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# Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of

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Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of  [#permalink]

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04 Jul 2010, 09:50
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40% (01:48) correct 60% (02:16) wrong based on 2041 sessions

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Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of fibromyalgia, a disorder that causes body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. One leading theory holds that conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep." This theory is concerned with the function of neuropeptide substance P, which is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during deep sleep. If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control.

The theory above on the cause of fibromyalgia rests on which of the following assumptions?

a. The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
b. Fibromyalgia is a completely preventable disorder, if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop.
c. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
d. The functions of neuropeptides released by the spinal cord must be better understood before a cure for fibromyalgia can be found.
e. Because the causes of fibromyalgia are linked to depression, the disorder should be treated by mental health professionals.
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Re: Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2014, 11:34
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I'm with you guys - I don't like C for the answer because it just restates an existing premise (lack of deep sleep interferes with nervous system reset of Neuro P). Option A seems viable to me as an assumption.

I lay out the argument logically as follows:

Depression/Anxiety/Serotonin Def. --> No Deep Sleep --> No reset of Neuro P --> Fibro

The lack of reset of Neuro P seems to be the ultimate cause of Fibro. In order to believe the argument that Depression (etc.) lead to Fibro through lack of sleep then I have to believe that the body has no other means for resetting the Neuro P other than deep sleep. Option A states that the body has limited control of Neuro P, so the argument logic would hold.

KW
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14 Sep 2010, 12:17
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C is a premise already stated the stem, it is more of a conclusion than an assumption. A is much better. Because negating A, we get that the body would have an unlimited control of the subtance P or whatever. Then the body would reset the process regardless and deep sleep would not be an issue at stake. The passage suggests that a body's control over substance P is limited toa deep sleep. Am I not right?
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14 Sep 2010, 13:59
rlevochkin wrote:
C is a premise already stated the stem, it is more of a conclusion than an assumption. A is much better. Because negating A, we get that the body would have an unlimited control of the subtance P or whatever. Then the body would reset the process regardless and deep sleep would not be an issue at stake. The passage suggests that a body's control over substance P is limited toa deep sleep. Am I not right?

Quote:
C = it is. in deep sleep this will get reset...

It is not the premise. It is not the conclusion. conclusion is that the "mechanism" related to substance P is not getting reset (resulting in sensitivity to pain / body-wide chronic pain).

Assumption deals with WHY the process is not resetting. Because the body is not getting deep sleep, the mechanism is not getting reset.

Premises + Assumption (lack of sleep) = Conclusion (no resetting hence, sensitivity to pain)

Since the assumption is lack of deep sleep. it is taken a step forward and says - deep sleep imp for nervous system (though I agree that the assumption is stretched a bit).

I used POE, and was only left with C, and then it made sense.
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06 Jan 2011, 09:45
2
We can get an appropriate assumption by negation. Let's check it by the formula of "cause and effect" and an assumption must be connected to both of them and hence, render their necessary condition. Here has to follow:

According to the second premise depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can be causes of fibromyalgia which turns to be an effect. Moreover, in the last premise there is written that "If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control". It means that when pain becomes body-wide, the release of the substance P runs out of control which denotes that the body is not able to exert a full control over release of neuropeptide substance in the case of fibromialgya.

Now we will negate the choice "a" and in the result it looks so --> "the body has an unlimited control over neuropeptide substance P". Herewith we have eliminated the main point of the theory, namely "If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control".

Thus, the choice "a" is an appropriate assumptiom because by negating it we rebut not only the connection between cause and effect, but also completely destroy what holds true according to the theory given in the text.

b. Fibromyalgia is a completely preventable disorder, if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop.
Even if to negate this assumption, the connection between the effect (fibromialgia) and the causes (depression, anxiety, drug use, serotonin deficiency) will not be effected. We can reveal that this assumption asserts "only other conditions" which can mean some conditions but not all

By negation of the assumptions in c, d, e we are still unable to destroy the main points of the theory. Check yourself! It follows that the theory is not conditioned upon them.

c. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
d. The functions of neuropeptides released by the spinal cord must be better understood before a cure for fibromyalgia can be found.
e. Because the causes of fibromyalgia are linked to depression, the disorder should be treated by mental health professionals.
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Re: Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of  [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2012, 12:06
a. The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
This sounds like another piece of premise, the assumption much contain something which should airtight the conclusion,in which we need to bring the consequences of the problem.
b. Fibromyalgia is a completely preventable disorder, if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop.
Correct.
"......If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control."
stats an assumption that the mechanism is controllable but need utmost care.
c. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
sounds more like a conclusion.
d. The functions of neuropeptides released by the spinal cord must be better understood before a cure for fibromyalgia can be found.
is that anywhere connected?
e. Because the causes of fibromyalgia are linked to depression, the disorder should be treated by mental health professionals.[/quote]
irrelevant

since (B) isn't the OA, i would like to request the experts to guide us.
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Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2014, 16:26
Can any one help me to find the relationship between "Deep Sleep" and "Fibromyalgia" ?
according to the passage : depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep. i understood that "depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency " can cause "Fibromyalgia". then what about the DEEP SLEEP part ? how to understand that the lack of sleep causes fibromyalgia ?

Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of fibromyalgia, a disorder that causes body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. One leading theory holds that conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep." This theory is concerned with the function of neuropeptide substance P, which is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during deep sleep. If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control.

The theory above on the cause of fibromyalgia rests on which of the following assumptions?

a. The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
b. Fibromyalgia is a completely preventable disorder, if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop.
c. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
d. The functions of neuropeptides released by the spinal cord must be better understood before a cure for fibromyalgia can be found.
e. Because the causes of fibromyalgia are linked to depression, the disorder should be treated by mental health professionals.
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Re: Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2014, 11:36
shagalo wrote:
Can any one help me to find the relationship between "Deep Sleep" and "Fibromyalgia" ?
according to the passage : depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep. i understood that "depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency " can cause "Fibromyalgia". then what about the DEEP SLEEP part ? how to understand that the lack of sleep causes fibromyalgia ?

Can you see through the logic string below how lack of deep sleep causes Fibro?

Depression/Anxiety/Serotonin Def. --> No Deep Sleep --> No reset of Neuro P --> Fibro

It's the lack of deep sleep that doesn't allow for the reset of neuro P, leading to Fibro...

KW
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Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of  [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2015, 05:05
Why is C not out of scope? How does assuming that deep sleep helps the ENTIRE nervous system, help us prove that F is caused by depression / lack of sleep / inability to reset the effects of substance P?
Deep sleep may be helpful for preventing disease F, but that does not mean the author assumes that deep sleep helps in other functions of the nervous system too.

Even if the author IGNORES the ASSUMPTION that deep sleep is necessary for the whole nervous system, it doesn't mean he disagrees that deep sleep is required for reseting the effects of substance P.

Also would it not be incorrect to assume that these functions belong to the nervous system without the passage suggesting so?
I mean aren't we supposed to not use prior subject knowledge in GMAT CR questions?
I would like to know whether my thinking is correct in this regard specifically.

KyleWiddison's justification of A seems logical to me.
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Re: Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of  [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2017, 07:28
I don't get why people say C is stated in argument..Normally this mechanism is reset during sleep....C points out that there is no other way ie it is necessary So answer is C right??
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Re: Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of  [#permalink]

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28 Mar 2017, 13:01
Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of fibromyalgia, a disorder that causes body-wide chronic pain and fatigue. One leading theory holds that conditions such as depression, anxiety, drug use and serotonin deficiency can aggravate or even cause fibromyalgia by interfering with "stage 4," or "deep sleep." This theory is concerned with the function of neuropeptide substance P, which is released in the spinal cord in response to pain and causes nerve endings around the initiating nerves to also become more sensitive to pain. Normally, this mechanism is "reset" during deep sleep. If pain becomes body-wide, however, and the mechanism can not be reset, this process may run out of control.

The theory above on the cause of fibromyalgia rests on which of the following assumptions?

a. The body has a limited amount of control over neuropeptide substance P.
b. Fibromyalgia is a completely preventable disorder, if only other conditions are recognized and treated before it can develop.

c. Deep sleep is necessary to the healthy functioning of the nervous system.
d. The functions of neuropeptides released by the spinal cord must be better understood before a cure for fibromyalgia can be found.
e. Because the causes of fibromyalgia are linked to depression, the disorder should be treated by mental health professionals.

The argument clearly says that the deep sleep cause the reset the mechanism and when the mechanism is not reset or goes out of control then the condition arises.
and to prevent such situation deep sleep is necessary.
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Re: Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of  [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2017, 12:31
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Getting lots of requests for expert replies on this one, and I have to agree with Kyle here: (C) is a pretty lousy answer, since the passage already basically tells us we need deep sleep for the healthy function of the nervous system.

Usual disclaimers apply here: even the best test-prep companies have a really, really hard time copying the actual exam. And this one misses pretty badly, in my opinion.

So don't lose sleep over it, friends! After all, you need sleep -- deep sleep! -- for the healthy functioning of your nervous system... :D
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Re: Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2018, 08:48
I also chose A.
C seems more like an inference, also there is no mention of nervous system in the text. One has to apply knowledge (biology) which is beyond the text to treat that the nervous system consists of this neuro peptide and not any other system like respiratory or circulatory system.
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Re: Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of  [#permalink]

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20 Nov 2018, 00:59
KyleWiddison wrote:
I'm with you guys - I don't like C for the answer because it just restates an existing premise (lack of deep sleep interferes with nervous system reset of Neuro P). Option A seems viable to me as an assumption.

I lay out the argument logically as follows:

Depression/Anxiety/Serotonin Def. --> No Deep Sleep --> No reset of Neuro P --> Fibro

The lack of reset of Neuro P seems to be the ultimate cause of Fibro. In order to believe the argument that Depression (etc.) lead to Fibro through lack of sleep then I have to believe that the body has no other means for resetting the Neuro P other than deep sleep. Option A states that the body has limited control of Neuro P, so the argument logic would hold.

KW

at first i chose A, when I list them out as per below. Option C is closes correct assumption.

premise: "mechanism is reset during deep sleep, normally"

assumption: without deep sleep, mechanism cannot reset. Deep Sleep is necessary.

the conclusion: "if pain becomes body-wide, and the mechanism cannot be reset, it may run out of control"

Posted from my mobile device
Re: Scientists have several rival theories on the causes of &nbs [#permalink] 20 Nov 2018, 00:59
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