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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has

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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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1.For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.



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Please note that this question is from 2004 and is a slightly different version of the question included in the EP1.
The updated question can be found here: https://gmatclub.com/forum/for-many-rev ... 60640.html

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[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by bb on 19 Mar 2017, 22:30, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2004, 08:14
This tough. A and E are the contenders according to me. Not very clear to what "that" refers to. I will simply go with the rule that "that" modifies what ever is closer to it. In this case A would be correct.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2004, 08:25
A is the best.


E has a subject-verb agreement problem.
"the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have .."

Progress here in singular and should have the singular verb "has" as shown in A.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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ndidi204 wrote:
A is the best.


E has a subject-verb agreement problem.
"the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have .."

Progress here in singular and should have the singular verb "has" as shown in A.


Can you explain how "progress" can possibly decimate? May be devastation and enslavement "have" decimated?
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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marine wrote:
1.For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify <<devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.>>

A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.


Marine, can you tell us the source of this SC?

IMO, the best answer is E.

1. Devastation and enslavement is a compound subject...and needs "have" to agree with it.
2. Also, E resolves the issue of what "that" refers to with the plural verb have.

Sincerely
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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Well this sentence is as ambiguous as it can get.
From the meaning point of view E looks the best as progress cannot be desimated ( it sounds awkward )
The sentence would be very clear if it had following construction

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify in the name of progress the devastation and the enslavement that have decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

or

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify in the name of progress the devastation and the enslavement that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

It is hard to say whether "devastation and enslavement " is singular or
plural. It depends on how it is used. Both are acceptable. For this reason I stick to A.

Let us hear the OA.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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kpadma wrote:
Another vote for A


E is out because the devastation and enslavement is singular.
"The X and Y" is singular, whereas "the X and the Y" is plural.

For example,
The CEO and chairman is in the office today.
Means: one person holding both the positions. Thus, this sentence warrents singular verb.

On the other hand,
The CEO and the chairman are in the office today.
Means: there are two people in the office. Therefore, this sentence
warrents plural verb.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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kpadma wrote:
kpadma wrote:
Another vote for A


E is out because the devastation and enslavement is singular.
"The X and Y" is singular, whereas "the X and the Y" is plural.
For example,
The CEO and chairman is in the office today.
Means: one person holding both the positions. Thus, this sentence warrents singular verb.

On the other hand,
The CEO and the chairman are in the office today.
Means: there are two people in the office. Therefore, this sentence
warrents plural verb.


CEO and Chairman :) Interesting title.

I have questions.

1. Is Devastation and Enslavement .. the same?
2. In A, what does that refer to? Progress? or Anything else?

Regards
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2004, 14:13
Well more I look into it more things come out.

Christopher Columbus has come to personify + object

I believe the corrected construction that I mentioned could be wrong because the above pice of the stem is a clause and nothing should be present in between the verb and the direct object.

The object I am talking about is basically a noun/collective noun/compound noun. In any case it should be refered to as a single entity ( singular )

I am not sure what "that" refers to here.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2004, 14:32
Praetorian wrote:

CEO and Chairman :) Interesting title.

I have questions.

1. Is Devastation and Enslavement .. the same?
2. In A, what does that refer to? Progress? or Anything else?

Regards
Praet



Good Rubuttal! This is the only way by which we are going to learn!!

Is bread and butter the same?
But, we say "Bread and butter is my breakfast"?

I go with a simple rule as to what that refers to.
The nearest noun. But, I see your point. I've been looking
for material that clarifies this confusion. So far, none.

Anyway, let us wait for the official answer.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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ndidi204 wrote:
A is the best.


E has a subject-verb agreement problem.
"the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have .."

Progress here in singular and should have the singular verb "has" as shown in A.


NO. The "progress" did not do the decimating, the "devastion and enslavement" did.

Here is my 2-cents for whatever it is worth.

A. Wrong specifically because of subject-verb agreement. Also, I don't like the omission of the article "the" when refering to the "devastation..". IMO, Columbus personifies a particular period of incidents of devastation, not devastation and enslavement in general.

B. Wrong because it implies that the native people did the devastating.

C. Wordy and awkward. Also, IMO, the use of the gerund connotes that the devastation is ongoing or recent.

D. Same reason as C.

E. IMO, this is the best choice. First, it has good s-v agreement. (the Bread and butter argument is not relevant because item that are considered to be one entity are treated as singular ("bread and butter IS preferable to bacon and eggs for some dieters, though the latter IS surely more popular", "ham and eggs WAS his choice for breakfast", "black and white IS the favorite color scheme of Soho yuppies". This does NOT apply to "devastation and enslavement", e.g., "the devastion and enslavement were widespread" BTW, while "bread and butter is my breakfast" sounds awkward, "bread and butter are my breakfast" sounds worse. Of course, please take this with a grain of salt as my bread and butter IS not SC. 8-)

Finally, since Columbus personifies a particular devastion and enslavement, I think the use of the definite article "the" is appropriate if not mandatory here.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2004, 03:09
"that" here refers to "devastation and enslavement", because "progress" can not decimate(to reduce drastically especially in number) people (Doesn't make any sense).

So (E) is the best choice with proper subject verb agreement.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.


A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

MODERATORS: Please note that since the question was originally posted in 2004, no correct answer has been provided yet. This post is just to ensure that I, in addition to all other members of the club, get the correct answer.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2012, 08:24
Marcab wrote:
For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.


A. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere
B. devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated
C. devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
D. devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated.
E. the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

MODERATORS: Please note that since the question was originally posted in 2004, no correct answer has been provided yet. This post is just to ensure that I, in addition to all other members of the club, get the correct answer.


Excellent question.

The choice is between A and E. Here I take the compound to be devastation and enslavement in the name of progress ie just one noun which says that both devastation and enslavement were in the name of progress. This false progress has decimated native peoples.

I'd go with A

A - seems the best (not perfect perhaps) though the sentence could use some punctuation.
B - wrong active voice - native peoples...decimated
C - unwieldy and superfluous repetition of name of progress + uses present are decimated as if this is a general incontestable fact which repeats
D - which can only refer back to Western Hemisphere not to people (who can refer can back to people) + again are decimated as above in C
E - Very interesting choice. Here devastation is distinct from enslavement in the name of progress. In my opinion, were there a comma between progress and that have decimated, this option would have been correct as the two distinct nouns, devastation and enslavement in the name of progress, would have been linked with the plural tense have decimated. Also wonder what that first article the is doing at the beginning. If the two nouns really are distinct then we will need two articles here - the devastation and the enslavement in the name of progress.

Though I could be wrong here. Looking forward to the other replies.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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Hi,

For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has come to personify devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Image

It is very important to understand the intended meaning of the sentence here to get to the correct answer. The sentence says that for many historians, Columbus personifies devastation and enslavement in the name of progress because devastation and enslavement have destroyed native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.

Image

Per the meaning, we know that “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” have led to destruction of native peoples. However, “that” in this sentence refers to the immediate preceding noun “progress” because it is followed by singular verb. This modification now says that “progress” has destroyed native peoples. This certainly is not the logical meaning. Hence, we need plural verb “have” that will agree in number with “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress” and thus will convey the logical intended meaning.

POE:

A) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that has decimated native peoples of the Western Hemisphere: Incorrect for the reason stated above.

B) devastation and enslavement in the name of progress by which native peoples of the Western Hemisphere decimated: Incorrect.
1. This option now says that native peoples used devastation and enslavement to destroy. This is certainly not the intended meaning.
2. Also this choice is awkwardly written.

C) devastating and enslaving in the name of progress those native peoples of the Western Hemisphere that have been decimated: Incorrect.
1. Use of “devastating” and “enslaving” is not appropriate. When a sentence requires the usage of a noun form, then we must use the real noun form of that word and not the verb-ing gerund form. Here “devastation and enslavement” are any day better than “devastating and enslaving”.
2. Since “that” is referring to people, it should be “who”.

D) devastating and enslaving those native peoples of the western Hemisphere which in the name of progress are decimated: Incorrect.
1. Same noun expression error as in choice C.
2. “which” cannot refer to “people”.
3. The choice says that native peoples of the Western Hemisphere are still decimated. This is not the intended meaning. This choice has verb-tense error.

E) the devastation and enslavement in the name of progress that have decimated the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere: Correct. Singular “has” has been converted to plural “have” to rectify the error of the original sentence. Also notice that “the” is understood before “enslavement”. We have ellipsis at paly here.

PS: Choice C has been wrongly worded in the original post.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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Harkabir....to what do you think "that" refers to? Is it the "name of progress" or the "devastation and enslavement"?
What I feel is that in E, "the devastation and enslavement" is singular because of the use of "the" and hence incompatible with "have".
Moreover, going in terms of meaning, in A, how can a progress decimate people?
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2012, 09:01
But Shraddha, don't you feel that "the devastation and enslavement" is singular?
Example- Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker.:P
This sentence is absolutely correct and doesn't requires a plural verb.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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Hi @Marcab

Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker.

In this sentence Mahendra Singh Dhoni is the subject. Hence we have singular verb “is” here. This verb has nothing to do with the modifiers that have been added in the sentence.

In the SC problem you have posted, “that” is the subject that refers to two individual entities – devastation and enslavement in the name of progress. These entities in general are not used as one subject. They are two different entities. Generally, those two entities are treated as singular that are generally used together. For example:

Bread and butter is my favorite breakfast.
Bat and ball is needed to play cricket.

In both the sentences above, “bread and butter” and “bat and ball” cannot be used independently for breakfast and cricket respectively. Hence these items make a pair. However, this is not the case with “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress”. That is why they are two separate entitiues and need plural verb.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2012, 09:28
Marcab wrote:
But Shraddha, don't you feel that "the devastation and enslavement" is singular?
Example- Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker.:P
This sentence is absolutely correct and doesn't requires a plural verb.




Hi Marcab,

I think it would be correct to assume that "devastation and enslavement" as a compounded subject is a playing a role of a plural subject

For example,

BMW has come to personify style and performance in the name of being the best car that have changed perception of the people buying it.

In this case here that would refer back to style and performance which is the compound subject , have would act as verb and perception of the people buying it. as the object of the sentence.

In your example

Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker

since Mahendra Singh Dhoni is a singular subject and hence does not warrants the use of plural verb.

the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team is acting as a modifier modifying Dhoni :)

P.S: Not to offend, Dhoni is a class ;)

Pls let me know if i'm missing a pt here .

Thanks
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2012, 09:42
egmat wrote:
Hi @Marcab

Mahendra Singh Dhoni, the captain and wicketkeeper of the Indian cricket team, is a joker.

In this sentence Mahendra Singh Dhoni is the subject. Hence we have singular verb “is” here. This verb has nothing to do with the modifiers that have been added in the sentence.

In the SC problem you have posted, “that” is the subject that refers to two individual entities – devastation and enslavement in the name of progress. These entities in general are not used as one subject. They are two different entities. Generally, those two entities are treated as singular that are generally used together. For example:

Bread and butter is my favorite breakfast.
Bat and ball is needed to play cricket.

In both the sentences above, “bread and butter” and “bat and ball” cannot be used independently for breakfast and cricket respectively. Hence these items make a pair. However, this is not the case with “devastation and enslavement in the name of progress”. That is why they are two separate entitiues and need plural verb.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha


Thanks for the reply shraddha.
So the "the" has no significance? Would it have been the same effect, if it were without "the"?
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Re: For many revisionist historians, Christopher Columbus has   [#permalink] 22 Oct 2012, 09:42

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