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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee

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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee [#permalink]

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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by feeding on animals with Lyme disease, but the ease of transmission from host animal to tick varies. With most species of host animal, transmission of Lyme disease to ticks is extremely rare, but white-footed mice are an exception, readily passing Lyme disease to ticks. And white-footed mouse populations greatly expand, becoming the main food source for ticks, in areas where biodiversity is in decline.

The information in the passage most strongly supports which of the following?

(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.

(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.

(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.

(D) Ticks feed on white-looted mice only when other host species are not available to them.

(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 12 Aug 2017, 00:38, edited 2 times in total.
Formatted the question.

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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee [#permalink]

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(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease. the proportion oi ticks infected with Lyme
disease is especially high. Not necessarily! The proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease can be less too! Let say one and only one tick was responsible for spreading the disease.......

(Bl Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.The passage says, with most other species of host animals, that transmission of disease to ticks is extremely rare. Extremely rare is not same as Absent. It might, very well, be possible that a significant number of ticks fed on a species besides white-footed mice and, as a result, ended up with the disease

(C)Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity IS high. Sounds good! As biodiversity is high, the probability of ticks getting infected from white footed mice is lower than it otherwise would have been. Thus, probability of humans getting infected from these ticks is lower in same proportion.

(D) Ticks feed on white-looted mice only when other host species are not available to them. Again need not necessarily be true! There might be a chance when ticks can feed despite the presence of white-footed mice

(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme
disease to ticks. This, in fact, weakens the argument.

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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee [#permalink]

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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by feeding on animals with Lyme disease, but the ease of transmission from host animal to tick varies. With most species of host animal, transmission of Lyme disease to ticks is extremely rare, but white-footed mice are an exception, readily passing Lyme disease to ticks. And white-footed mouse populations greatly expand, becoming the main food source for ticks, in areas where biodiversity is in decline.
The information in the passage most strongly supports which of the following?
(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.
(D) Ticks feed on white-footed mice only when other host species are not available to them.
(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.


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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee [#permalink]

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[Reveal] Spoiler:
Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by feeding on animals with Lyme disease, but the ease of transmission from host animal to tick varies. With most species of host animal, transmission of Lyme disease to ticks is extremely rare, but white-footed mice are an exception, readily passing Lyme disease to ticks. And white-footed mouse populations greatly expand, becoming the main food source for ticks, in areas where biodiversity is in decline.
The information in the passage most strongly supports which of the following?
(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.
(D) Ticks feed on white-footed mice only when other host species are not available to them.
(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.


Stem: the passage most strongly supports

(A) Assumption which is not strongly supported. Doesn't really matter whether the proportion of infected ticks is low or high.
(B) Talks about the amount of infected animals in a given area. The passage talks about infected humans and transmission of the disease.
(C) Supported by the text
(D) Feeding patterns of ticks. Not strongly emphasized on by the passage.
(E) Higher biodiversity = easier transmission of disease to ticks. This isn't supported at all, in fact, the opposite is presented in the passage.

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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee [#permalink]

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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by feeding on animals with Lyme disease, but the ease of transmission from host animal to tick varies. With most species of host animal, transmission of Lyme disease to ticks is extremely rare, but white-footed mice are an exception, readily passing Lyme disease to ticks. And white-footed mouse populations greatly expand, becoming the main food source for ticks, in areas where biodiversity is in decline.

The information in the passage most strongly supports which of the following?

(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.
(D) Ticks feed on white-footed mice only when other host species are not available to them.
(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.


Type: Inference (the information in the passage supports the answer)
Boil It Down: Mouse to tick easy, thrives when mouse populations expand
Goal: Find the option that HAS TO BE TRUE.
Analysis: This is a classic Inference question, so we need to take the facts given in the prompt and find the option that has to be true.

We can’t infer that in areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease that the proportion of ticks infected with the disease is especially high. If there happened to be significantly more ticks in areas where humans are infected with Lyme disease, then perhaps a small percentage ticks actually carry the disease. There’s no way to conclude whether the proportion of ticks infected with the disease is higher than normal, normal, or below normal. It could actually be any of the three, from the basis of the information in the passage.

Read what this option is saying carefully. Just because there are no white-footed mice in a given area, can we conclude that very few animals that live in that area are infected with Lyme disease? This prompt just tells us that the transmission of Lyme disease to ticks by way of the white-footed mouse is essentially AN exception, but that doesn’t mean that it’s the only exception. There could be other exceptions. We have another clue that the transmission of Lyme disease to tick is not the ONLY way to transmit the disease to ticks. The prompt says: with MOST host species the transmission process is extremely rare. What does the word “most” mean? Over 50%. That literal interpretation could open up a vast array of ways for animals to get infected other than by means of the white-footed mouse. All in, there is no way for B to be inferred. There is no way to know for sure that Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.

Yes. Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high [than in areas where biodiversity is low]. Yes this has to be 100% true. Another way to look at this is we know that the risk of contracting Lyme disease is higher in areas where biodiversity is low, so then going back down the scale, the risk would be lower in areas where biodiversity is high.

We have absolutely no idea about the feeding preferences of ticks. Maybe ticks like plenty of other host species. Gone.

A 180 option. Generally, the greater the biodiversity, the lower the risk.
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Answered correctly. :) :) :) :) :)

(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.- Supports the premise in the text. In the text, it says that especially white-footed mice transmit the disease promptly to the ticks. And white-footed mice populations increase causes decline in biodiversity. If biodiversity is high, white-footed mice would not increase in population. This would reduce the potential risk of infection.

(D) Ticks feed on white-footed mice only when other host species are not available to them.
(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.

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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by feeding on animals with Lyme disease, but the ease of transmission from host animal to tick varies. With most species of host animal, transmission of Lyme disease to ticks is extremely rare, but white-footed mice are an exception, readily passing Lyme disease to ticks. And white-footed mouse populations greatly expand, becoming the main food source for ticks, in areas where biodiversity is in decline.
The information in the passage most strongly supports which of the following?
(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.
(D) Ticks feed on white-footed mice only when other host species are not available to them.
(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.

IMO C.

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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2016, 16:13
Answer is (C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.
If this is negated then it contradicts the argument.

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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2017, 21:28
Hi Experts GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

Can you please help to understand last line of the argument. Although I got to OA with a pinch of guess, I want to validate my understanding.

Argument:
(I)T ___ (LD) ____> Humans
T____(LD)____> feeding on animals

How easily the LD gets transmitted varies on animals on which ticks feed.
Typically the transmission is easier if host animal is WF mice.

Now I got stuck in last sentence seeing the word- bio-diversity.

Is my understanding correct:
bio-diversity means large variations of species living in a particular area. As per argument, if the bio-diversity is less then WF mice will grow more and also since the main source of tick is WF mice it is more likely that more humans will be affected. Exactly this is what I can infer from option (C)

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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee [#permalink]

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adkikani wrote:
Hi Experts GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

Can you please help to understand last line of the argument. Although I got to OA with a pinch of guess, I want to validate my understanding.

Argument:
(I)T ___ (LD) ____> Humans
T____(LD)____> feeding on animals

How easily the LD gets transmitted varies on animals on which ticks feed.
Typically the transmission is easier if host animal is WF mice.

Now I got stuck in last sentence seeing the word- bio-diversity.

Is my understanding correct:
bio-diversity means large variations of species living in a particular area. As per argument, if the bio-diversity is less then WF mice will grow more and also since the main source of tick is WF mice it is more likely that more humans will be affected. Exactly this is what I can infer from option (C)


Yes, you are right. Note that the main source of infected ticks is WF mice. With more infected ticks, the probability of humans getting lyme disease increases. Hence (C) works.

Premises:
Humans get LD from infected ticks.
Ticks get LD from infected animals, mainly from mice.
Mice population increases when bio-diversity is low.

We are looking for an inference.

(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
What factors decide how likely are humans to get LD, we don't know. Of course, if there are more infected ticks, humans will be more likely to get LD. But in areas where many humans are infected, there could be other causes too such as warm and humid climate or culture of hunting in forests etc.

(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
We don't know how many animals have LD. We just know that mice pass it on to ticks easily.

(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.
If biodiversity is high, mice population will not be very high and hence probability of infected ticks would be lower. This would mean that probability of humans getting infected will be lower.
Correct.

(D) Ticks feed on white-looted mice only when other host species are not available to them.
This is not true. We don't know about the feeding habits of ticks. We just know that it is easy to pass LD from mice to ticks.

(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.
No. This is not true. The greater the bio-diversity, lower will be the chances of any given host animal to pass LD to ticks.

Answer (C)
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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2017, 19:23
EMPOWERgmatMax wrote:
Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by feeding on animals with Lyme disease, but the ease of transmission from host animal to tick varies. With most species of host animal, transmission of Lyme disease to ticks is extremely rare, but white-footed mice are an exception, readily passing Lyme disease to ticks. And white-footed mouse populations greatly expand, becoming the main food source for ticks, in areas where biodiversity is in decline.

The information in the passage most strongly supports which of the following?

(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.
(D) Ticks feed on white-footed mice only when other host species are not available to them.
(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.


Type: Inference (the information in the passage supports the answer)
Boil It Down: Mouse to tick easy, thrives when mouse populations expand
Goal: Find the option that HAS TO BE TRUE.
Analysis: This is a classic Inference question, so we need to take the facts given in the prompt and find the option that has to be true.

We can’t infer that in areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease that the proportion of ticks infected with the disease is especially high. If there happened to be significantly more ticks in areas where humans are infected with Lyme disease, then perhaps a small percentage ticks actually carry the disease. There’s no way to conclude whether the proportion of ticks infected with the disease is higher than normal, normal, or below normal. It could actually be any of the three, from the basis of the information in the passage.

Read what this option is saying carefully. Just because there are no white-footed mice in a given area, can we conclude that very few animals that live in that area are infected with Lyme disease? This prompt just tells us that the transmission of Lyme disease to ticks by way of the white-footed mouse is essentially AN exception, but that doesn’t mean that it’s the only exception. There could be other exceptions. We have another clue that the transmission of Lyme disease to tick is not the ONLY way to transmit the disease to ticks. The prompt says: with MOST host species the transmission process is extremely rare. What does the word “most” mean? Over 50%. That literal interpretation could open up a vast array of ways for animals to get infected other than by means of the white-footed mouse. All in, there is no way for B to be inferred. There is no way to know for sure that Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.

Yes. Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high [than in areas where biodiversity is low]. Yes this has to be 100% true. Another way to look at this is we know that the risk of contracting Lyme disease is higher in areas where biodiversity is low, so then going back down the scale, the risk would be lower in areas where biodiversity is high.

We have absolutely no idea about the feeding preferences of ticks. Maybe ticks like plenty of other host species. Gone.

A 180 option. Generally, the greater the biodiversity, the lower the risk.



B is incorrect not for the reason you have given, but because the passage doesn't talk about how other animals get Lyme Disease or even how white mice get Lyme Disease. Rather, the passage talks about the ease with which infected host animals pass on Lyme Disease to ticks. The presence of white mice does not affect the infection of other animals. Rather, it affects the infection of humans.
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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee [#permalink]

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New post 18 Oct 2017, 22:53
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
adkikani wrote:
Hi Experts GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

Can you please help to understand last line of the argument. Although I got to OA with a pinch of guess, I want to validate my understanding.

Argument:
(I)T ___ (LD) ____> Humans
T____(LD)____> feeding on animals

How easily the LD gets transmitted varies on animals on which ticks feed.
Typically the transmission is easier if host animal is WF mice.

Now I got stuck in last sentence seeing the word- bio-diversity.

Is my understanding correct:
bio-diversity means large variations of species living in a particular area. As per argument, if the bio-diversity is less then WF mice will grow more and also since the main source of tick is WF mice it is more likely that more humans will be affected. Exactly this is what I can infer from option (C)


Yes, you are right. Note that the main source of infected ticks is WF mice. With more infected ticks, the probability of humans getting lyme disease increases. Hence (C) works.

Premises:
Humans get LD from infected ticks.
Ticks get LD from infected animals, mainly from mice.
Mice population increases when bio-diversity is low.

We are looking for an inference.

(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
What factors decide how likely are humans to get LD, we don't know. Of course, if there are more infected ticks, humans will be more likely to get LD. But in areas where many humans are infected, there could be other causes too such as warm and humid climate or culture of hunting in forests etc.

(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
We don't know how many animals have LD. We just know that mice pass it on to ticks easily.

(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.
If biodiversity is high, mice population will not be very high and hence probability of infected ticks would be lower. This would mean that probability of humans getting infected will be lower.
Correct.

(D) Ticks feed on white-looted mice only when other host species are not available to them.
This is not true. We don't know about the feeding habits of ticks. We just know that it is easy to pass LD from mice to ticks.

(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.
No. This is not true. The greater the bio-diversity, lower will be the chances of any given host animal to pass LD to ticks.

Answer (C)





Hi
I think finally I got it why option A is wrno. is just because the argument don't say people only get LD with tick
am I right?

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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2017, 01:19
why is this an inference question and not a strengthen question? EMPOWERgmatMax
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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee [#permalink]

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MelP wrote:
why is this an inference question and not a strengthen question? EMPOWERgmatMax


Hi MelP,

Happy to help! This type of Inference question is very frequently confused as a Strengthen question---that confusion will almost certainly cost the test-taker the point.

Here's the scoop:

If the OPTION supports the PROMPT, it's a Strengthen question. The right option makes the prompt stronger.

If the PROMPT supports the OPTION, it's an Inference question. The prompt provides information that enables us to confirm one of the options.

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