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Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed

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Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Aug 2015, 14:53
3
5
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

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  85% (hard)

Question Stats:

53% (02:11) correct 47% (02:15) wrong based on 352 sessions

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Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed during battle in the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1287 AD) were buried on their backs with both their hands and their feet clasped. During archaeological excavations of a crusader burial ground three miles from the ancient city of Jerusalem, a skeleton of a woman was found buried on her back with both her hands and feet clasped. The archaeologist conducting the excavation hypothesized that this skeleton belonged to a female crusader killed in battle.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologist's hypothesis?

A) No written material depicting crusader-period battles mentions female crusaders fighting alongside the men.
B) A coin found near the fingers of the skeleton portrays a relief of king Baldwin II of Jerusalem who died in 1131.
C) When the female skeleton was examined more closely in a lab, an arrowhead was found within the rib cage.
D) New research in physical sociology shows that women in peripheral parts of the mediaeval christian world sometimes fought alongside men as early as the fourteenth century.
E) Numismatic and metallurgical research of metal artifacts found throughout the burial ground shows a strong indication of thirteenth century activity and signs of armed conflict nearby.

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Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2015, 00:03
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Harley1980 wrote:
Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed during battle in the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1287 AD) were buried on their backs with both their hands and their feet clasped. During archaeological excavations of a crusader burial ground three miles from the ancient city of Jerusalem, a skeleton of a woman was found buried on her back with both her hands and feet clasped. The archaeologist conducting the excavation hypothesized that this skeleton belonged to a female crusader killed in battle.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologist's hypothesis?

A) No written material depicting crusader-period battles mentions female crusaders fighting alongside the men.
B) A coin found near the fingers of the skeleton portrays a relief of king Baldwin II of Jerusalem who died in 1131.
C) When the female skeleton was examined more closely in a lab, an arrowhead was found within the rib cage.
D) New research in physical sociology shows that women in peripheral parts of the mediaeval christian world sometimes fought alongside men as early as the fourteenth century.
E) Numismatic and metallurgical research of metal artifacts found throughout the burial ground shows a strong indication of thirteenth century activity and signs of armed conflict nearby.


none of the answers satisfy. finding an arrowhead within the rib cage doesn't necessarily make one a crusader just like sitting in a lamborgini doesn't make a person owner of that car (he could well be a chaffeur). it could be that she was just a normal civilian who got killed in the battle. i marked E as it made some sense to me.
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Re: Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2015, 00:07
I also shortlisted C and D but when I saw option D carefully, I found it is talking about 14th Century whereas passage discuss about 11-13 century.

C is although not that perfect answer but better than D.
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Re: Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2015, 04:12
Mr. Harley,

If the argument concludes that The archaeologist conducting the excavation hypothesized that this skeleton belonged to a female crusader killed in same battle, it would make sense that choice C can definitely support the hypothesis.

The argument is divided into two parts:

1. Time period of battle, location & male warrior who fought and their body was buried in certain pattern.
2. Skeleton of female during excavation and their body buried in same way
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Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2015, 04:28
2
grr8pe wrote:
Harley1980 wrote:
Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed during battle in the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1287 AD) were buried on their backs with both their hands and their feet clasped. During archaeological excavations of a crusader burial ground three miles from the ancient city of Jerusalem, a skeleton of a woman was found buried on her back with both her hands and feet clasped. The archaeologist conducting the excavation hypothesized that this skeleton belonged to a female crusader killed in battle.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologist's hypothesis?

A) No written material depicting crusader-period battles mentions female crusaders fighting alongside the men.
B) A coin found near the fingers of the skeleton portrays a relief of king Baldwin II of Jerusalem who died in 1131.
C) When the female skeleton was examined more closely in a lab, an arrowhead was found within the rib cage.
D) New research in physical sociology shows that women in peripheral parts of the mediaeval christian world sometimes fought alongside men as early as the fourteenth century.
E) Numismatic and metallurgical research of metal artifacts found throughout the burial ground shows a strong indication of thirteenth century activity and signs of armed conflict nearby.


none of the answers satisfy. finding an arrowhead within the rib cage doesn't necessarily make one a crusader just like sitting in a lamborgini doesn't make a person owner of that car (he could well be a chaffeur). it could be that she was just a normal civilian who got killed in the battle. i marked E as it made some sense to me.



Hello grr8pe

Your logic is correct for inference question. In such type of question answer should clearly correspond to the argument.
Strengthen and weakener types should not completely make conclusion 100% right or destroy it.

And second nuance as Ron from ManhattanPrep says: " It's a beauty contest. You don't have to judge each 'contestant' individually -- you just have to pick the winner."

Answer D talks about later period and cut out earlier period so it is bad for our conclusion.
Answer E says that this woman was near the battle, but she could be killed in the village as civilian resident
Answer C says that she was killed as a warrior because killing civilians from bow is quite unusual.

If somebody does not agree, please write it and I will post OE.
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Re: Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2015, 06:25
Harley1980 wrote:
grr8pe wrote:
Harley1980 wrote:
Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed during battle in the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1287 AD) were buried on their backs with both their hands and their feet clasped. During archaeological excavations of a crusader burial ground three miles from the ancient city of Jerusalem, a skeleton of a woman was found buried on her back with both her hands and feet clasped. The archaeologist conducting the excavation hypothesized that this skeleton belonged to a female crusader killed in battle.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologist's hypothesis?

A) No written material depicting crusader-period battles mentions female crusaders fighting alongside the men.
B) A coin found near the fingers of the skeleton portrays a relief of king Baldwin II of Jerusalem who died in 1131.
C) When the female skeleton was examined more closely in a lab, an arrowhead was found within the rib cage.
D) New research in physical sociology shows that women in peripheral parts of the mediaeval christian world sometimes fought alongside men as early as the fourteenth century.
E) Numismatic and metallurgical research of metal artifacts found throughout the burial ground shows a strong indication of thirteenth century activity and signs of armed conflict nearby.


none of the answers satisfy. finding an arrowhead within the rib cage doesn't necessarily make one a crusader just like sitting in a lamborgini doesn't make a person owner of that car (he could well be a chaffeur). it could be that she was just a normal civilian who got killed in the battle. i marked E as it made some sense to me.



Hello grr8pe

Your logic is correct for inference question. In such type of question answer should clearly correspond to the argument.
Strengthen and weakener types should not completely make conclusion 100% right or destroy it.

And second nuance as Ron from ManhattanPrep says: " It's a beauty contest. You don't have to judge each 'contestant' individually -- you just have to pick the winner."

Answer D talks about later period and cut out earlier period so it is bad for our conclusion.
Answer E says that this woman was near the battle, but she could be killed in the village as civilian resident
Answer C says that she was killed as a warrior because killing civilians from bow is quite unusual.

If somebody does not agree, please write it and I will post OE.


hi Harley1980, E made some sense because if you look closely at the option it talks about the material & proper battle ground so to speak and common sense suggests that no civilian is allowed to stay at a place i.e. the nearby place is evacuated before a major battle has broken out hence the same argument or the extension of it is hard to work here. anyways, i can't change the answer but on any given day would again go for E. However, at the same time , i agree your 100% strengthener or weakner thing. poor options from economist gmat to say the least.
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Re: Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2015, 07:44
grr8pe wrote:

hi Harley1980, E made some sense because if you look closely at the option it talks about the material & proper battle ground so to speak and common sense suggests that no civilian is allowed to stay at a place i.e. the nearby place is evacuated before a major battle has broken out hence the same argument or the extension of it is hard to work here. anyways, i can't change the answer but on any given day would again go for E. However, at the same time , i agree your 100% strengthener or weakner thing. poor options from economist gmat to say the least.


I see your point and can only provide OE ;)

OE from Economist

To solve this Conclusion Strengthening question, first break down the argument. The first two sentences are premises which provide factual data. The last sentence contains the archaeologist's conclusion, marked by the conclusion word hypothesized:

Premise A: male crusaders that died in battle were buried in a certain way +
Premise B: a female skeleton was found buried in the same way in a crusader burial ground =
Archaeologist's hypothesis: the skeleton belonged to a female crusader who died in battle
Strengthening Data: ?
You are required to find data that supports the hypothesis that the skeleton belonged to a female fighter.

A) No written material depicting crusader-period battles mentions female crusaders fighting alongside the men.
Incorrect. The fact that there is a lack of material describing female crusaders fighting in battle weakens the conclusion that the skeleton in question belonged to a female crusader. However, we should be trying to strengthen this conclusion.
B) A coin found near the fingers of the skeleton portrays a relief of king Baldwin II of Jerusalem who died in 1131.
Incorrect. This answer choice neither weakens nor strengthens the hypothesis. As we already know that the skeleton was buried in a crusader-period cemetery, the coin itself doesn't give us any evidence supporting the conclusion that the woman it belonged to was killed in battle.
C) When the female skeleton was examined more closely in a lab, an arrowhead was found within the rib cage.
Correct. This answer choice strengthens the hypothesis, since there is a good chance that the arrowhead once belonged to an arrow. Therefore, this statement supports the archaeologist's conclusion that the skeleton belonged to a woman crusader killed in battle.
D) New research in physical sociology shows that women in peripheral parts of the mediaeval christian world sometimes fought alongside men as early as the fourteenth century.
Incorrect. While this answer choice could have strengthened the conclusion, it applies to the 14th century or later, whereas the cemetery was used by a kingdom which never made it past the 13th century (we are told that the Kingdom of Jerusalem ended in 1287). Therefore, this answer choice provides information that is irrelevant to the argument.
E) Numismatic and metallurgical research of metal artifacts found throughout the burial ground shows a strong indication of thirteenth century activity and signs of armed conflict nearby.
Incorrect. This answer choice neither weakens nor strengthens the hypothesis. There is no need to know what numismatic or metallurgical means to eliminate this one since it gives us no new evidence supporting the conclusion. We already know this is a crusader burial ground and that crusader men were killed in battle. We are interested in a specific female skeleton.
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Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2015, 08:14
Between c and E i went for E.
and was about to type a very long explanation why i went for E.
But this was based on my misreading the question in a hurry to answer it under a minute.<banging head>.
upon re-reading C seems like the best of the options.
E only mentions there was a battle nearby but doesn't really reaffirm she was killed in a battle.
The passage mentions that crusaders killed in a battle were buried in a certain way . It also mentions that she was buried the same way and the fact that an arrowhead was found in her rib cage confirms she was indeed in the battle along with the other dead crusaders.
And Kudos to you Harley1980 you keep posting good questions.
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Re: Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2015, 16:20
Harley1980 wrote:
Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed during battle in the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1287 AD) were buried on their backs with both their hands and their feet clasped. During archaeological excavations of a crusader burial ground three miles from the ancient city of Jerusalem, a skeleton of a woman was found buried on her back with both her hands and feet clasped. The archaeologist conducting the excavation hypothesized that this skeleton belonged to a female crusader killed in battle.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologist's hypothesis?

A) No written material depicting crusader-period battles mentions female crusaders fighting alongside the men.
B) A coin found near the fingers of the skeleton portrays a relief of king Baldwin II of Jerusalem who died in 1131.
C) When the female skeleton was examined more closely in a lab, an arrowhead was found within the rib cage.
D) New research in physical sociology shows that women in peripheral parts of the mediaeval christian world sometimes fought alongside men as early as the fourteenth century.
E) Numismatic and metallurgical research of metal artifacts found throughout the burial ground shows a strong indication of thirteenth century activity and signs of armed conflict nearby.


I feel that both C and E are susceptible to the same flaw.
For C, one can argue that she might be a civilian shot dead from a bow (she's not necessarily a crusader). What if the arrowhead got to her by other means, i.e. not during conflict
For E, one can argue that a sign of armed conflict does not indicate that she is a crusader, she could be a civilian too. But because of the mention of armed conflict, I feel that E is a better choice than C.
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Re: Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2015, 16:23
Harley1980 wrote:
Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed during battle in the Christian Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099-1287 AD) were buried on their backs with both their hands and their feet clasped. During archaeological excavations of a crusader burial ground three miles from the ancient city of Jerusalem, a skeleton of a woman was found buried on her back with both her hands and feet clasped. The archaeologist conducting the excavation hypothesized that this skeleton belonged to a female crusader killed in battle.

Which of the following, if true, most strongly supports the archaeologist's hypothesis?

A) No written material depicting crusader-period battles mentions female crusaders fighting alongside the men.
B) A coin found near the fingers of the skeleton portrays a relief of king Baldwin II of Jerusalem who died in 1131.
C) When the female skeleton was examined more closely in a lab, an arrowhead was found within the rib cage.
D) New research in physical sociology shows that women in peripheral parts of the mediaeval christian world sometimes fought alongside men as early as the fourteenth century.
E) Numismatic and metallurgical research of metal artifacts found throughout the burial ground shows a strong indication of thirteenth century activity and signs of armed conflict nearby.


I feel that both C and E are susceptible to the same flaw.
For C, one can argue that she might be a civilian shot dead from a bow (she's not necessarily a crusader). What if the arrowhead got to her by other means, i.e. not during conflict
For E, one can argue that a sign of armed conflict does not indicate that she is a crusader, she could be a civilian too. But because of the mention of armed conflict, I feel that E is a better choice than C.
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Re: Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed  [#permalink]

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Re: Extensive archaeological research has shown that male crusaders killed &nbs [#permalink] 24 Sep 2018, 08:22
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