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Concept: Although, a dependent clause(DC) marker, has to start a DC ?!

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Concept: Although, a dependent clause(DC) marker, has to start a DC ?! [#permalink]

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Which of the following sentences are correct?

1. Although eradicated in the United States, polio continues elsewhere and could be brought into the country by visitors.

2. Although Polio is eradicated in the United States, it continues elsewhere and could be brought into the country by visitors.

A lot of people will say that sentence 2 is correct since 'although' is a dependent clause or subordinating clause marker so it has to start a dependent clause i.e. it should have a subject and verb.

However both the sentences are correct. In fact, both of these sentences are essentially same.

Sentence 1) is a reduced form of sentence 2).

Reduction of adverb clauses.

An adverb clause/dependent clause/subordinate clause can be shortened/reduced to an adverb phrase. This is primarily done for concision. An adverb clause can be reduced to an adverbial phrase only when the adverb clause (subordinate clause) and the main clause have the same subject.

Following are the three rules to follow:

1. Adverb clauses may be reduced only if the subject of both the dependent clause(the adverb clause) and independent clause are the same.
2. If the main verb of the adverb clause is the 'be' verb,omit the subject and the 'be' verb.
3. If the main verb of the adverb clause is not the 'be' verb, then omit the subject and change the verb to gerund form.


In general, the adverb clauses of time, cause and contrast can be reduced. I will mainly discuss the reduction of the adverb clauses of opposition.

Adverb clauses of opposition.

Clause markers: Even though, though, although (also while and whereas)

'though', 'even though' or 'although' present a situation which is contrary to the main clause to express opposition.

Lets consider the sentence we discussed above:

Although Polio is eradicated in the United States, it(Polio) continues elsewhere and could be brought into the country by visitors.

Here since the subject Polio is common to both subordinate clause and the main clause and the subordinate clause is clause of opposition, we can reduce this clause. (Rule #1 Satisfied)

To reduce, apply rule#2 i.e. remove the subject(Polio) and the verb is(form of verb 'be')

Reduced/Shortened sentence:

Although eradicated in the United States, Polio continues elsewhere and could be brought into the country by visitors.

Lets take another sentence:

Although he got away with murder, he is now the most hated person in America.

Since the subject of the subordinate clause(Although he got away with murder) and the main clause(he is now the most hated person in America) is same, we can reduce this sentence.

To reduce, apply rule #3 i.e. remove the subject and change the verb 'got' to gerund form 'getting'

Although getting away with murder, he is now the most hated person in America.


Here is a Gmatprep question, which has the reduced form of the sentence that we discussed in this article.

Polio, although it is eradicated in the United States, it continues elsewhere and is able to be brought into the country by visitors.

(A) Polio, although it is eradicated in the United States, it continues elsewhere and is able to be
(B) Polio, although eradicated in the United States, it still continues elsewhere and can be
(C) Although still continuing elsewhere, polio has been eradicated in the United States and could be
(D) Although having been eradicated in the United States, polio still continues elsewhere and is capable of being
(E) Although eradicated in the United States, polio continues elsewhere and could be
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Concept: Although, a dependent clause(DC) marker, has to start a DC ?! [#permalink]

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New post 11 Nov 2015, 02:08
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A) Polio, although it is eradicated in the United States, it continues elsewhere and is able to be
(B) Polio, although eradicated in the United States, it still continues elsewhere and can be
(C) Although still continuing elsewhere, polio has been eradicated in the United States and could be
(D) Although having been eradicated in the United States, polio still continues elsewhere and is capable of being
(E) Although eradicated in the United States, polio continues elsewhere and could be

Limiting just to the point whether ‘although’, a subordinate conjunction has to be necessarily be followed by a subject and verb or it could be reduced to a modifier:

I feel that it is largely dependent upon the position of where the ‘although’ is used.

1. If it is placed in the beginning of the sentence, then ‘although’ can be followed by either a clause or a modifier.

Example C, D and E belong to this category; All the three of them are correct as far as the use of ‘although’ is concerned

2. If 'although' is placed in the middle of a sentence, then it can only be a modifier and never a clause
Example A and B belong to this category. While A is wrong, B is ok as far as the use of ‘although’ is concerned.

3. If the ‘although’ is placed in the end portion, then it can only be a clause and never a modifier.

Ex: (imaginary); polio continues elsewhere and could be brought into the country by visitors, although it was eradicated in the United States

So we must look for other errors in the choices.

I think it is best to follow the leader RON's observations on this theme in his cited article:

https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... 31750.html
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Re: Concept: Although, a dependent clause(DC) marker, has to start a DC ?! [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2015, 07:19
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daagh

Thanks for your insight on this. Few days ago I also read the link including Ron's view on this. Surprisingly when I was researching on this concept, I did not find this information in any of the dozen or so articles I read, but I have not really find an example yet which disputes Ron't view.
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Re: Concept: Although, a dependent clause(DC) marker, has to start a DC ?! [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2017, 12:59
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Re: Concept: Although, a dependent clause(DC) marker, has to start a DC ?!   [#permalink] 16 Nov 2017, 12:59
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