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A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-syst

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-syst  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2017, 02:14
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A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

This is a cause and effect assumption problem, where is X causes Y. So the assumption is that Y does not cause X. It's mentioned in Manhattan book.

The researcher’s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?

A. High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity does.
We are not comparing between high immune system or normal immune system.

B. Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
We are not concerned with the effects of it.

C. People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
The conclusion is that immune system as whole protects against the mental illness and against physical disease. Not high immune system or low immune system.

D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.
Well this is stated in the premise that immune system disbalance cause mental illness and so is in the conclusion. Refer to the cause and effect relation.

E. Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical thereabout its effectivness.
We are not again not concerned about the effectiveness.
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-syst  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Aug 2017, 23:51
ritula wrote:
Official Guide for GMAT Verbal Review, 2nd Edition
Practice Question
Question No.: 7
Page: 118
Difficulty:


A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

The researcher’s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?

A. High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity does.
B. Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
C. People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.
E. Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.


The answer is D

Premise 1
:A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity.

Conclusion
: The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

D says that the reason for the poor mental health test is low immune system activity .
If this is not true then the argument falls as low level of immune activity is caused by poor mental health and the conclusion drawn would be wrong

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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-syst  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2017, 03:23
A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

Conclusion : Immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.
A. High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity does. >> Does not address the conclusion and researcher is not relying on a comparison between high and normal immune system
B. Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems. >> Irrelevant
C. People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness. >> Does not address conclusion.
D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease. >> Applying assumption negation, this would remove the entire evidence for conclusion basis i.e. If mental illness causes people's immune-system activity to decrease, then we cannot draw the conclusion from the experiment that immune system protects against mental illness.

E. Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment. >> Irrelevant
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-syst  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2017, 22:19
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A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

The researcher’s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?
Premise:
Cause: good immune system Effect: good Mental illness
Assumption:
The effect is not the cause [Reverse is not true]

D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-syst  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Feb 2018, 08:31
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I received a private communication about this problem.

There's an unusual twist in the stated conclusion here that's definitely worth noticing.
This is the stated conclusion:
The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

AT FIRST this conclusion may seem to have two parts:
• The immune system protects against mental illness.
• The immune system protects against physical disease.

A look over the argument, though, reveals that there are NO premises related to physical disease. Therefore, the ACTUAL conclusion SUPPORTED by this argument is
"the immune system protects against mental illness".


The second part — about physical disease — is just a piece of universal everyday knowledge. It is NOT supported by the argument, and so, therefore, it is NOT part of the argument's conclusion.

I haven't seen too many concluding statements structured like this — but it's worth noting that they exist, both on GMAT CR and in real life.
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New post 13 Feb 2018, 08:35
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RonPurewal wrote:
I haven't seen too many concluding statements structured like this — but it's worth noting that they exist, both on GMAT CR and in real life.


As an example of the latter ("in real life")—

Imagine that a website or magazine carries a recipe for a vegetable dish, describing the dish as "delicious as well as nutritious!"

This statement won't be the conclusion of an argument — i.e., it's VERY unlikely that any premises would be given to support these statements; like other statements of opinion, they would just be declared — but its two parts work like those of the sentence discussed here:
• "Delicious" is the ACTUAL POINT of the sentence;
• "Nutritious" is just something most people already accept and believe about vegetable dishes in general (and is mentioned, presumably, because readers might find it surprising that a "nutritious" dish could also be "delicious!").
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-syst  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2018, 19:24
generis GMATNinja VeritasKarishma aragonn nightblade354

Can I discard (C) on the grounds that it is out of scope instead of using negation?

Quote:
A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system (IS) activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health(MH) than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease (PD).


Conclusion: IS helps to PREVENT PD and MD
(I got a bit engaged for few mins to think whether it prevents 100% or
1%, Is it important to think about this, or do I take a call on it
while linking premise)

Premise: Low IS levels -> Scoring lower on MH tests
(Now I do not see any connection of above %tages)

The key crux of the argument: Author has broadened the scope in conclusion.
The premise is specific about levels of IS and MH and the author has no such mention of modifiers in conclusion.


Quote:
(C) People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.

What option do I have than to negate this choice?
Can I use my above rationale that since customer is NOT talking about modifiers in conclusion?
I can eliminate this choice with a blind eye.
How do I bridge gap between premise and conclusion if I do not want to negate this choice?

I initially was confused between A and C since I misread modifiers in premise (high / low)
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New post 05 Sep 2018, 20:02
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Negation is a time taking process. You have to be very careful with the choice you should negate. So what type of choices should be negated. Only on those choices that can be fit to be an assumption - a list I have pasted on previous post also. Nevertheless.

Quote:
A. Eliminates an alternate cause for the stated effect
B. Shows that when the cause occurs, the effect occurs
C. Shows that when the cause does not occur, the effect does not occur
D. Eliminates the possibility that the stated relationship is reversed
E. Shows that the data used to make the causal statement are accurate, or eliminates possible problems with the data


The other question - the scope of a problem. Well, in my understanding whenever one analyse something, one must rely on some data set. In any problem what is your data set - that become your scope and anything beyond that is out of scope. Example:
if premise talks about lion,tiger and cat and an option is mentioned about cat family animals then it is out of scope.

In this problem your data set was people with low immune-system. premise never told you anything about high immune-system people. So how can you make any comment about them. yes this one is out of scope.

Hope it was helpful.
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New post 09 Oct 2018, 05:38
egmat wrote:
This is a classical causal argument. Note how the argument is presented:

The author starts with an observation that

low levels of immune-system and lower score on tests of mental health occur together. Based on this co-incidence, the author concludes Immune system protects against mental illness.

Now this begs the question, what about the scenario in which mental health impacted immune system (reverse causation) such that low score on mental health caused low immune system performance. However, since the author discounts such a scenario, he assumes such a scenario will not occur. Choice D says the same and is your answer.

Below is another similar argument. Can you find the assumption (along the same lines) in that argument.

A study followed a group of teenagers who had never smoked and tracked whether they took up smoking and how their mental health changed. After one year, the incidence of depression among those who had taken up smoking was four times as high as it was among those who had not. Since nicotine in cigarettes changes brain chemistry, perhaps thereby affecting mood, it is likely that smoking contributes to depression in teenagers




egmat

The assumption for the blue part is,

Author assumes that depression does not lead teenagers into smoking.


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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-syst  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Dec 2018, 05:36
Argument:
Immunity increase --> Illness decreases

Assumption:
Illness increases --> no effect on Immunity or atleast Immunity won't decrease
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-syst  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2019, 07:54
egmat wrote:
supri23 wrote:
ritula wrote:
A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much
lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity. The researcher
concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against
physical disease.
The researcher’s conclusion depends on which of the following assumptions?
A. High immune-system activity protects against mental illness better than normal immune-system activity
does.
B. Mental illness is similar to physical disease in its effects on body systems.
C. People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.
D. Mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease.
E. Psychological treatment of mental illness is not as effective as is medical treatment.


I picked C.I am not finding why c is wrong.Can u explain why c is wrong?


Hi,

To tackle your doubt, let me begin from the passage itself.

Understanding the Passage

A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-system activity tend to score much lower on tests of mental health than do people with normal or high immune-system activity.

This statement talks about a discovery by a researcher. The researcher discovered that people who have

low immune system activity have lower mental health
normal or high immune system activity have better mental health.

So, what he saw was that mental health increased with increase in immune system activity.

The researcher concluded from this experiment that the immune system protects against mental illness as well as against physical disease.

The researcher thought about the reason as to why this pattern exists. He thought an explanation for this pattern is that immune system protects against mental illness or poor mental health. If his explanation is true, then people with lower immune system should have poorer mental health than people with normal or higher immune system activity. This is what he has observed. So, he made the conclusion as stated in the above statement of the passage.

Pre-thinking Assumption

Now, what is the assumption built in the conclusion drawn by the researcher?

The assumption is that there is no other explanation which could explain the given observed pattern. If there are other explanations for the observed pattern, then it would cast a serious doubt on the conclusion drawn by the author.

Now, what could be an alternate explanation?

This could be a hard question for people new to causal arguments but for people who have done some practice of causal arguments, they can figure out the answer to this quite easily.

Remember, the researchers concluded that immune system protects against mental illness because this can explain the observed pattern. Now, if we say that mental illness causes decline in immune system activity, then even this statement could explain the given observed pattern (where both immune system activity and mental health increase or decrease simultaneously). Now, if this could also be an explanation, then the author must have considered this explanation and 'assumed' that this cannot be be true.

So, an assumption in the above argument is that mental illness does not cause people’s immune-system activity to decrease. This is what option D is.

Now, coming to option C:

People with high immune-system activity cannot develop mental illness.

First of all, we need to think why does the author need to assume this? Remember a golden rule:

The author assumes only those things without which his argument will not hold true.

For this reason, the 'assumptions' are called must be true statements, which means that the assumptions must be true for the conclusion to hold true.

Now, is Option C a must be true statement?

What if option C is false i.e. People with high immune-system activity can develop mental illness. Will it falsify the conclusion?

The answer is No. The conclusion can still hold even when this statement is false. Therefore, it cannot be an assumption.

Hope this helps :)

Thanks,
Chiranjeev


Also the option C is extreme and which is not the tone of the argument.
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Re: A researcher discovered that people who have low levels of immune-syst   [#permalink] 19 Jan 2019, 07:54

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