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# All oceangoing ships carry seawater ballast tanks whose weigh

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Joined: 07 Dec 2017
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All oceangoing ships carry seawater ballast tanks whose weigh  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2018, 07:03
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51% (02:32) correct 49% (02:48) wrong based on 151 sessions

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All oceangoing ships carry seawater ballast tanks whose weight improves stability. To maintain the ship's proper stability, water must be pumped out of these tanks when cargo is loaded and into them when cargo is unloaded. As a result, sea creatures often get into the tanks and are then inadvertently deposited into new habitats, where they can wreak ecological havoc. One viable way of addressing this problem would be to empty and then immediately refill the tanks in midocean, since midocean creatures and coastal sea creatures usually cannot survive in one another's habitats.

Which one of the following is an assumption the argument requires?

A. Emptying and refilling an oceangoing ship's ballast tanks in midocean would ensure at least that no sea creatures capable of disturbing the ecology in a new habitat are
pumped into the tanks.

B. An oceangoing ship's ballast tanks could be emptied and refilled in midocean only in conditions of calm air and flat seas.

C. Sea creatures have rarely if ever, wreaked ecological havoc in a new habitat, unless they have been able to survive in that habitat after having been deposited there by
oceangoing ships.

D. Currently, seawater is pumped into or out of the ballast tanks of oceangoing ships to maintain proper stability only when unloading or loading cargo.

E. There are at least some oceangoing ships whose stability could be adequately maintained while emptying and refilling their ballast tanks in midocean.

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Re: All oceangoing ships carry seawater ballast tanks whose weigh  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2018, 08:57
Couldn't choose between C and E. I figured E is correct since negating it makes sense. But I'd appreciate it if someone could explain why C is incorrect.

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All oceangoing ships carry seawater ballast tanks whose weigh  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 23 Aug 2018, 22:50
1
I love this CR as this paragraph is related to my job that we do every now and then at sea after loading discharging.

Ballasting/ DeBallasting : Changing of water at deep sea to avoid migration of organism from one part of the world to another part ( apparently it caused a havoc in great lakes due to the inadvertent release of ballast water that contained predatory and harmful organisms into a different ecosystem).

So question at hand says: All oceangoing ships carry seawater ballast tanks whose weight improves stability. Notice that keyword is stability so you are required to have stability at all time of passage as well as at port.

Conclusion: One viable way of addressing this problem would be to empty and then immediately refill the tanks in midocean.

So assumptions required : 1 - There are no undue stress ( generally we do ballast exchange when seas are calm or somewhat moderate) and stability issues with the ship while doing ballast exchange.
2: After exchange we are not left with substantial number organism or organism which could multiply and later wreak havoc on ecosytem.

keeping this in mind lets analyse Answer choices.

A. Emptying and refilling an oceangoing ship's ballast tanks in midocean would ensure at least that no sea creatures capable of disturbing the ecology in a new habitat are
pumped into the tanks.This is not an assumption as negating it will not do anything.

B. An oceangoing ship's ballast tanks could be emptied and refilled in midocean only in conditions of calm air and flat seas.This only give a factor or working environment again not an assumption.[color=#00a651]

C.[color=#111111] Sea creatures have rarely if ever, wreaked ecological havoc in a new habitat, unless they have been able to survive in that habitat after having been deposited there by
oceangoing ships
.this is not an assumption it is clearly stated in the passage
As a result, sea creatures often get into the tanks and are then inadvertently deposited into new habitats, where they can wreak ecological havoc.

D. Currently, seawater is pumped into or out of the ballast tanks of oceangoing ships to maintain proper stability only when unloading or loading cargo.[Not an assumption.

E. There are at least some oceangoing ships whose stability could be adequately maintained while emptying and refilling their ballast tanks in midocean.Ah! this is the same one we have mentioned in the assumption. So correct ans

So answer E
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Originally posted by arun6765 on 23 Aug 2018, 09:30.
Last edited by arun6765 on 23 Aug 2018, 22:50, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: All oceangoing ships carry seawater ballast tanks whose weigh  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2018, 11:09
How E is the assumption can anyone please explain?

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Re: All oceangoing ships carry seawater ballast tanks whose weigh  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2018, 18:56
The word "atleast some " in option E prevented me from selecting this choice as I expected the assumption to hold true for all the oceangoing ships for this to be a viable solution. Please tell me why is my thinking not correct.
thanks:)
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Re: All oceangoing ships carry seawater ballast tanks whose weigh  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2018, 22:45
C is irrelevant.Why should anybody be bothered about what seacreatures generally do.The scope entails to thinknof sea creatures in ballast tanks.Good question

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Re: All oceangoing ships carry seawater ballast tanks whose weigh  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2018, 22:47
3
IndianJewel wrote:
The word "atleast some " in option E prevented me from selecting this choice as I expected the assumption to hold true for all the oceangoing ships for this to be a viable solution. Please tell me why is my thinking not correct.
thanks:)

IndianJewel
If you go through Powerscore CR Bible, it is mentioned clearly in assumption question answer choice which starts with "atleast one" or "atleast some" that is probably a right answer.

Logically, Suppose there are 100 children At least some, in this case, will range from 1 to 100.
Negation of the same will be None or 0.

SO if you negate E: There are at least some NO oceangoing ships whose stability could be adequately maintained while emptying and refilling their ballast tanks in midocean.
This will definitely hurt and destroy conclusion.

Hope it helps.
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Sailing through rough waters. Stars & few kudos will steer me past.
Re: All oceangoing ships carry seawater ballast tanks whose weigh   [#permalink] 23 Aug 2018, 22:47
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