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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee

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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee  [#permalink]

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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by feeding on animals with Lyme disease, but the ease of transmission from host animal to tick varies. With most species of host animal, transmission of Lyme disease to ticks is extremely rare, but white-footed mice are an exception, readily passing Lyme disease to ticks. And white-footed mouse populations greatly expand, becoming the main food source for ticks, in areas where biodiversity is in decline.

The information in the passage most strongly supports which of the following?


(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.

(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.

(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.

(D) Ticks feed on white-looted mice only when other host species are not available to them.

(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.

ID - CR04986


Ticks and Lyme Disease

Step 1: Identify the Question

The question states that the information in the passage will support a particular answer choice. That indicates an Inference question.

Step 2: Deconstruct the Argument

ticks feed on animals w/ Lyme, ticks give Lyme to humans

trans. from animal → tick:

- usually rare

- common w/ WF mice

less biodiversity → ticks mostly feed on WF mice

Because this is an Inference problem, there is no conclusion in the argument. Instead, the argument states a series of facts. Lyme is transmitted from animals to ticks to humans. White-footed mice are likely to give Lyme to ticks, while other animals aren’t. Also, ticks feed more on white-footed mice in areas with less biodiversity.

Step 3: Pause and State the Goal

In an Inference problem, the right answer will be something you can prove to be true using only the information in the argument. Identify one answer that can be proven true, and four answers that are not necessarily true.

Step 4: Work from Wrong to Righti

(A) This seems reasonable, because the argument states that humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. However, is it necessarily true that if there are many infected humans in an area, there must be a high proportion of infected ticks in the area? There are at least two scenarios in which this isn’t true. Perhaps many people in one place contract Lyme disease while on vacation, even though there are no infected ticks where they live. After they return home, there could be many people with Lyme disease in a particular area, but no infected ticks. Also, there could be a relatively small proportion of infected ticks in an area, but humans could be bitten by infected ticks at an unusually high frequency. Perhaps there are just a lot of ticks meaning that even a small proportion that are infected may lead to a lot of Lyme disease in humans. Alternatively, people in these areas may encounter ticks (e.g. go hiking a lot) more frequently than people in other areas.

(B) According to the logic of the argument, if there are no white-footed mice in an area, transmission of Lyme disease from host animals to ticks should be very rare. However, this does not imply that other animals—aside from ticks—don’t have Lyme disease. It just implies that ticks don’t get Lyme disease from them, regardless of whether they have it. The argument doesn’t describe the way that the host animals get Lyme disease in the first place, so they could have contracted Lyme from some other source.

(C) CORRECT. Since ticks only get Lyme disease from other animals extremely rarely, the odds that a tick will carry Lyme disease is directly related to how often it feeds on white-footed mice. In areas with low biodiversity, white-footed mice are relatively more common. Therefore, in areas with more biodiversity, white-footed mice will be relatively less common, and ticks will feed on them less frequently. The ticks in these areas will be less likely to have Lyme disease. In areas with a smaller proportion of Lyme-infected ticks, humans will be at less risk of contracting the disease.

(D) The argument states that when white-footed mouse populations greatly expand, they become the main food source for ticks. However, the argument doesn’t specify what happens when white-footed mouse populations are relatively low. It’s possible that ticks would still regularly feed on white-footed mice, even if other host species are present.

(E) This is untrue, according to the argument. In areas of greater biodiversity, white-footed mice are relatively less common. White-footed mice are much more likely than other animals to transmit Lyme to ticks. With fewer white-footed mice, the average animal will actually be less likely to transmit Lyme to ticks.

Originally posted by WillGetIt on 06 Jul 2015, 02:21.
Last edited by Bunuel on 27 Aug 2018, 02:44, edited 4 times in total.
Formatted the question.
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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2015, 20:51
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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by feeding on animals with Lyme disease, but the ease of transmission from host animal to tick varies. With most species of host animal, transmission of Lyme disease to ticks is extremely rare, but white-footed mice are an exception, readily passing Lyme disease to ticks. And white-footed mouse populations greatly expand, becoming the main food source for ticks, in areas where biodiversity is in decline.

The information in the passage most strongly supports which of the following?

(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.
(D) Ticks feed on white-footed mice only when other host species are not available to them.
(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.


Type: Inference (the information in the passage supports the answer)
Boil It Down: Mouse to tick easy, thrives when mouse populations expand
Goal: Find the option that HAS TO BE TRUE.
Analysis: This is a classic Inference question, so we need to take the facts given in the prompt and find the option that has to be true.

We can’t infer that in areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease that the proportion of ticks infected with the disease is especially high. If there happened to be significantly more ticks in areas where humans are infected with Lyme disease, then perhaps a small percentage ticks actually carry the disease. There’s no way to conclude whether the proportion of ticks infected with the disease is higher than normal, normal, or below normal. It could actually be any of the three, from the basis of the information in the passage.

Read what this option is saying carefully. Just because there are no white-footed mice in a given area, can we conclude that very few animals that live in that area are infected with Lyme disease? This prompt just tells us that the transmission of Lyme disease to ticks by way of the white-footed mouse is essentially AN exception, but that doesn’t mean that it’s the only exception. There could be other exceptions. We have another clue that the transmission of Lyme disease to tick is not the ONLY way to transmit the disease to ticks. The prompt says: with MOST host species the transmission process is extremely rare. What does the word “most” mean? Over 50%. That literal interpretation could open up a vast array of ways for animals to get infected other than by means of the white-footed mouse. All in, there is no way for B to be inferred. There is no way to know for sure that Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.

Yes. Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high [than in areas where biodiversity is low]. Yes this has to be 100% true. Another way to look at this is we know that the risk of contracting Lyme disease is higher in areas where biodiversity is low, so then going back down the scale, the risk would be lower in areas where biodiversity is high.

We have absolutely no idea about the feeding preferences of ticks. Maybe ticks like plenty of other host species. Gone.

A 180 option. Generally, the greater the biodiversity, the lower the risk.
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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2015, 04:01
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(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease. the proportion oi ticks infected with Lyme
disease is especially high. Not necessarily! The proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease can be less too! Let say one and only one tick was responsible for spreading the disease.......

(Bl Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.The passage says, with most other species of host animals, that transmission of disease to ticks is extremely rare. Extremely rare is not same as Absent. It might, very well, be possible that a significant number of ticks fed on a species besides white-footed mice and, as a result, ended up with the disease

(C)Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity IS high. Sounds good! As biodiversity is high, the probability of ticks getting infected from white footed mice is lower than it otherwise would have been. Thus, probability of humans getting infected from these ticks is lower in same proportion.

(D) Ticks feed on white-looted mice only when other host species are not available to them. Again need not necessarily be true! There might be a chance when ticks can feed despite the presence of white-footed mice

(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme
disease to ticks. This, in fact, weakens the argument.
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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2015, 16:49
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Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by feeding on animals with Lyme disease, but the ease of transmission from host animal to tick varies. With most species of host animal, transmission of Lyme disease to ticks is extremely rare, but white-footed mice are an exception, readily passing Lyme disease to ticks. And white-footed mouse populations greatly expand, becoming the main food source for ticks, in areas where biodiversity is in decline.
The information in the passage most strongly supports which of the following?
(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.
(D) Ticks feed on white-footed mice only when other host species are not available to them.
(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.


Stem: the passage most strongly supports

(A) Assumption which is not strongly supported. Doesn't really matter whether the proportion of infected ticks is low or high.
(B) Talks about the amount of infected animals in a given area. The passage talks about infected humans and transmission of the disease.
(C) Supported by the text
(D) Feeding patterns of ticks. Not strongly emphasized on by the passage.
(E) Higher biodiversity = easier transmission of disease to ticks. This isn't supported at all, in fact, the opposite is presented in the passage.
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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Aug 2016, 17:22
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Answered correctly. :) :) :) :) :)

(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.- Supports the premise in the text. In the text, it says that especially white-footed mice transmit the disease promptly to the ticks. And white-footed mice populations increase causes decline in biodiversity. If biodiversity is high, white-footed mice would not increase in population. This would reduce the potential risk of infection.

(D) Ticks feed on white-footed mice only when other host species are not available to them.
(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.
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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Oct 2017, 21:28
Hi Experts GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

Can you please help to understand last line of the argument. Although I got to OA with a pinch of guess, I want to validate my understanding.

Argument:
(I)T ___ (LD) ____> Humans
T____(LD)____> feeding on animals

How easily the LD gets transmitted varies on animals on which ticks feed.
Typically the transmission is easier if host animal is WF mice.

Now I got stuck in last sentence seeing the word- bio-diversity.

Is my understanding correct:
bio-diversity means large variations of species living in a particular area. As per argument, if the bio-diversity is less then WF mice will grow more and also since the main source of tick is WF mice it is more likely that more humans will be affected. Exactly this is what I can infer from option (C)
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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2017, 04:01
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adkikani wrote:
Hi Experts GMATNinja VeritasPrepKarishma

Can you please help to understand last line of the argument. Although I got to OA with a pinch of guess, I want to validate my understanding.

Argument:
(I)T ___ (LD) ____> Humans
T____(LD)____> feeding on animals

How easily the LD gets transmitted varies on animals on which ticks feed.
Typically the transmission is easier if host animal is WF mice.

Now I got stuck in last sentence seeing the word- bio-diversity.

Is my understanding correct:
bio-diversity means large variations of species living in a particular area. As per argument, if the bio-diversity is less then WF mice will grow more and also since the main source of tick is WF mice it is more likely that more humans will be affected. Exactly this is what I can infer from option (C)


Yes, you are right. Note that the main source of infected ticks is WF mice. With more infected ticks, the probability of humans getting lyme disease increases. Hence (C) works.

Premises:
Humans get LD from infected ticks.
Ticks get LD from infected animals, mainly from mice.
Mice population increases when bio-diversity is low.

We are looking for an inference.

(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
What factors decide how likely are humans to get LD, we don't know. Of course, if there are more infected ticks, humans will be more likely to get LD. But in areas where many humans are infected, there could be other causes too such as warm and humid climate or culture of hunting in forests etc.

(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
We don't know how many animals have LD. We just know that mice pass it on to ticks easily.

(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.
If biodiversity is high, mice population will not be very high and hence probability of infected ticks would be lower. This would mean that probability of humans getting infected will be lower.
Correct.

(D) Ticks feed on white-looted mice only when other host species are not available to them.
This is not true. We don't know about the feeding habits of ticks. We just know that it is easy to pass LD from mice to ticks.

(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.
No. This is not true. The greater the bio-diversity, lower will be the chances of any given host animal to pass LD to ticks.

Answer (C)
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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2017, 19:23
EMPOWERgmatMax wrote:
Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by feeding on animals with Lyme disease, but the ease of transmission from host animal to tick varies. With most species of host animal, transmission of Lyme disease to ticks is extremely rare, but white-footed mice are an exception, readily passing Lyme disease to ticks. And white-footed mouse populations greatly expand, becoming the main food source for ticks, in areas where biodiversity is in decline.

The information in the passage most strongly supports which of the following?

(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.
(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.
(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.
(D) Ticks feed on white-footed mice only when other host species are not available to them.
(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.


Type: Inference (the information in the passage supports the answer)
Boil It Down: Mouse to tick easy, thrives when mouse populations expand
Goal: Find the option that HAS TO BE TRUE.
Analysis: This is a classic Inference question, so we need to take the facts given in the prompt and find the option that has to be true.

We can’t infer that in areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease that the proportion of ticks infected with the disease is especially high. If there happened to be significantly more ticks in areas where humans are infected with Lyme disease, then perhaps a small percentage ticks actually carry the disease. There’s no way to conclude whether the proportion of ticks infected with the disease is higher than normal, normal, or below normal. It could actually be any of the three, from the basis of the information in the passage.

Read what this option is saying carefully. Just because there are no white-footed mice in a given area, can we conclude that very few animals that live in that area are infected with Lyme disease? This prompt just tells us that the transmission of Lyme disease to ticks by way of the white-footed mouse is essentially AN exception, but that doesn’t mean that it’s the only exception. There could be other exceptions. We have another clue that the transmission of Lyme disease to tick is not the ONLY way to transmit the disease to ticks. The prompt says: with MOST host species the transmission process is extremely rare. What does the word “most” mean? Over 50%. That literal interpretation could open up a vast array of ways for animals to get infected other than by means of the white-footed mouse. All in, there is no way for B to be inferred. There is no way to know for sure that Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.

Yes. Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high [than in areas where biodiversity is low]. Yes this has to be 100% true. Another way to look at this is we know that the risk of contracting Lyme disease is higher in areas where biodiversity is low, so then going back down the scale, the risk would be lower in areas where biodiversity is high.

We have absolutely no idea about the feeding preferences of ticks. Maybe ticks like plenty of other host species. Gone.

A 180 option. Generally, the greater the biodiversity, the lower the risk.



B is incorrect not for the reason you have given, but because the passage doesn't talk about how other animals get Lyme Disease or even how white mice get Lyme Disease. Rather, the passage talks about the ease with which infected host animals pass on Lyme Disease to ticks. The presence of white mice does not affect the infection of other animals. Rather, it affects the infection of humans.
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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2017, 01:19
why is this an inference question and not a strengthen question? EMPOWERgmatMax
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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Nov 2017, 15:29
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MelP wrote:
why is this an inference question and not a strengthen question? EMPOWERgmatMax


Hi MelP,

Happy to help! This type of Inference question is very frequently confused as a Strengthen question---that confusion will almost certainly cost the test-taker the point.

Here's the scoop:

If the OPTION supports the PROMPT, it's a Strengthen question. The right option makes the prompt stronger.

If the PROMPT supports the OPTION, it's an Inference question. The prompt provides information that enables us to confirm one of the options.

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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Nov 2018, 10:14
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WillGetIt wrote:
Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by feeding on animals with Lyme disease, but the ease of transmission from host animal to tick varies. With most species of host animal, transmission of Lyme disease to ticks is extremely rare, but white-footed mice are an exception, readily passing Lyme disease to ticks. And white-footed mouse populations greatly expand, becoming the main food source for ticks, in areas where biodiversity is in decline.

The information in the passage most strongly supports which of the following?


(A) In areas where many humans are infected with Lyme disease, the proportion of ticks infected with Lyme disease is especially high.

(B) Very few animals that live in areas where there are no white-footed mice are infected with Lyme disease.

(C) Humans are less at risk of contracting Lyme disease in areas where biodiversity is high.

(D) Ticks feed on white-looted mice only when other host species are not available to them.

(E) The greater the biodiversity of an area, the more likely any given host animal in that area is to pass Lyme disease to ticks.



White-footed mouse populations greatly expand, becoming the main food source for ticks, in areas where biodiversity is in decline.
Decreased biodiversity CAUSES white-footed mice to become main food source for ticks.

White-footed mice are an exception, readily passing Lyme disease to ticks.
white-footed mice CAUSE ticks infected with Lyme disease.

Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks.
Ticks infected with Lyme disease CAUSE humans to get Lyme disease.


Combining all parts, we get:
Decreased biodiversity CAUSES white-footed mice to become main food source for ticks, which CAUSES ticks to get infected with Lyme disease, which CAUSES humans to get Lyme disease.

Or, we might write: Decreased biodiversity CAUSES humans to get Lyme disease.

What does all of this mean?
Well, if we can PREVENT low biodiversity, then humans will be less likely to get Lyme disease.

This is pretty much the same as answer choice C

Answer: C

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Re: Humans get Lyme disease from infected ticks. Ticks get infected by fee &nbs [#permalink] 13 Nov 2018, 10:14
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