hope this helps to have a clear look to this question.

+ 1
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18 Jan 2014, 23:57
carcass wrote:
Really good question

B is a mess. if you read the entire question does not comunicate any meaning

C puts as pivotal point the confusion and not the consumer

D the confusion is caused by the lack of something is not a result of something

E By purchasing a computer is wrong, changes the meaning. Here is important the purchasing of a NEW computer that leads to the confusion. moreover, becasue of is wrong. 90% of the time due to is wrong becasue you can not substitute it with caused by.........but here is perfectly fine.

So A wins

Hope this helps to have a clear look to this question.

+ 1

Hi Carcass,
My major doubt in this question was with the usage of 'due to'. I have read the difference between usage of 'due to' and 'because of' somewhere.
"because of" modifies verbs while "Due to" does modify nouns, but it's typically used after the verb "to be."
For example, "The team's win today was due to better conditioning."
sample 1-'The team's win today was due to better conditioning'
If 'Due to' modifies nouns and not verbs, then in this question, the part after 'due to' violates this rule. That is why I marked option (d) in my first attempt though it seemed a bit wayward.
Could you please explain on this point...??

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19 Jan 2014, 01:01
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Sukant2010 wrote:
Hi Carcass,
My major doubt in this question was with the usage of 'due to'. I have read the difference between usage of 'due to' and 'because of' somewhere.
"because of" modifies verbs while "Due to" does modify nouns, but it's typically used after the verb "to be."
For example, "The team's win today was due to better conditioning."
sample 1-'The team's win today was due to better conditioning'
If 'Due to' modifies nouns and not verbs, then in this question, the part after 'due to' violates this rule. That is why I marked option (d) in my first attempt though it seemed a bit wayward.
Could you please explain on this point...??

Consider the following sentences.
The team's win today was due to better conditioning.
Here, due to... is acting as an adjectival phrase.
The structure split is as follows.
possessive + noun + linking verb + subject complement

due to as you said, modifies the noun - win

The team won today because of better conditioning.
'because of' acts as an adverbial modifying the verb 'won'
The team .. is an independent clause in itself and is followed by the sub-ordinating conjunction 'because'

We can deduce that the part of the sentence before 'due to' is never an independent clause because, if 'due to' is preceded by an independent clause, then it will have to modify the object (or a noun) but 'due to' being an adverbial cannot do the same.

Before coming back to your question, I read in many forums that, if you are able to replace 'due to' with 'caused by', then the usage of 'due to' is proper.
I think the option A, was set in that context (and this is not always right, or you can be easily bowled over by the construct, as you see in the sentence below)

The average consumer often experiences confusion due to (caused by) not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products

I think 'because of' is definitely the proper usage. But then, option E, by using the word 'By', annoyingly alters the meaning of the sentence. If this were a question on GMAT (though, you will NEVER get grammatically wrong construct in GMAT), I would still go with A, just because meaning is most important.
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19 Jan 2014, 04:26
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sivasanjeev wrote:
Sukant2010 wrote:
Hi Carcass,
My major doubt in this question was with the usage of 'due to'. I have read the difference between usage of 'due to' and 'because of' somewhere.
"because of" modifies verbs while "Due to" does modify nouns, but it's typically used after the verb "to be."
For example, "The team's win today was due to better conditioning."
sample 1-'The team's win today was due to better conditioning'
If 'Due to' modifies nouns and not verbs, then in this question, the part after 'due to' violates this rule. That is why I marked option (d) in my first attempt though it seemed a bit wayward.
Could you please explain on this point...??

Consider the following sentences.
The team's win today was due to better conditioning.
Here, due to... is acting as an adjectival phrase.
The structure split is as follows.
possessive + noun + linking verb + subject complement

due to as you said, modifies the noun - win

The team won today because of better conditioning.
'because of' acts as an adverbial modifying the verb 'won'
The team .. is an independent clause in itself and is followed by the sub-ordinating conjunction 'because'

We can deduce that the part of the sentence before 'due to' is never an independent clause because, if 'due to' is preceded by an independent clause, then it will have to modify the object (or a noun) but 'due to' being an adverbial cannot do the same.

Before coming back to your question, I read in many forums that, if you are able to replace 'due to' with 'caused by', then the usage of 'due to' is proper.
I think the option A, was set in that context (and this is not always right, or you can be easily bowled over by the construct, as you see in the sentence below)

The average consumer often experiences confusion due to (caused by) not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products

I think 'because of' is definitely the proper usage. But then, option E, by using the word 'By', annoyingly alters the meaning of the sentence. If this were a question on GMAT (though, you will NEVER get grammatically wrong construct in GMAT), I would still go with A, just because meaning is most important.

Good explanatiopn, though i would like to point out:

- in a sentence completely underlined I read the entire questions one by one because in such questions the meaning is important more than in a non-completely underlined

- eventhough your explanation is awesome and more tools you have in your tool-box the better is, at the same time is important do not rely too much on grammar rules or feeling but on your logic. this is a test about logic.

Now, assuming that the only rule you know is: due to is right only and if solely it might be substitute with "cauysed by".

B C and D, reading these choices are clearly wrong

Between A and E

E By purchasing a computer here a computer changes the meaning and is fine, BUT the average consumer often experiences confusion because of not having the relevant technical knowledge to compare new products here we haven't needed and this is the key of the sentence and why A is right

due to is correct thanks to the presence of needed

Even if the sentence would be

Purchasing a new computer, the average consumer often experiences confusion due to because of not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products

due to VS because of due to clearly has much sense with the word needed

To recup: E is wrong first of all beceause the opening modifier change the meaning AND because the lack of needed

But even if you insert because of in A, it does not comunicate the same meaning: the confusion is caused by the necessity to have a clear knowledge to compare the various product

Hope this helps
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19 Jan 2014, 05:43
carcass wrote:
sivasanjeev wrote:
Sukant2010 wrote:
Hi Carcass,
My major doubt in this question was with the usage of 'due to'. I have read the difference between usage of 'due to' and 'because of' somewhere.
"because of" modifies verbs while "Due to" does modify nouns, but it's typically used after the verb "to be."
For example, "The team's win today was due to better conditioning."
sample 1-'The team's win today was due to better conditioning'
If 'Due to' modifies nouns and not verbs, then in this question, the part after 'due to' violates this rule. That is why I marked option (d) in my first attempt though it seemed a bit wayward.
Could you please explain on this point...??

Consider the following sentences.
The team's win today was due to better conditioning.
Here, due to... is acting as an adjectival phrase.
The structure split is as follows.
possessive + noun + linking verb + subject complement

due to as you said, modifies the noun - win

The team won today because of better conditioning.
'because of' acts as an adverbial modifying the verb 'won'
The team .. is an independent clause in itself and is followed by the sub-ordinating conjunction 'because'

We can deduce that the part of the sentence before 'due to' is never an independent clause because, if 'due to' is preceded by an independent clause, then it will have to modify the object (or a noun) but 'due to' being an adverbial cannot do the same.

Before coming back to your question, I read in many forums that, if you are able to replace 'due to' with 'caused by', then the usage of 'due to' is proper.
I think the option A, was set in that context (and this is not always right, or you can be easily bowled over by the construct, as you see in the sentence below)

The average consumer often experiences confusion due to (caused by) not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products

I think 'because of' is definitely the proper usage. But then, option E, by using the word 'By', annoyingly alters the meaning of the sentence. If this were a question on GMAT (though, you will NEVER get grammatically wrong construct in GMAT), I would still go with A, just because meaning is most important.

Good explanatiopn, though i would like to point out:

- in a sentence completely underlined I read the entire questions one by one because in such questions the meaning is important more than in a non-completely underlined

- eventhough your explanation is awesome and more tools you have in your tool-box the better is, at the same time is important do not rely too much on grammar rules or feeling but on your logic. this is a test about logic.

Now, assuming that the only rule you know is: due to is right only and if solely it might be substitute with "cauysed by".

B C and D, reading these choices are clearly wrong

Between A and E

E By purchasing a computer here a computer changes the meaning and is fine, BUT the average consumer often experiences confusion because of not having the relevant technical knowledge to compare new products here we haven't needed and this is the key of the sentence and why A is right

due to is correct thanks to the presence of needed

Even if the sentence would be

Purchasing a new computer, the average consumer often experiences confusion due to because of not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products

due to VS because of due to clearly has much sense with the word needed

To recup: E is wrong first of all beceause the opening modifier change the meaning AND because the lack of needed

But even if you insert because of in A, it does not comunicate the same meaning: the confusion is caused by the necessity to have a clear knowledge to compare the various product

Hope this helps

Hi Carcass,
I know 'caused by' is an apt substitution for 'due to' in the GMAT but it ain't working here I guess. Also, I am not able to clearly understand the role of the word 'needed'.
What exactly is the role of the word 'needed'??
I mean I am not satisfied much by the explanation that 'due to' makes more sense with 'needed'.
Could you please elaborate on it..??

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19 Jan 2014, 06:10
The lack of knowledge needed to compare different products causes confusion

The counfusion is caused by (due to i.e causes) the necessity (needed) to have the knowledge to compare different products

The lack of knowledge to compare different products because of confusion.

Evantually, this is the scenario.

I hope now is more clear

PS: because of can never be used to replace due to and vice-versa. They are mutually exclusive
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13 May 2014, 18:07
Also who purchases the computer (the average costomer) should be next to the words describing the purchased.

Ask question: who purchases the computer?

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01 Dec 2014, 04:29
A. Purchasing a new computer, the average consumer often experiences confusion due to not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products
B. Purchasing a new computer, the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products is foreign to the average consumer who often experiences confusion because of this
C. Not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products, confusion is often experienced by the average consumer while purchasing a new computer
D. Purchasing a new computer, the average consumer often experiences confusion as a result of not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products
E. By purchasing a computer, the average consumer often experiences confusion because of not having the relevant technical knowledge to compare new products[/quote]

B, C Wrong because the one that purchases the new computer or the one that does not have the technical knowledge is the average consumer, neither the "relevant technical knowledge" nor the "confusion".

D Wrong because replacing the two-word phrase "due to" with the four-word phrase "as a result of" creates redundancy.

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02 Dec 2014, 16:26
Here is the economist explanation why D is incorrect

"Although this answer choice corrects the original Dangling Modifier mistake and is grammatically correct, stylistically it is flawed. Replacing the two-word phrase due to with the four-word phrase as a result of creates redundancy."

Can anyone please explain how "as a result of" creates redundancy and how it alters the original meaning??
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22 Apr 2017, 10:36
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22 Apr 2017, 19:43
Hi,
The cancellation of meeting is due to the heavy rain.
The meeting is cancelled because of the heavy rain.

should it be :
the confusion experienced by average consumer is due to.... for the correct usage of due to?
But again,this modification will create dangling modifier since purchasing doesn't modify the confusion.

Thanks.

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23 Apr 2017, 01:16
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sleepynut wrote:
Hi,
The cancellation of meeting is due to the heavy rain.
The meeting is cancelled because of the heavy rain.

should it be :
the confusion experienced by average consumer is due to.... for the correct usage of due to?
But again,this modification will create dangling modifier since purchasing doesn't modify the confusion.

Thanks.

Excellent observation! The correct usage in A should be "because of", not "due to".

Consumer experiences because of.... correct.
The experience is due to.... correct.
Consumer experiences due to.... wrong. (Hence A is wrong)

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19 May 2017, 03:00
sayantanc2k wrote:
sleepynut wrote:
Hi,
The cancellation of meeting is due to the heavy rain.
The meeting is cancelled because of the heavy rain.

should it be :
the confusion experienced by average consumer is due to.... for the correct usage of due to?
But again,this modification will create dangling modifier since purchasing doesn't modify the confusion.

Thanks.

Excellent observation! The correct usage in A should be "because of", not "due to".

Consumer experiences because of.... correct.
The experience is due to.... correct.
Consumer experiences due to.... wrong. (Hence A is wrong)

Shouldn't the OA change in that case?

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19 May 2017, 10:38
sayantanc2k wrote:
sleepynut wrote:
Hi,
The cancellation of meeting is due to the heavy rain.
The meeting is cancelled because of the heavy rain.

should it be :
the confusion experienced by average consumer is due to.... for the correct usage of due to?
But again,this modification will create dangling modifier since purchasing doesn't modify the confusion.

Thanks.

Excellent observation! The correct usage in A should be "because of", not "due to".

Consumer experiences because of.... correct.
The experience is due to.... correct.
Consumer experiences due to.... wrong. (Hence A is wrong)

So D is a better answer in this case?

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20 May 2017, 02:36
Hi expert sayantanc2k

Apart from redundancy as explained by The Economist, is there any other error in option (D)? Is "as a result of + V-ing" here used correctly?

Thank you.

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16 Nov 2017, 06:21
sayantanc2k wrote:
sleepynut wrote:
Hi,
The cancellation of meeting is due to the heavy rain.
The meeting is cancelled because of the heavy rain.

should it be :
the confusion experienced by average consumer is due to.... for the correct usage of due to?
But again,this modification will create dangling modifier since purchasing doesn't modify the confusion.

Thanks.

Excellent observation! The correct usage in A should be "because of", not "due to".

Consumer experiences because of.... correct.
The experience is due to.... correct.
Consumer experiences due to.... wrong. (Hence A is wrong)

Hi sayantanc2k,

Option A. Purchasing a new computer, the average consumer often experiences confusion due to not having the relevant technical knowledge needed to compare products

is n't "due to" modifying confusion, saying confusion due to what?

Thanks

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16 Nov 2017, 09:12
The OA is still A.

I chose D over A. Like sayantanc2k, i feel A is incorrect.

What is the final stand on this?
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