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# The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc

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GMAT Club Verbal Expert
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2019, 14:06
1
Ajiteshmathur wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,
Can you help me understand this one. The parallelism isn't clear to me here.

Quote:
(A) The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands.

Let's strip out some of the modifiers in choice (A):

"The cottontail rabbit population has increased unchecked as a result of (1) the removal of the native fox population and (2) the clearing of the surrounding woodlands."

Taking it one step further, we basically have: "The population has increased as a result of (1) the removal.. and (2) the clearing..." And that makes perfect sense: both "the removal" and "the clearing" are nouns, and they're the two reasons why the population has increased. Since both nouns perform the same function, we have perfectly solid parallelism here.

I hope that helps!
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GMAT Club Verbal Expert
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2019, 09:05
1
1
Ajiteshmathur wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,
Can you help me understand this one. The parallelism isn't clear to me here.

I'm assuming you're asking about the parallelism in the OA. The important thing to remember is that parallelism isn't about two parts of a sentence appearing identical, but rather about two elements playing the same grammatical role. If I describe someone as "tired and hungry," it's true that I don't have "VERB-ed and VERB-ed," but I don't need to, as "tired" and "hungry" are both adjectives, and so have the same function in the sentence. If they have the same function, they're considered parallel.

Now take another look at the OA: "The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands."

In this case we have two noun phrases that are causes of the increased rabbit population: 1) the removal of the native fox population and 2) the clearing of surrounding woodlands. It's fine that "the removal" and "the clearing" don't appear identical, because they're both nouns and are playing the same grammatical role.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2019, 00:04
VeritasKarishma please help with opt A and B. in opt A - removal is noun and clearing is also noun but it is gerund that denotes action... my understanding is that noun is not parallel to gerund... in opt B both are gerund and hence parallel.
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2019, 01:52
sondenso wrote:
The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands.

(A) years as a result of the removal of
(B) years as a result of removing
(C) years, resulting from the removing of
(D) years, which is result of removing
(E) years, which is a result of the removal of

A is the best answer. The two noun phrases "the removal of.." and "the clearing of..." are perfectly in parallel. "As a result of" indicates the reason why the cottontail rabbit population has increased. This is the correct answer.

Let us go through the errors in the other options -

D and E - ",Which" has to refer, both logically and grammatically, to the immediately preceding non-person noun on the GMAT. In this case, which refers to "years", which is completely nonsensical. "Years" are not the result of anything. Eliminate

B - "removing" and "the clearing of" are not in parallel. "the clearing of" is a complex gerund, and can only be parallel to either a noun phrase or anther complex gerund. "Removing" is a simple gerund - "the removal" [an independent noun phrase] would have been better. Eliminate

C - "the removing" is awkward. ",resulting" should work logically with the main subject of the preceding clause or give an "action--->consequence" kind of relationship. It does not make sense to say that the cottontail rabbit "resulted from" something. Similarly, if we were giving an "Action--->consequence" kind of relationship, "resulting in.." [ not "from"] would have been the way to go. In other words, it should have illustrated the consequences of the unchecked increase of the cottontail rabbit population. Eliminate
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2019, 20:54
kj1993 wrote:
VeritasKarishma please help with opt A and B. in opt A - removal is noun and clearing is also noun but it is gerund that denotes action... my understanding is that noun is not parallel to gerund... in opt B both are gerund and hence parallel.

Sure, we like a pure noun to be parallel to a pure noun but when that is not possible, we make a gerund parallel to the noun. That is acceptable too.

'the clearing' is clearly acting as a noun here.
So we need a noun - the 'removal' in this case
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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04 Apr 2020, 03:36
I have been able to come down to options A and B,
But I'm not able to understand why A over B?
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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08 Apr 2020, 06:43
1
tejaswym95 wrote:
I have been able to come down to options A and B,
But I'm not able to understand why A over B?

This comes down to a very subtle difference in the way "-ing" words can function as nouns. Consider two examples:

1) "Teaching his children not to eat thumbtacks has not been as much of a priority for Tim as it should have been."

In this example, "teaching" is the subject of the sentence. While it's technically a noun here, it feels somewhat verb-like in the sense that it captures an action Tim is doing. (Or, in this case, not doing.) Now consider another example:

2) "The teaching Tim provided his children has proved inadequate, as they still begin every day by eating mounds and mounds of thumbtacks."

Now, "the teaching" is the subject. Notice that this construction feels more noun-like than the first one - you could easily imagine substituting a phrase like "the instruction" or "the lesson" in place of "the teaching."

This distinction turns out to be important when there's a parallelism issue. In the example you're asking about, we need something to be parallel to "the clearing," which feels more like the second example above, and is more noun-like. So we'd prefer this to be parallel to another element that plays a similar noun-like role.

The problem in (B) is that "removing," even if it's technically a noun, feels more verb-like, and seems to suggest an entity actively performing the act of removing, whereas in (A) "the removal of" feels more noun-like and so creates better parallelism with "the clearing."

Takeaway: This is a very subtle point, but it's one that doesn't require you to internalize a lot of terminology about action nouns or complex vs simple gerunds. Rather, it's a good reminder that parallelism isn't about two elements of a sentence looking the same, but about elements playing the same role. So long as you don't go on auto-pilot and instead remind yourself to think about the logical function of the parts of a sentence, you're more likely to notice those subtle distinctions.

I hope that helps!
_________________
GMAT/GRE tutors @ www.gmatninja.com (we're hiring!) | GMAT Club Verbal Expert | Instagram | Blog | Bad at PMs

Beginners' guides to GMAT verbal: RC | CR | SC

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SC articles & resources: How to go from great (760) to incredible (780) on GMAT SC | That "-ing" Word Probably Isn't a Verb | That "-ed" Word Might Not Be a Verb, Either | No-BS Guide to GMAT Idioms | "Being" is not the enemy | WTF is "that" doing in my sentence?

RC, CR, and other articles & resources: All GMAT Ninja articles on GMAT Club | Using LSAT for GMAT CR & RC |7 reasons why your actual GMAT scores don't match your practice test scores | How to get 4 additional "fake" GMAT Prep tests for \$29.99 | Time management on verbal

SC & CR Questions of the Day (QOTDs), featuring expert explanations: All QOTDs | Subscribe via email | RSS

Need an expert reply? Hit the request verbal experts' reply button; be specific about your question, and tag @GMATNinja. Priority is always given to official GMAT questions.
Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc   [#permalink] 08 Apr 2020, 06:43

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