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While chocolate was highly esteemed in Mesoamerica

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While chocolate was highly esteemed in Mesoamerica  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2020, 05:47
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While chocolate was highly esteemed in Mesoamerica, where it originated, its adoption in Europe was initially slow. There is a common belief that Europeans needed to "transform" chocolate to make it appetizing. However, while Spaniards did put sugar, which was unknown to indigenous Americans, into chocolate beverages, this additive was not completely innovative. Mesoamericans were already sweetening chocolate with honey, and the step from honey to sugar—increasingly more available than honey because of expanding sugar plantations in the Americas—is a small one. Likewise, although Spaniards adjusted Mesoamerican recipes by using European spices, the spices chosen suggest an attempt to replicate harder-to-find native flowers. There is no indication the Spaniards deliberately tried to change the original flavor of chocolate.

1. The author of the passage refers to the use of honey primarily to

A. identify the origins of an additive previously untried by Europeans
B. present an example of a product that was unknown to Europeans
C. correct the misapprehension that Mesoamericans used a sweetener that was not available in Europe
D. provide an example of an ingredient that was in the process of being displaced by a substitute
E. explain why the Spanish use of sugar in chocolate was not a sign of a need to transform chocolate


2. Which sentence presents a misconception that the passage challenges?

A. The second ("There is .... appetizing")
B. The third ("However .... innovative")
C. The fourth ("Mesoamericans .... one")
D. The fifth ("Likewise .... flowers")
E. The sixth ("There is .... chocolate")


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Re: While chocolate was highly esteemed in Mesoamerica  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jan 2020, 13:41
Skywalker18 wrote:
While chocolate was highly esteemed in Mesoamerica, where it originated, its adoption in Europe was initially slow. There is a common belief that Europeans needed to "transform" chocolate to make it appetizing. However, while Spaniards did put sugar, which was unknown to indigenous Americans, into chocolate beverages, this additive was not completely innovative. Mesoamericans were already sweetening chocolate with honey, and the step from honey to sugar—increasingly more available than honey because of expanding sugar plantations in the Americas—is a small one. Likewise, although Spaniards adjusted Mesoamerican recipes by using European spices, the spices chosen suggest an attempt to replicate harder-to-find native flowers. There is no indication the Spaniards deliberately tried to change the original flavor of chocolate.


1. The author of the passage refers to the use of honey primarily to

A. identify the origins of an additive previously untried by Europeans
B. present an example of a product that was unknown to Europeans
C. correct the misapprehension that Mesoamericans used a sweetener that was not available in Europe
D. provide an example of an ingredient that was in the process of being displaced by a substitute
E. explain why the Spanish use of sugar in chocolate was not a sign of a need to transform chocolate


2. Which sentence presents a misconception that the passage challenges?

A. The second ("There is .... appetizing")
B. The third ("However .... innovative")
C. The fourth ("Mesoamericans .... one")
D. The fifth ("Likewise .... flowers")
E. The sixth ("There is .... chocolate")




1. Correct answer: E

(A): Incorrect. The passage does not refer to honey to "identify [its] origins" (and there is no evidence that it was previously unknown to Europeans). Rather, honey is mentioned to show that Europeans did not substantively change the preparation of chocolate much.
(B): Incorrect. Again, as in (A), it is not clear that honey was not known to the Europeans. Additionally, honey is mentioned principally to dispel the notion that Europeans had to "transform" chocolate.
(C): Incorrect. The author is not arguing against a misapprehension that the Mesoamericans used a sweetener not available in Europe; the author never considers the availability of honey in Europe.
(D): Incorrect. We do not know whether honey was being displaced by sugar (at least among the Mesoamericans), and the author's use of honey is principally to dispute the idea that Europeans needed to "transform" chocolate.
(E): Correct. The author argues that the Spanish did not substantively change chocolate much--they simply switched from honey to sugar.

2. Correct answer: A

(A): Correct. The author seeks to dispel the notion that the Spanish needed to materially change the chocolate in order to find it appealing.
(B): Incorrect. This sentence provides support for the author's conclusion that the Spanish did not change the beverage much.
(C): Incorrect. See (B).
(D): Incorrect. See (B) and (C).
(E): Incorrect. This is the conclusion that the author reaches, negating the claim made in (A).
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Re: While chocolate was highly esteemed in Mesoamerica   [#permalink] 31 Jan 2020, 13:41
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