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Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f

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Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f  [#permalink]

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Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

(A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
(B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
(C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
(D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
(E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions

Originally posted by bigfernhead on 06 May 2009, 09:24.
Last edited by hazelnut on 02 Jun 2017, 23:45, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2013, 01:31
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adg142000 wrote:
Although D looks close yet it is not definitive as it doesnt say the natural fullerene "the stucture of which is now known" is different or same as the lab fulleren.

Any help on this ??


Hi adg142000

I’m glad to help.

This question uses a very common flaw of reasoning:
Fact: X leads to A
Fact: Y leads to A
Conclusion: X = Y.
This is wrong. Same ending does not mean same beginning.

Back to the question.

Fact: fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory
Fact: fullerenes also have been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite.
Fact: laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure
Conclusion: We could know about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.

Assumption: the previous structure of fullereness formed in lab and that of fullererness formed in nature is the same.

What if scientists synthesize fullerness from substance X. But in nature fullerness was actually formed from substance Y ==> We cannot say the condition of the Earth’s crust at the time fullerness naturally formed is the same as the condition of lab at the time fullerness synthesized artificially.

What D says:

D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
D clearly says: we don't know what previous structure of fullererness formed naturally.
For example: The flow is: carbon 12 ==> carbon 14 ==> fullererness. Assume the lab synthesizes fullererness from carbon 12, but in nature, fullererness was formed from carbon 14 ==> cannot say the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed is the same as the condition in lab.

Hence, D weakens the conclusion and is correct.

Hope it helps.
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2009, 10:13
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bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions




B

The argument says that fullerenes are made under special conditions in the lab, so the fullerenes in nature should provide clues about the conditions when the earths crust was formed. B gives an alternative and suggests that fullerenes could have come from outter space.
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2009, 11:12
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bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions





premise:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory

Premise: fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon- have since been found in nature, formed fissures of rare material shungite.

Premise : Laborate synthesis of fullerenes requires distictive conditins of temperature and pressure.

Conclusion:
Discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.


A) Not weakening the argument. one way it is supporting the argument.
B) Not relevant (Out of scope). This information is not useful in weaking argument. What even if fullerenes found in outerspace?
Is this effect conclusion???
C ) Not weakening.
E) Strenghten


D). naturally occurent fullerenes are previsously in unknown crystalline structure.
Laboratory fullurenes are in spherical structure.
Both have different strucutre--> conditions of temp and pressure require will be different for these two forms.

So It undermines argument.



Go with D.
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2009, 21:39
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bigfernhead wrote:
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occuring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions


Indeed tough.

My answer is D.

The argument is saying since the fullerenes are the same, they must have been made the same way.
And we know how to make them in the laboratory, so that's how they were made in nature.

D weakens this considerably by saying they're not the same.

Here's why the other answer choices are wrong.

A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
Fantastic. Who cares.
B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
This weakens it a bit. But D does much more so. It says 'some fullerenes', which isn't that strong of a statement. Perhaps the fullerenes were made in space, again a lot of 'what ifs'....
C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
Fantastic. Who cares.
D) The naturally occuring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
Correct.
E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions[/quote]
Fantastic. Again who cares.
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Re: fullerene  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2011, 05:07
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[quote="eybrj2"]Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust (CONCLUSION)at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.

any statemet that proves that the temperature and pressure conditions MIGHT NOT BE SAME for the naturally occurng and lab versions of fullerene will be the correct answer.

a) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation so? at the end it was confirmed tht it was fullerene. doesnt affect conclusion
b) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft. The qs is about finding conditions on eart's crust, not metiorites. It specifically mentioned tht the fullerens were FORMED on the mineral rocks
c) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed. doesnt make any difference to the conclusion
d) The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure CORRECT THE CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURES ARE DIFFERENT...THEREFOR THE PRESSURE TEMPERATURE CONDITIONS COULD HAVE BEEN DIFFERENT
e) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.
. doesnt make any difference to the conclusion


Truthfully speaking...I dont think its a fair qs..... I had the preknowledge that crystal structure formation is directly responsible on the temp/pressure conditions...and different conditions may result in different structures. A person not knowing this might have difficulty in solving this problem.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2012, 01:39
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shikhar wrote:
Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.


Its D as the structure present in lab is different from the previous one and hence the conclusion is weakened
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2012, 02:52
what does the word previously means here ??
I thought it meant that the structure was not known earlier but now its known...
if i remove previously form option D it is clearly the answer.

Please clarify ...
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2012, 03:09
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shikhar wrote:
what does the word previously means here ??
I thought it meant that the structure was not known earlier but now its known...
if i remove previously form option D it is clearly the answer.

Please clarify ...


Basically the thing is :
F found in lab first then in nature, as they can be synthesized in lab argument concludes that okay it is possible to know something about the earth's state when these naturally occurring F were found. But what about if geologists dont know there structure prior to the point when discovery was made then its useless having F in lab. Because its no concrete source to make the conclusion.

Previously Unknown means before the discovery nothing about the structure is known. Hence if nothing is known till that point we cant say anything regarding the conclusion and hence conclusion stands is weakened.

Hope this helps..!!
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2012, 04:44
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shikhar wrote:
Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.


Why can't the answer be B? The very fact that a meteorite also contained F implies that a similar meteorite could have collided with Earth and caused F to be inducted into Earth's crust artificially. So, studying this might not necessarily tell anything about Earth !!!
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2012, 21:06
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I can't understand either of options (except C, but that with a long shot) weakening the conclusion.

Argument says : Because F could be formed in Lab in distinctive conditions (of temperature and pressure), We should be able to evaluate earth crust's conditions as well at the time of these Fs formed naturally. So, It's essentially assuming F can be formed in a specific set of conditions.

Let's evaluate Options :
A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
=> Not Related - No Impact

B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
=> Even if some were found in a small meteorite, it doesn't impact the argument. Because that small meteorite may also have similar conditions as Lab had when F were formed.

C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
=> This makes a little sense for me because it gives an alternative reason to believe why F formed naturally had something special (large amount of carbon) which may not be there in the lab. So we might be able to say those conditions in which F formed may not be same/ similar in Lab and earth-crust.

D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
=> Even if naturally occurring F are in crystalline structure unknown earlier, it is know now. And it doesn't give me any reason to say naturally occurring F would have different structure than the structure of Lab-formed F.
I can't understand how it would weaken the argument

E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.
=> Already stated a s part of premise, so essentially it's strengthening the argument, not weakening.

I'd appreciate expert views on this.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of  [#permalink]

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New post 17 May 2012, 22:50
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paragkan wrote:
shikhar wrote:
Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed. Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.


Why can't the answer be B? The very fact that a meteorite also contained F implies that a similar meteorite could have collided with Earth and caused F to be inducted into Earth's crust artificially. So, studying this might not necessarily tell anything about Earth !!!



paragkan,

You are right that B does weaken too. But between B and D - D is a better answer because it "most seriously" undermines the argument.
B weakens a little bit because if F is found on a small meteorite from outer space, it's possible that the F in shungite is not "natural" and actually came from outer space instead. If that is the case, then we can't get a good idea of the Earth's crust at the time of formation - because that formation happened in outer space. Thus, the argument isn't valid anymore.
BUT, we don't know for SURE whether the F in shungite came from outer space so we can't necessarily say the argument is not valid. It's just that it *might* be invalid if the F is coming from outer space.
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Jun 2013, 00:17
Although D looks close yet it is not definitive as it doesnt say the natural fullerene "the stucture of which is now known" is different or same as the lab fulleren.

Any help on this ??
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 06 Jul 2013, 02:25
gchawla123 wrote:
Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of carbon - were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypothesis about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?
A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions


Premise: Laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure
conclusion: Naturally occurring fullerenes should help test the state of the earth's crust at the time these fullerenes were formed because of the distinctive conditions required at that time

Assumption: Naturally occurring fullerenes are similar to those synthesized in the lab.

However if as D says if the naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a structure that was not known when the author made the argument then what is hypothesized about natural fullerenes could not be correct. So the argument is undermined by D.
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Originally posted by SravnaTestPrep on 06 Jul 2013, 01:49.
Last edited by SravnaTestPrep on 06 Jul 2013, 02:25, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Although fullerenes—spherical molecules made  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Nov 2014, 05:32
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Although fullerenes—spherical molecules made entirely of carbon—were first found in the laboratory, they have since been found in nature, formed in fissures of the rare mineral shungite. Since laboratory synthesis of fullerenes requires distinctive conditions of temperature and pressure, this discovery should give geologists a test case for evaluating hypotheses about the state of the Earth's crust at the time these naturally occurring fullerenes were formed.

Which of the following, if true, most seriously undermines the argument?

Weakener type:
Conclusion: Discovery of natural FL will help geologists to know the earlier state of the Earth's crust vis.a.vis. lab conditions.
Assumptions: 1. Both FLs (lab-formed and natural) are similar
2. If not, structure/texture of natural occurring FL is known to scientists.
3. Natural FL did not undergo drastic changes/transformations during its evolution.

A. Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation - Somehow i think it is strengthening the conclusion
B. Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft - Irrelevant. Anyhow, FL could have infected from earth to meteorite or vice-versa, eventhough neither case would help to the passage.
C. The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed - Does not help.
D. The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure - Seems correct. If structure if natural FL is new for geologist then they would not be able to decipher the information from it.
E. Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions - This also can be the correct answer as it also attack one of the assumptions.

So, I am confused between D and E.....but going with instinct, I chose D... :?

OA and OE please....
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2015, 04:26
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The correct option should tell that fullerenes in lab and fullerenes in nature are not analogous.

A, C and E talk about something that is out of scope.
We are left with B and D

B is a very weak weakener. You need to assume too much to make it a weakener. It may or may not be possible that those fullerenes may actually originated on earth. Option just say that fullerenes were found on the remains of a meteorite.

D on the other hand is a very strong weakener. If naturally occurring fullerenes have a different structure all together then it is an entirely different kind of fullerene and therefore conditions for artificial one may be different from the naturally occurring one.
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Re: Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2016, 02:51
A must refer to understand this question "RonPurewal's (from Manhattan) explanation" -

https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... t1578.html
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Re: Although fullerenes - spherical molecules made entirely of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jun 2016, 11:09
Take another look at that answer choice: It's the crystalline structure of the found fullerenes that's 'previously unknown'. That means that the fullerenes that have been discovered are fundamentally different from ALL other fullerenes that have ever been described - including all the ones that have ever been made in labs.
* This means that these particular fullerenes - the ones that have been found in the fissures - are chemically different from all the KNOWN classes of fullerenes.
* [KEY INFERENCE] That means that we don't know the 'distinctive conditions of temp and pressure' required to form the NEW kinds of fullerenes.
* Therefore, because of this ignorance, they don't constitute a test case for anything geological.

Hope that helps.
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Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2018, 17:29
D.

Premise 1: fullerenes were first found in the laboratory

Premise 2: fullerenes have since been found in nature

Conclusion: It´s possible to evaluate the state of the Earth's crust at the time fullereness were naturally formed using laboratory findings.


(A) Confirming that the shungite genuinely contained fullerenes took careful experimentation.
Knowing that lab experimentation were carefully done does not affect the conclusion.
(B) Some fullerenes have also been found on the remains of a small meteorite that collided with a spacecraft.
Even though there are some fullerenes coming from small meteorite, this fact does not weak the possibility concluded by the argument that states that it is possible evaluate the state of Earth´s crust at the time fullerenes were formed.
(C) The mineral shungite itself contains large amounts of carbon, from which the fullerenes apparently formed.
Since fullereness is made entirely of carbon, and it has since been found in the rare mineral shungite, it is reasonable to think that shungite favors the fullerenes presence, a fact that does noe undermine the conclusion of the argument.
(D) The naturally occurring fullerenes are arranged in a previously unknown crystalline structure.
It brings a us a new fact (naturally formed fullerenes are formed by an unkown crystalline, in other words we cannot transpose the findings from laboratory to natural formation).
(E) Shungite itself is formed only under distinctive conditions.
We already know that. This information does not undermine the conclusion.
Although fullerenes-spherical molecules made entirely of carbon-were f &nbs [#permalink] 10 Jan 2018, 17:29
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