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The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr

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The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has grown at a fairly steady rate for over a century. A hundred years ago, poor sanitation in the city caused high mortality rates among the city's inhabitants, and what fueled the population increase was immigration from rural villages. This immigration has continued and even increased. Moreover, in recent decades, city sanitation has improved enormously. Yet the city's population growth has not significantly accelerated.

Which of the following, if true, most helps to explain why the city's population growth rate has not changed?

(A) Mortality rates that were associated with poor sanitation in Megacity a hundred years ago were orders of magnitude higher than are mortality rates associated with vehicular traffic, which is currently a major cause of death in the city.

(B) For several decades, Megacity, as distinct from the countryside, has had a steadily declining birth rate.

(C) Cities smaller than Megacity have also experienced sustained population growth.

(D) The great majority of immigrants to Remsland settle in Megacity, at least initially.

(E) Megacity has long offered better employment prospects than most rural areas.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by hazelnut on 24 Oct 2017, 07:40, edited 3 times in total.
Edited the question.

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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2008, 03:24
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Its B. The reason is that none of the other choices are strong enough to justify the stable growth rate despite increasing influx of immigrants. A is not strong enough, as the percentage is not mentioned.

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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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B for me.

The steady declining birth rate and increasing immigrant rate seem to be keeping a balance thus there is no significant growth in the city population.
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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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B has a good straight forward reason for decline is population growth rate.

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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2008, 20:15
I choose B.
The declining birth rate counteracts the improvements in the sanitation facilities.

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New post 09 May 2008, 04:50
i will go with B..

thats because C,D,E are not reasons for lack of acceleration in the population..
whereas A is mortality rate-centric..which doesnt convince me for my answer

what is the oa?

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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2013, 02:25
Can someone explain option A. Is it incorrect since we have to resolve the paradox of why the population growth isn't high enough

whereas option A only provides an alternative reason for mortality rates?
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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain option A. Is it incorrect since we have to resolve the paradox of why the population growth isn't high enough

whereas option A only provides an alternative reason for mortality rates?


Before we had poor sanitary conditions and high emigration; now we have high sanitary conditions and high immigrations, but still the growth rate is stable.

A is incorrect because it provides us (at best) a weaker cause of death that replaced the poor sanitary conditions.

So now according to A we have
A weaker cause of death than before and still high immigration. So the population should increase?
The paradox is not solved.
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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2013, 11:29
Why not D. The option says that most immigrants settle in Remsland but only initially. Who's to say that they don't move on to some other place. This can be a major cause of population not increasing since most immigrants who settle actually don't stay but move on.

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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2013, 12:20
fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain option A. Is it incorrect since we have to resolve the paradox of why the population growth isn't high enough

whereas option A only provides an alternative reason for mortality rates?


bad sanitation death + immigration ==>initiAL POPULATION

less sanitation death + more immigration + death by accidents.===>TODAYS POPULATION(AS PER OPTION A)

BAD SANITATION DEATH > DEATH BY ACCIDENTS.

still paradox not solved as still we are not sure that death by accidents + less sanitation death is more than or less than BAD SANITATION DEATH.

hope it helps
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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2014, 00:58
Zarrolou wrote:
fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain option A. Is it incorrect since we have to resolve the paradox of why the population growth isn't high enough

whereas option A only provides an alternative reason for mortality rates?


Before we had poor sanitary conditions and high emigration; now we have high sanitary conditions and high immigrations, but still the growth rate is stable.

A is incorrect because it provides us (at best) a weaker cause of death that replaced the poor sanitary conditions.

So now according to A we have
A weaker cause of death than before and still high immigration. So the population should increase?
The paradox is not solved.


Hi Zarr,

I think you misinterpreted option (A) as it talks about the a century ago in first clause and present scenario in the last modifier.

Mortality rates(a hundred years ago) were higher than MR(Traffic), which is currently a major cause of death.

Equation:

Increase in immigration+ decrease in deaths due to sanitation (inferring something from improved sanitation, might contribute a little) => Population didn't increase significantly.

Now,

A+B= C

Now the question states that even though both A and B increased, C didn't show significant increase. So, there has to be some other factor D nullifying the increase by A and B.

The problem with option (A) instead is that it doesn't clarify whether in these 100 years the deaths due to traffic has increased or not.

The net total of deaths should increase irrespective of the causes of deaths.
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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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New post 08 Nov 2014, 11:57
Zarrolou wrote:
fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain option A. Is it incorrect since we have to resolve the paradox of why the population growth isn't high enough

whereas option A only provides an alternative reason for mortality rates?


Before we had poor sanitary conditions and high emigration; now we have high sanitary conditions and high immigrations, but still the growth rate is stable.

A is incorrect because it provides us (at best) a weaker cause of death that replaced the poor sanitary conditions.

So now according to A we have
A weaker cause of death than before and still high immigration. So the population should increase?
The paradox is not solved.


I eliminated B because it says that For several decades birth irate is steadily declining... Where as 1st sentence in the argument says that The population of megacity has grown at steady rate.
So I chose A .

please help!

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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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New post 15 Nov 2015, 07:28
To be clear, A was a bit confusing. The reason A is wrong is because:

Mortality rates that were associated with poor sanitation in Megacity a hundred years ago were orders of magnitude higher than are mortality rates (TODAY, not rates a 100 years ago!) associated with vehicular traffic, which is currently a major cause of death in the city.

So by saying mortality rates back then were huge compared to traffic related deaths today, the answer choice does not help us. It supports that the population should increase since the overall mortality rate has possibly reduced by "orders of magnitude".

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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2015, 18:22
Mehandru exactly matches my thoughts. What if initial migrants stayed for bit and decided to move onto another city.

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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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New post 16 Nov 2015, 21:47
The reason it's not D is that the argument states that the influx of people is from villages. D implies that the immigration was from outside the country. Immigration from outside the country is out of scope and doesn't add info about either side of the paradox....

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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr [#permalink]

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New post 24 Oct 2017, 03:37
I would like to add the excellent explanation by Ron, for this question,

• first, explain the passage to a 9-year-old:
In the old days, germs killed lots of people. Now, germs hardly kill anyone.
People are still moving here.
Nothing is killing them as much as germs once did.
But the population isn't growing any faster.

• now, SPECIFY what a correct answer needs to do:
A correct answer must work AGAINST population growth.

basically, there are only three possibilities in the whole universe:
1/ More people are leaving (the passage mentions only immigration, not emigration);
2/ Not as many people are being born;
3/ More people are dying for some NEW reason.

(it's not ALWAYS possible to come up with such exact specifications... but, IF YOU CAN, you always should!)



once you have this, you can take one glance at choice A and say 'hmm, that's something that works TOWARD population growth.'
i.e., you want 'black', and A is 'white'.

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Re: The population of Megacity, a sprawling metropolis in Remsland, has gr   [#permalink] 24 Oct 2017, 03:37
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