GMAT Question of the Day - Daily to your Mailbox; hard ones only

It is currently 16 Oct 2018, 10:39

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

Numerous investigations have been made to test

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Verbal Forum Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2086
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Numerous investigations have been made to test  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 10 Jun 2018, 22:05
4
2
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 157 sessions

64% (03:39) correct 36% (03:25) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 166 sessions

69% (00:59) correct 31% (01:05) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 161 sessions

62% (00:42) correct 38% (00:54) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 156 sessions

27% (01:12) correct 73% (01:18) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Numerous investigations have been made to test the validity of the theory that facial behaviors associated with emotions are universal. Proponents exist for both sides, with some postulating universals in emotional facial behavior while others arguing against such a possibility.

A team of sociologists studied these contradictory views and hypothesized that the universals are to be discovered in the relationship between different patterns of facial muscles and specific emotions such as happiness, sadness, anger, and fear. These sociologists tried to find evidence for their hypothesis by conducting experiments in which they showed photographs of Western faces to subjects from various cultures in order to determine whether the same facial behavior would be judged as the same emotion, irrespective of the observer’s culture. College educated subjects from countries such as Argentina, Chile, the U.S., and Japan were chosen to identify the same faces with the same emotion words as were the members of two pre-literature cultures. They interpreted the results of the experiments as evidence of universals in facial behavior. However, it is arguable as to how uncontaminated these experiments were. The problem was that all the subjects, even those from the pre-literature societies, came from cultures that had had exposure to some of the same mass media portrayals of facial behavior in Western cultures. This handicap was successfully addressed in a subsequent study by the team in which only subjects who met the criteria established to screen out all but those who had minimal opportunity to learn or imitate or even recognize uniquely Western facial behaviors were chosen to participate in the experiment. The results conclusively supported the hypothesis that specific facial behaviors are associated with specific emotions across various cultures.

However, the increasing evidence of a pan-cultural element in emotional facial behavior does not suggest a lack of cultural differences in emotional expression. These differences manifest themselves in the circumstances that elicit an emotion, with the same emotion being preceded by different stimuli across cultures.

1. Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?
A. One of the two studies undertaken by the team of sociologists was more objective in its approach since it unknowingly chose specific kinds of subjects.
B. In one culture, happiness could be a follow-up emotion of a situation that is dissimilar to the circumstances that lead up to it in another culture.
C. Pre-literature societies are normally against contact with any kind of Western exposure.
D. College graduates from Chile and Argentina were more likely to have experienced the same kind of mass media exposure to portrayals of facial behavior in Western cultures than those from Japan.
E. Sociologists who do not agree that universals exists in facial behavior associated with emotion across cultures do not have an in depth knowledge of the topic.
A. Incorrect: Inconsistent
The author agrees that the subsequent study undertaken by the team was successful in addressing a problem since it made an effort to choose only those subjects that had little knowledge of or contact with Western facial behaviors. Hence, the information given in this choice is inconsistent with that given in the passage.
B.Correct
This piece of information is supported by the consideration raised by the author in the final paragraph. Please refer to the extract:
These differences manifest themselves in the circumstances that elicit an emotion, with the same emotion being preceded by different stimuli across cultures.
C. Incorrect: Out Of Scope
There is no information given in the passage to support any inference about the attitude of pre-literature societies towards Western Culture.
D. Incorrect: Out Of Scope
The author gives no such comparative information.
E. Incorrect: Out Of Scope
Even though the author agrees that the results of the subsequent study undertaken by team prove that universals exist, there is no evidence to conclude anything about what the author feels about those who do not agree with the view; the author does not delve in to any discussion over this group.




2. The author is primarily concerned with
A. To contrast the basis for two contradictory views and side with one
B. To highlight commonalities between two studies while showing how one trumps the other
C. To analyze a hypothesis through a discussion on two studies and to raise a consideration
D. To introduce a theory and evaluate various studies arguing for and against its validity
E. To criticize an experiment on the basis that it may have been contaminated

A.Incorrect: Out Of Scope

Firstly, the author never pitches any two views against each other. Secondly, there is no mention of the basis of the contradictory view, i.e. universals in facial behaviors depicting emotions don’t exist across cultures.
B. Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author indeed talks about two studies and does say that the second study addresses the flaw of the first one, but there is no mention of commonalities between the two. The author does not compare these studies in such a fashion.
C. Correct

This choice matches the main-point we came up with earlier. The author does analyze the theory of common emotional facial behavior across cultures by presenting his/her analysis of the two studies mentioned in the second paragraph. The author even agrees that the results of the second study concretely support the hypothesis. In the final paragraph, the author raises a consideration against a possible inference that could be drawn in the light of the preceding discussion.
D. Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author does introduce a theory but never discusses studies against it.
E. Incorrect: Partial Scope

This detail is mentioned in the second paragraph but in no way does it capture the essence of the entire passage.



3. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the final paragraph?
A. To warn against a myth
B. To criticize a particular implication of the studies
C. To caution against an overly optimistic conclusion
D. To raise a consideration
E. To initiate a new unrelated discussion

A.Incorrect: Irrelevant

There is no “myth” mentioned in the passage.
B. Incorrect: Irrelevant

The author does discount a particular implication of the study; however, he/she does not criticize this implication.

C. Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author does caution against a conclusion; however, there is no basis to conclude that the conclusion is “overly optimistic”.

D.Correct

This choice matches the summary of the paragraph we came up with in the passage analysis. The author raises a consideration to discount an implication of the growing evidence of universals in emotional facial behavior across cultures.

E. Incorrect: Partial Scope

The author does not start a new discussion in the last paragraph of the passage and certainly not an “unrelated” one. The contents of this paragraph are connected to the preceding paragraph.



4. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?
A. The results of the experiments of the first study were tampered with.
B. There are more people who believe in the universals in emotional facial behavior than the other way around.
C. The subjects of the experiment were not aware of their knowledge of Western culture.
D. Portrayals of facial behavior in mass media are the same in different cultures.
E. The subject of universals in facial behaviors associated with emotions is well researched.

A.Incorrect: Out Of Scope

The author states that it is questionable how uncontaminated the experiments were and then indicates a reason for this statement. He/she, however, does not say anything about tampering the results of the study.
B.Incorrect: Irerlevant

This information is completely irrelevant and there is no mention of the number of people who believe in either of the two sides.
C.Incorrect: Out Of Scope

The awareness of the subjects is not mentioned anywhere in the passage.
D. Incorrect: Out Of Scope

The author makes no analysis in the passage. The only portrayals of facial behavior talked about in the passage are those of the Western cultures.
E. Correct

This information is given to us in the first sentence of the passage.


_________________

When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
+1 Kudos if you find this post helpful

Senior RC Moderator
User avatar
D
Status: Perfecting myself for GMAT
Joined: 22 May 2017
Posts: 757
Concentration: Nonprofit
Schools: Haas '21
GPA: 4
WE: Engineering (Computer Software)
Numerous investigations have been made to test  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 22 Sep 2018, 22:15
3
1. Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?


A. One of the two studies undertaken by the team of sociologists was more objective in its approach since it unknowingly chose specific kinds of subjects.

Incorrect: Inconsistent . The author agrees that the subsequent study undertaken by the team was successful in addressing a problem since it made an effort to choose only those subjects that had little knowledge of or contact with Western facial behaviors. Hence, the information given in this choice is inconsistent with that given in the passage.

B. In one culture, happiness could be a follow-up emotion of a situation that is dissimilar to the circumstances that lead up to it in another culture.

Correct. This piece of information is supported by the consideration raised by the author in the final paragraph. Please refer to the extract:
These differences manifest themselves in the circumstances that elicit an emotion, with the same emotion being preceded by different stimuli across cultures.

C. Pre-literature societies are normally against contact with any kind of Western exposure.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope. There is no information given in the passage to support any inference about the attitude of pre-literature societies towards Western Culture.

D. College graduates from Chile and Argentina were more likely to have experienced the same kind of mass media exposure to portrayals of facial behavior in Western cultures than those from Japan.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope. The author gives no such comparative information.

E. Sociologists who do not agree that universals exists in facial behavior associated with emotion across cultures do not have an in depth knowledge of the topic.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope. Even though the author agrees that the results of the subsequent study undertaken by team prove that universals exist, there is no evidence to conclude anything about what the author feels about those who do not agree with the view; the author does not delve in to any discussion over this group.

2. The author is primarily concerned with


A. To contrast the basis for two contradictory views and side with one

Incorrect: Out Of Scope. Firstly, the author never pitches any two views against each other. Secondly, there is no mention of the basis of the contradictory view, i.e. universals in facial behaviors depicting emotions don’t exist across cultures.

B. To highlight commonalities between two studies while showing how one trumps the other

Incorrect: Partial Scope. The author indeed talks about two studies and does say that the second study addresses the flaw of the first one, but there is no mention of commonalities between the two. The author does not compare these studies in such a fashion.

C. To analyze a hypothesis through a discussion on two studies and to raise a consideration

Correct. This choice matches the main-point we came up with earlier. The author does analyze the theory of common emotional facial behavior across cultures by presenting his/her analysis of the two studies mentioned in the second paragraph. The author even agrees that the results of the second study concretely support the hypothesis. In the final paragraph, the author raises a consideration against a possible inference that could be drawn in the light of the preceding discussion.

D. To introduce a theory and evaluate various studies arguing for and against its validity

Incorrect: Partial Scope. The author does introduce a theory but never discusses studies against it.

E. To criticize an experiment on the basis that it may have been contaminated

Incorrect: Partial Scope. This detail is mentioned in the second paragraph but in no way does it capture the essence of the entire passage.

3. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the final paragraph?


A. To warn against a myth

Incorrect: Irrelevant. There is no “myth” mentioned in the passage.

B. To criticize a particular implication of the studies

Incorrect: Irrelevant. The author does discount a particular implication of the study; however, he/she does not criticize this implication.

C. To caution against an overly optimistic conclusion

Incorrect: Partial Scope. The author does caution against a conclusion; however, there is no basis to conclude that the conclusion is “overly optimistic”.

D. To raise a consideration

Correct. This choice matches the summary of the paragraph we came up with in the passage analysis. The author raises a consideration to discount an implication of the growing evidence of universals in emotional facial behavior across cultures.

E. To initiate a new unrelated discussion

Incorrect: Partial Scope. The author does not start a new discussion in the last paragraph of the passage and certainly not an “unrelated” one. The contents of this paragraph are connected to the preceding paragraph.

4. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?


A. The results of the experiments of the first study were tampered with.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope. The author states that it is questionable how uncontaminated the experiments were and then indicates a reason for this statement. He/she, however, does not say anything about tampering the results of the study.

B. There are more people who believe in the universals in emotional facial behavior than the other way around.

Incorrect: Irerlevant. This information is completely irrelevant and there is no mention of the number of people who believe in either of the two sides.

C. The subjects of the experiment were not aware of their knowledge of Western culture.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope. The awareness of the subjects is not mentioned anywhere in the passage.

D. Portrayals of facial behavior in mass media are the same in different cultures.

Incorrect: Out Of Scope. The author makes no analysis in the passage. The only portrayals of facial behavior talked about in the passage are those of the Western cultures.

E. The subject of universals in facial behaviors associated with emotions is well researched.

Correct. This information is given to us in the first sentence of the passage.
_________________

If you like my post press kudos +1

New - RC Butler - 2 RC's everyday

Tag me in RC questions if you need help. Please provide your analysis of the question in the post along with the tag.


Originally posted by workout on 21 Sep 2018, 21:59.
Last edited by workout on 22 Sep 2018, 22:15, edited 1 time in total.
Added explanations after seeing few resposnes.
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 13 Aug 2018
Posts: 33
Re: Numerous investigations have been made to test  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 Sep 2018, 23:50
Can anyone help me with the fourth question? Couldn't find the evidence from the passage..

Thanks :thumbup:
Manager
Manager
avatar
G
Joined: 02 Aug 2015
Posts: 111
Re: Numerous investigations have been made to test  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Sep 2018, 00:13
Could someone please explain how E is the answer for the fourth question? I'm not able to understand the explanation given in the spoiler. Thanks in advance!

Cheers!
Manager
Manager
avatar
G
Joined: 20 Feb 2017
Posts: 166
Location: India
Concentration: Operations, Strategy
WE: Engineering (Other)
CAT Tests
Re: Numerous investigations have been made to test  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Sep 2018, 00:23
2
I think this a 700 level question.
1. The answer should be B
A: The author is not interested about the intent of sociologists. The author care less about whether the intent of sociologist's intent is subjective or objective. Plus the author bought out a flaw for the initial experiment. Hence the author would not likely agree with this option. Eliminate A
Excerpt from passage : However, it is arguable as to how uncontaminated these experiments were
B: correct
Excerpt from the passage : The results conclusively supported the hypothesis that specific facial behaviors are associated with specific emotions across various cultures.
This means the author is only concerned about the facial behaviors and its inter-dependency on emotions. Further, these emotions act as a trigger for unique facial expressions. so what triggers these emotions is immaterial and may vary across the cultures. For example, lets talk about the emotion "happy". According to sociologists being happy creates or triggers specific facial expression. This expression is universal across all cultures. But what generates the emotion "happy" could vary or remain same across the cultures.
C: We cannot infer from the passage that whether Pre-literature societies are normally against contact with any kind of Western exposure. We only know that samples from these societies may not support the result since there may be a chance of cultural exchange. Hence eliminate.
D: Out of scope. easy elimination
E: The passage doesnot talks about the depth of knowledge of the Sociologists who do not agree that universals exists in facial behavior associated with emotion across cultures. Eliminate.
2. Lets breakdown the passage paragraphs :
paragraph 1 : Introduction of theory or hypothesis
paragraph 2 : Analysis of hypothesis using experiments and reaching a conclusion
paragraph 3 : raising a consideration
Straight C
3. Paragraph 3 raises a consideration. The difference between criticizing and consideration is subtle. Here the author is not arguing or criticizing the conclusion but is asking for a careful thought or deliberation. We need to check the tone of the paragraph and the trigger word is "however". The author says that there may be some specific cases where there may exist a cultural difference in emotional expression.
Hence the answer should be D
4. Lets do POE
A: eliminate. There is no evidence of this in the passage. A flaw was detected during the analysis of experiment 1 and subsequently, those flaws were removed during experiment 2
B: We do-not have any trigger words or any numerical value that would suggest about the number of supporters on each side of hypothesis. Hence eliminate.
C: The subject's awareness regarding their knowledge of western culture is immaterial and not addressed in the passage. We don't anything regarding the subjects of experimentation. hence eliminate C
D: We only know from the passage that "all the subjects, even those from the pre-literature societies, came from cultures that had had exposure to some of the same mass media portrayals of facial behavior in Western cultures."
Whether this mass media portrayals are same or not is not mentioned in the passage. Hence eliminate D
E: only remaining option. Hence must be the answer
_________________

If you feel the post helped you then do send me the kudos (damn theya re more valuable than $)

SC Moderator
User avatar
V
Joined: 23 Sep 2015
Posts: 1208
GMAT ToolKit User Premium Member Reviews Badge CAT Tests
Re: Numerous investigations have been made to test  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 22 Sep 2018, 11:07
2
P1 - facial behaviors associated with emotions are universal ----- +/- exists.
P2 - sociologists are analysing this theory.How is given. Some gaps in theory are given. lastly the conclusion.
P3 - another study introduced, and final conclusion given in favor of theory in P1.
P4 - lack of emotional facial behavior is touched. with no missing culture msg.

Main point - though it is dibatable, facial behaviors associated with emotions are universal. experimental evidence presented.

1. Which of the following statements would the author most likely agree with?
A. One of the two studies undertaken by the team of sociologists was more objective in its approach since it unknowingly chose specific kinds of subjects. - NO
B. In one culture, happiness could be a follow-up emotion of a situation that is dissimilar to the circumstances that lead up to it in another culture. - correct
C. Pre-literature societies are normally against contact with any kind of Western exposure. - no
D. College graduates from Chile and Argentina were more likely to have experienced the same kind of mass media exposure to portrayals of facial behavior in Western cultures than those from Japan. - no
E. Sociologists who do not agree that universals exists in facial behavior associated with emotion across cultures do not have an in depth knowledge of the topic. - no

------------------------------------------------------

2. The author is primarily concerned with
A. To contrast the basis for two contradictory views and side with one - not covering entire passage.
B. To highlight commonalities between two studies while showing how one trumps the other - NO
C. To analyze a hypothesis through a discussion on two studies and to raise a consideration - This one is the best , covering all the grounds.
D. To introduce a theory and evaluate various studies arguing for and against its validity - No
E. To criticize an experiment on the basis that it may have been contaminated - no

-------------------------------------------------------

3. Which of the following most aptly describes the function of the final paragraph?
A. To warn against a - No myth
B. To criticize a particular implication of the studies - criticize is too harsh.
C. To caution against an overly optimistic conclusion - may be.
D. To raise a consideration - May be
E. To initiate a new unrelated discussion - no

clash in c vs d - rule is dont choose extreme choice . and with "optimistic conclusion" C is extreme. d should be the answer.

------------------------------------------------------

4. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage?
A. The results of the experiments of the first study were tampered with. - no
B. There are more people who believe in the universals in emotional facial behavior than the other way around. - No such thing is given.
C. The subjects of the experiment were not aware of their knowledge of Western culture. - not clear.
D. Portrayals of facial behavior in mass media are the same in different cultures. - no
E. The subject of universals in facial behaviors associated with emotions is well researched. - last left. should be answer. well "Numerous investigations" are there to back it up.
_________________

Thanks!
Do give some kudos.

Simple strategy:
“Once you’ve eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.”

Want to improve your Score:
GMAT Ninja YouTube! Series 1| GMAT Ninja YouTube! Series 2

My Notes:
Reading comprehension | Critical Reasoning | Absolute Phrases

Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 12 Mar 2018
Posts: 19
Re: Numerous investigations have been made to test  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 02 Oct 2018, 05:58
7:30 min total.

I am still not able to compete myself in RC. How to make first approach? Should I read the whole para at the very first? Or question stem at first.. I would appreciate if any strategic advices in RC.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Numerous investigations have been made to test &nbs [#permalink] 02 Oct 2018, 05:58
Display posts from previous: Sort by

Numerous investigations have been made to test

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  


Copyright

GMAT Club MBA Forum Home| About| Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy| GMAT Club Rules| Contact| Sitemap

Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne

Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.