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Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu

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Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

The researchers' hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?

(A) Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.

(B) The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.

(C) Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.

(D) No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.

(E) The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.


This question is part of the GMAT Club Critical Reasoning : Assumption" Revision Project.

Originally posted by kalrac on 20 Sep 2010, 05:25.
Last edited by Bunuel on 08 Sep 2018, 01:19, edited 4 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2010, 06:00
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1
kalrac wrote:
Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

The researchers' hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?
a) Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.There is no mention of other diseases
b) The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.Again no mention of other diseases
c)Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.To the contrary if anything the article probably needs the form to stay the same
d)No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.No mention of any diseases
e)The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.This is right. It assumes the plague does not cause Delta-32, since it concludes on the reverse causality

OA TBD after discussion.

Please post the answers with explanations.

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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2010, 06:13
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This is cause and effect type of question.
E shows that reverse is not possible.
Therefore, E is correct.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2010, 06:47
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Irrelevant a) Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.
Irrelevant b) The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.
Again, irrelevant :roll: c)Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.
Again, irrelevant :roll: :roll: d)No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.
They assumed this to be true, else this would have been a side affect and not the reason to survive the plague. In order for Delta-32 to be the reason of surviving, it had to be present before the plague spread and was not a result of exposure to the bacteria e)The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Apr 2012, 16:04
1
Fun question!

One good way to attack the question is by negating the assumption. If we do so with (E) we get:

Negated Answer Choice: The Plague causes genetic mutations such as Delta-32.

If the Plague indeed caused Delta-32 to occur, then the researches hypothesis totally falls apart: Delta-32 did not protect against the plague.

Answer choice (C) says that Delta-32 came into being around the 16th century, about the time of the Plague. Therefore, it could have conceivably conferred immunity on those who carried the gene.

Hope that helps :).
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2012, 06:21
The stimulus says Mutation caused immune to plague. As this is Assumption type question, we need to eliminate the possibility of the reversal of CAUSE and EFFECT.

So, only E addresses the issue. kudos if u like the post :-D
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2012, 22:21
revanth4gmat wrote:
The stimulus says Mutation caused immune to plague. As this is Assumption type question, we need to eliminate the possibility of the reversal of CAUSE and EFFECT.

So, only E addresses the issue. kudos if u like the post :-D


While I agree with your logic, I do not agree with your assumption. This is what I think about it:

Premise : More than half of the people tested positive for Delta-32; a lot of people survived Plague
Conclusion : People survived because of Delta-32

Here the assumption should be: The immunity to Plague does not cause the mutation Delta-32 and not The Plague does not cause mutation.

Correct me if I am wrong.

I would really appreciate if some expert can reply on this.

Thanks
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2013, 22:33
kalrac wrote:
Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

The researchers' hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?
a) Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.
b) The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.
c)Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.
d)No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.
e)The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.



Please post the answers with explanations.


Got this question on one of MGMAT CATs. Even after reviewing the problem and reading some posts regarding this I can still not convince myself that E can be the right answer. Here is my submission regarding it -
To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.
As highlighted these two parts in the argument tell us two things
1. This town had an unusually large number of people who survived the Plague.
2. More than half of the descendants tested positive for DElta-32 in this town, a number three times as high as other locations
Now E says - The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.
This cannot be assumed as per the argument. Had plague caused the mutations the proportion of people having Delta-32 would have been much higher in other locations where the plague was much more widespread than in this town which had fewer instances of plague.
In fact in this question I feel no answer is correct.
Can some experts enlighten me on this :shock:
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2013, 02:34
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Dipankar6435 wrote:
kalrac wrote:
Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

The researchers' hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?
a) Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.
b) The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.
c)Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.
d)No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.
e)The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.



Please post the answers with explanations.


Got this question on one of MGMAT CATs. Even after reviewing the problem and reading some posts regarding this I can still not convince myself that E can be the right answer. Here is my submission regarding it -
To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.
As highlighted these two parts in the argument tell us two things
1. This town had an unusually large number of people who survived the Plague.
2. More than half of the descendants tested positive for DElta-32 in this town, a number three times as high as other locations
Now E says - The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.
This cannot be assumed as per the argument. Had plague caused the mutations the proportion of people having Delta-32 would have been much higher in other locations where the plague was much more widespread than in this town which had fewer instances of plague.
In fact in this question I feel no answer is correct.
Can some experts enlighten me on this :shock:


Hi dipankar,

The key thing you need to think about is the difference between the number of people who contracted the plague and the number of people who survived it.

The question talks about people who survive it, whilst you talk about numb of people who contract it.

Re-look in this light and it should be clearer....
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2014, 16:51
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Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

The researchers' hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?
a) Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.
b) The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.
c)Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.
d)No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.
e)The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32

Conclusion: People survived the plague because they carried a genetic mutation Delta 32.

Negating each option, E stands out to break the conclusion.

-E = The plague causes the genetic mutation such as Delta 32. If the plague itself causes the mutation than all the people effected by the plague will possess the mutation which is the explanation for the premise provided.

Hence E.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2014, 04:44
Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

The researchers' hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?
a) Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.
b) The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.
c)Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.
d)No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.
e)The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32

Premise 1: Researchers claim that genetic mutation (D-32) prevent the bacteria that spread plague.
Premise 2: Researchers tested the descendants to assure this hypothesis, and more than 1/2 of it tested positive

Conclusion: The results supports the hypothesis

A) Irrelevant: we're not talking about any other disease other than plague, and it doesn't support the hypothesis.
B) Irrelevant: Same as A,We're not comparing other diseases caused by bacteria.
C) Out of Scope: The existence of D-32 is not the concern here.
D) Confusing : May be tempting, cause of other tests is also not the concern here.
E) Correct: May sound confusing, but if we negate this it totally destroys the conclusion.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2015, 01:09
OA is E.
Author`s conclusion is Delta-32 caused the survival. Any assumption made in cause and effect relationship could be author`s assumption. E is one of those assumptions, so E is correct OA.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Mar 2015, 19:48
1
The researchers claim that Delta-32 prevents its carriers from contracting the
Plague. They support this claim by noting that a strikingly large percentage of
descendants of Plague survivors carry the mutation. We are asked to find an
assumption underlying the claim.

(A) The argument is specific to the relationship between Delta-32 and resistance
to the Plague. Other diseases are irrelevant.

(B) Again, the argument is specific to the relationship between Delta-32 and
resistance to the Plague. Other diseases are irrelevant.

(C) Delta-32 may have existed in its current form before the sixteenth century
and the merit of the argument would not change.

(D) The argument does not claim that Delta-32 prevents all bacteria-caused
disease.

(E) CORRECT. The researchers claim that Delta-32 prevented its carriers from
contracting the Plague on the basis of its presence in descendants of Plague
survivors. But it is theoretically possible that these descendants carry the
mutation Delta-32 because the Plague mutated the genes of their ancestors. In
order to claim that the mutation prevented the Plague, we must assume that the
Plague did not cause the mutation Delta-32.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2016, 02:34
souvik101990 wrote:
Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations. The researchers’ hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?

A. Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.

B. The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.

C. Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.

D. No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.

E. The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.



Option A: Any other disease. Out of Scope
Option B: Similarity to other diseases caused by bacteria. Irrelevant.
Option C: Form of Delta-32 not discussed in passage
Option D: "No one". Extreme assumption. May not be correct.

Answer IMO: E ( Correlated Causality. X causes Y but does Y cause X ?)
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Feb 2016, 02:45
Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations. The researchers’ hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?

Collusion that researchers arrived to is that because of mutation of Delta-32 , people survived the plague .
And they used rest of the argument to prove this point.

But what if Delta-32 is not the cause of survival?
What if it is the other way around? May be those people acquired this special mutation because of the Plague outbreak

Option (E) explains this. Therefore the answer
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Feb 2016, 05:29
The argument states that the mutated Delta-32 gene acted as a defense against the bacteria causing Black Plague. The descendants tested from the English town where most of the people did not have the disease provides additional evidence to the above claim. The author assumes that the gene was already in the mutated form and the mutation could not have been a result of the disease. "E" rightly identifies the assumption. If "E" is reversed that is Plague caused the mutation then in the reversed form "E" attacks the conclusion.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2016, 09:18
souvik101990 wrote:
Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations. The researchers’ hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?

A. Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.

B. The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.

C. Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.

D. No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.

E. The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.


Conclusion: That Delta-32 mutation helped people to survive Black Plague
To support this Researcher said More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

so we can simplify the above statement
Delta 32 mutation------------------> people survived Black plague.

Assumption
Now think what if Black Plague causes Delta-32 mutation, then in that condition conclusion breaks down.
So the assumption must be opposite of this
And E says this
Hence E
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 18 May 2016, 09:18
souvik101990 wrote:
Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-century England claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried a genetic mutation, known as Delta-32, that is known to prevent the bacteria that causes the Plague from overtaking the immune system. To support this hypothesis, the researchers tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague. More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations. The researchers’ hypothesis is based on which of the following assumptions?

A. Delta-32 does not prevent a carrier from contracting any disease other than the Plague.

B. The Plague is not similar to other diseases caused by bacteria.

C. Delta-32 did not exist in its current form until the sixteenth century.

D. No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.

E. The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.


Conclusion: That Delta-32 mutation helped people to survive Black Plague
To support this Researcher said More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

so we can simplify the above statement
Delta 32 mutation------------------> people survived Black plague.

Assumption
Now think what if Black Plague causes Delta-32 mutation, then in that condition conclusion breaks down.
So the assumption must be opposite of this
And E says this
Hence E
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2016, 13:36
Hi,

please explain why D is wrong in detail.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu  [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2016, 22:26
DeepikaV wrote:
Hi,

please explain why D is wrong in detail.


Premises:

Researchers claim that certain people survived the epidemic because they carried Delta-32 which prevents Plague.
They tested the direct descendants of the residents of an English town where an unusually large proportion of people survived the Plague.
More than half of these descendants tested positive for the mutation Delta-32, a figure nearly three times higher than that found in other locations.

What is the assumption? A missing necessary premise?

• No one who tested positive for Delta-32 has ever contracted a disease caused by bacteria.

We are not assuming that people carrying Delta-32 can get no bacterial infection. All that the argument says is that Delta-32 prevents plague. It may be ineffective against other bacteria. We don't need to assume its effectiveness against all bacteria for our argument to hold.

• The Plague does not cause genetic mutations such as Delta-32.

The higher proportion of Delta-32 in that town could be explained in two ways:
- They had Delta-32 and hence did not get plague. If more people had Delta-32, it means more people would have survived.
- Their system resisted plague and that led to the mutation. If more people resisted and survived, it would mean more mutation.

By concluding that first case must have taken place, we are assuming that second did not. So that is why (E) is an assumption.
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Re: Researchers studying the spread of the Black Plague in sixteenth-centu &nbs [#permalink] 19 May 2016, 22:26

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