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The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is

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The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is  [#permalink]

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A
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E

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The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.

(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue
(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it
(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue
(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it
(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue

Spoiler: :: OE
Choice E, the best answer, correctly and logically compares the technique of colorization to the act of putting
lipstick on a Greek statue. In A, B, and C, the relative pronoun which refers not to the technique but to the
noun phrase immediately preceding it, major works of art. As a result, these works are compared to putting
lipstick on ... in A, to a Greek statue in B, and to lipstick in C. Choice D corrects this problem by eliminating the
which construction and supplying the pronoun it, thus referring clearly to the technique, but it illogically
compares the technique to a Greek statue.

-------------------------------------
Their explaination is again very unclear and confused. Anyone has better explaination, please help. Thank you

Originally posted by qhoc0010 on 03 Dec 2004, 14:57.
Last edited by broall on 25 May 2017, 02:18, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2004, 22:34
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here's my take on this one...

Surely, two things are compared in this sentence - 'the technique (used to change b & w films to color) and 'putting lipstick on a greek statue'. Just imagine the whole thing 'putting color to a film on the computer and putting lipstick on a Greek statue' - yep sounds bizarre right. Well, that's the comparison.

So, 'the technique' is best referred by the pronou 'it' in the latter part of the sentence.

A, B C has 'which' - 'which' is a pronoun that typically refers to the noun just before it. ex. I ate cereals, which tastes good, for breakfast.
Look at this, The cereals had raisins, which tastes good. 'Which' referes to raisins - the closest noun - not cereals as in the previous example.

Here, we are not comparing the 'works of art' to 'putting lipstick on the statue' - got it. 'which' would refer to 'works of art' worngly. Hence A B C are out.

Now the subtle difference between D and E is that - D refers to a status of after the lipstick is put. We only know that a greek statue with lipstick is going to surely look bizarre. But thats not what we want, what we need to compare is 'colorization (or the technique) to the very act of putting lipstick'. Hence E.

D would me most appropriate if the comparison is between a movie that has been released (artificially colored) and a greek statue with a lipstick put on it.
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Re: SC - the colorization of  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2009, 18:21
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billyjeans wrote:
The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.

(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue

(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue

(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue


1. "which" cannot modify "technique", A, B, C out
2. "it" refers to "technique", so "it" should compare to "a Greek statue" rather than "putting"

D is the best
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Re: SC - the colorization of  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jan 2009, 18:55
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sondenso wrote:
billyjeans wrote:
The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.

(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue

(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue

(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue


1. "which" cannot modify "technique", A, B, C out
2. "it" refers to "technique", so "it" should compare to "a Greek statue" rather than "putting"

D is the best


it refers to technique. I agree with that.

For the comparison to be parallel ,the technique of colorization and putting lipstick should be compared. Just because technique is a noun does not mean that we compare it with greek statue.

My pick is E. What is the OA & OE?
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New post 03 Jan 2009, 00:29
IMO-E ,
here Which refers to major works of art. We need to refer to the technique here. So down to D & E. And the technique is compared with the act of putting lipstick, not with the statue as such. So E.
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Re: SC - the colorization of  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2009, 11:01
1
sondenso wrote:
billyjeans wrote:
The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.

(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue

(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue

(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue


1. "which" cannot modify "technique", A, B, C out
2. "it" refers to "technique", so "it" should compare to "a Greek statue" rather than "putting"

D is the best


Hi Sondeso/Icandy,

Why do you say 'which' canno modify 'technique'? Can you please explain??
And also 'which' seems to modify works of art rather than technique !!
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Re: The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2013, 17:22
billyjeans wrote:
The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.

(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue

(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue

(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue


Wow! this was a toughie, I chose (A) but apparently didn't get it right.
Could someone explain thoroughly this one?
Will happy to give out some Kudos for a good explanation :)
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Re: The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Oct 2013, 16:53
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jlgdr wrote:
billyjeans wrote:
The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.

(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue

(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue

(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue


Wow! this was a toughie, I chose (A) but apparently didn't get it right.
Could someone explain thoroughly this one?
Will happy to give out some Kudos for a good explanation :)


Hi jlgdr,

Here is my try :

According to Manhattan SC, p85 : A NOUN and its MODIFIER should TOUCH each other

So, A,B and C are out because the modifying phrase "which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue" is meant to describe the technique, not the art.

Now, ask yourself : What many others in the film industry would liken to "the technique " ? a Greek statue with lipstick put on it OR putting lipstick on a Greek statue

Clearly, a technique cannot be likened to a greek statue with lipstick put on it but rather to putting lipstick on a Greek statue .

HEnce, E is the winner
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The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 May 2017, 02:50
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The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.

(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue
(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it
(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue
(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it
(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue

Meaning : the process of colorization is defended by the film right owners as it increases their revenue .However , many others say that the technique degrades major works of art by linking the process to putting a lipstick on Greek Statue .

Error wise everything is ok , except the modifier " which " .it is supposed to modify the process , but it is placed far apart and cannot jump over the verb "degrades " to modify the noun " the process " .

Now here comes the confusion : Option D /E both are verb+ing modifier ,which is supposed to modify preceding clause in this case -----
" that the technique degrades ......." and should make sense with the subject of the preceding clause .However , that is not the case here .

Part of the sentence with option E :

that the technique degrades major works of art , likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue .

meaning : techniques degrades the major works of art and technique links itself to putting the lipstick on a Greek statue . ------------- makes no sense at all .

OA : E

I am quite confused now :( . Am I missing something ?? .


Thanks ,
Deepak

Originally posted by ABMVD on 28 Apr 2014, 10:44.
Last edited by broall on 25 May 2017, 02:50, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: OG10 # 229  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2014, 10:53
Quote:
The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.
(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue
(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it
(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue
(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it
(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue


The portion following the semicolon is a different clause and should be treated separately for grammatical construction.

You should have been able to eliminate 'D' at first glance for the pronoun error.
1st 'it' refers to the technique and the 2nd 'it' refers to the Greek statue - such transition is illegal.

A, B, C are out obviously for incorrectly modifying 'major works of at'.
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Re: SC - the colorization of  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2014, 14:22
sondenso wrote:
billyjeans wrote:
The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.

(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue

(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue

(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue


1. "which" cannot modify "technique", A, B, C out
2. "it" refers to "technique", so "it" should compare to "a Greek statue" rather than "putting"

D is the best



Which is modifying art not technique.
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Re: The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is de  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2014, 14:25
Adverbial modifiers (unlike noun modifiers) are very flexible in what they can modify. In this case, "likening" is modifying "many others . . . contend," while "it" refers back to "the technique." Let's look at how we can build this up from a simpler sentence:

He expressed contempt for the movie, likening it to a pile of garbage.

He expressed contempt for the movie's style, likening it to that of a freshman term paper.

He expressed contempt for the way in which the movie attempted to blame all of a nation's problems on one person, likening it to blaming a single plate of French fries for a heart attack.

Notice that everything after "the way" is a modifier. We could simplify the sentence to "He expressed contempt for the way, likening it to . . . " The modifier simply answers the question "What way?"

Now in the original example things are slightly more complicated. If we cut the sentence off after "contend," we don't have a noun at all.
"Many others contend, likening it to . . . " The portion starting with "that" now serves two purposes: it tells us what many others contend, and it supplies the antecedent for "it." However, that portion is still just a modifier. The adverbial modifier starting with "likening" is correctly referring back to the main subject.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is de  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Apr 2014, 16:45
hi dimitry farber,

i have adoubt?

According to me it must refer to art, instead of reffering to technique( which you have stated in your explanation).
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New post 28 Apr 2014, 22:31
Hi Anubhav,

We have to use meaning to determine the correct antecedent for "it." In (E), we are told that "it" has been likened to putting lipstick on a statue. So we are comparing something to changing a previously made work of art. This is parallel to colorizing films, not to "art" in general. Does this make sense?

If you are saying that "it" must refer to the most recent noun, keep in mind that there is no such rule! A pronoun can refer back to a much earlier noun as long as the meaning is clear.
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Re: The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is de  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2014, 21:42
I'm not beast in SC, so for me is important to follow strategy:

1. Read and conceive the meaning, experts say that it is important to consider modifiers in first reading, so finding which is critical and conceiving that it should modify art. In this case the sentence becomes illogical

2. Look for splits, we have 3+2 split and take two last options not using which. Option D looks awkward though does not violate the meaning. So take E

3. Putting E to sentence does not violate the meaning and fits grammatically although one can find some ambiguity in the use of it and likening and putting awkwardness. But it is best choice, so answer is E

I'm looking for universal strategy. Dear experts, please comments if my steps can help in any case
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New post 30 Apr 2014, 23:34
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deepak1990verma wrote:
The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.

(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue
(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it
(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue
(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it
(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue

Meaning : the process of colorization is defended by the film right owners as it increases their revenue .However , many others say that the technique degrades major works of art by linking the process to putting a lipstick on Greek Statue .

Error wise everything is ok , except the modifier " which " .it is supposed to modify the process , but it is placed far apart and cannot jump over the verb "degrades " to modify the noun " the process " .

Now here comes the confusion : Option D /E both are verb+ing modifier ,which is supposed to modify preceding clause in this case -----
" that the technique degrades ......." and should make sense with the subject of the preceding clause .However , that is not the case here .

Part of the sentence with option E :

that the technique degrades major works of art , likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue .

meaning : techniques degrades the major works of art and technique links itself to putting the lipstick on a Greek statue . ------------- makes no sense at all .

OA : E

I am quite confused now :( . Am I missing something ?? .


Thanks ,
Deepak


Hi Deepak,

I appreciate your analysis for the question. It shows how dedicated you are to learning and understanding. It also gives me a chance to understand where you may be faltering in your application of the concepts.

Please find my comments below:

Your analysis : Meaning : the process of colorization is defended by the film right owners as it increases their revenue .However , many others say that the technique degrades major art by linking the process to putting a lipstick on Greek Statue .

My comments:Your meaning analysis for the portion before the semi colon is almost correct. Almost because, the original sentence says “can increase their revenues” and not “increases their revenue”. I am sure you realize the difference between the two. :)

Your analysis: Error wise everything is ok , except the modifier " which " .it is supposed to modify the process , but it is placed far apart and cannot jump over the verb "degrades " to modify the noun " the process " .

My comments: Now your analysis of choice A is correct : “which” cannot jump over the verb “degrades” to refer to the noun “technique”. I think you meant “technique” when you wrote “process”, right? 
Moving on, since “which” typically modifies the preceding noun, in choices A, B, and C, the “which” modifier nonsensically ends up giving information about major works of art.

Your analysis of choice E: Now here comes the confusion : Option D /E both are verb+ing modifier ,which is supposed to modify preceding clause in this case -----
" that the technique degrades ......." and should make sense with the subject of the preceding clause .However , that is not the case here .

Part of the sentence with option E :
that the technique degrades major works of art , likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue .

meaning : techniques degrades the major works of art and technique links itself to putting the lipstick on a Greek statue . ------------- makes no sense at all .

OA : E


My comments: You are correct in your understanding of the comma + vebr-ing modifier. However, the point that you have missed is that the rule that the verb –ing modifier modifies the previous clause has to be applied in context. Accordingly, in this case, it modifies the clause “many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art”. Here, the verb –ing modifier gives us additional information about this clause. If you see the critics of the colorization hold the opinion that the colorization process degrades major works of art. Now the portion after the comma-- likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue—expands on their holding this particular opinion. So, a parallel is being drawn between the two situations--- colorization of black and white films and putting lipstick on a Greek statue--- with respect to how major works of art are being degraded in both cases.

Accordingly, we see that the verb –ing modifier “likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue” makes sense with the subject of the clause it modifies. The subject of that clause is “many others” who criticize the colorization technique. It is they who liken the technique to something. This sense also comes in when you read the original “which” modifier in choice A. Let’s revisit the same:


The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.

The “they” in the above sentence refers to the critics/ “many others” in this case.

Please visit/re-visit our in depth article on the concept to further solidify your understanding of the same. It is available at http://gmatclub.com/forum/usage-of-verb-ing-modifiers-135220.html#p1101074

Hope the above discussion helps! :)

Regards,
Neeti.
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Re: The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is  [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2016, 09:58
'which' modifies the word or phrase just before the comma. In the statements above, it incorrectly modifies 'major works of art' in options A,B and C.

In D, the 'The Greek statue with lipstick' is compared to the technique - an incorrect comparison. Hence, D is eliminated.

However, in E, the technique is correctly compared with the process of putting lipstick on the statue. E is the answer
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New post 25 May 2017, 00:53
official answer

Choice E, the best answer, correctly and logically compares "the technique" of colorization to the act of "putting lipstick on a Greek statue". In A, B, and C, the relative pronoun "which" refers not to "the technique" but to the noun phrase immediately preceding it, "major works of art". As a result, these works are compared to "putting lipstick on".. in A, to "a Greek statue" in B, and to "lipstick" in C. Choice D corrects this problem by eliminating the "which" construction and supplying the pronoun "it", thus referring clearly to "the technique", but it illogically compares "the technique" to "a Greek statue"
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New post 06 Sep 2018, 15:11
sondenso wrote:
billyjeans wrote:
The colorization of black-and-white films by computers is defended by those who own the film rights, for the process can mean increased revenues for them; many others in the film industry, however, contend that the technique degrades major works of art, which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue.

(A) which they liken to putting lipstick on a Greek statue

(B) which they liken to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(C) which they liken to lipstick put on a Greek statue

(D) likening it to a Greek statue with lipstick put on it

(E) likening it to putting lipstick on a Greek statue


1. "which" cannot modify "technique", A, B, C out
2. "it" refers to "technique", so "it" should compare to "a Greek statue" rather than "putting"

D is the best



Correct explanation but wrong answer ? Should it be E instead? Likening to an act instead of a statue

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New post 06 Sep 2018, 16:42
Till now, I have knowledge that verb following to is always in bare form. But here I saw "to+putting".
anybody who knows about this concept, please help me to clear this doubt.
Thanks in advance.
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